# Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals

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1 Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation. Because a fluid cannot resist deformation force, it moves, or flows under the action of the force. Its shape will change continuously as long as the force is applied. A solid can resist a deformation force while at rest. While a force may cause some displacement, the solid does not move indefinitely. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics is the branch of science that studies the dynamic properties (e.g. motion) of fluids A fluid is any substance (gas or liquid) which changes shape uniformly in response to external forces The motion of fluids can be characterized by a continuum description (differential eqns.) Fluid movement transfers mass, momentum and energy in the flow. The motion of fluids can be described by conservation equations for these quantities: the Navier- Stokes equations.

2 Some Characteristics of fluids ressure: = force/unit area Temperature: T = kinetic energy of molecules Mass: M=the quantity of matter Molecular Wt: M w = mass/mole Density: ρ = mass/unit volume Specific Volume: v = /ρ Dynamic viscosity: µ = mass/(length time) -Dynamic viscosity represents the stickiness of the fluid Important fluid properties - A fluid does not care how much it is deformed; it is oblivious to its shape A fluid does care how fast it is deformed; its resistance to motion depends on the rate of deformation The property of a fluid which indicates how much it resists the rate of deformation is the dynamic viscosity

3 Important fluid properties - If one element of a fluid moves, it tends to carry other elements with it that is, a fluid tends to stick to itself. Dynamic viscosity represents the rate at which motion or momentum can be transferred through the flow. Fluids can not have an abrupt discontinuity in velocity. There is always a transition region where the velocity changes continuously. Fluids do not slip with respect to solids. They tend to stick to objects such as the walls of an enclosure, so the velocity of the fluid at a solid interface is the same as the velocity of the solid. Boundary layer A consequence of this no-slip condition is the formation of velocity gradients and a boundary layer near a solid interface. Flow in a pipe Initial flat Velocity profile Fully developed Velocity profile The existence of a boundary layer helps explain why dust and scale can build up on pipes, because of the low velocity region near the walls

4 Boundary layer The Boundary layer is a consequence of the stickiness of the fluid, so it is always a region where viscous effects dominate the flow. The thickness of the boundary layer depends on how strong the viscous effects are relative to the inertial effects working on the flow. Viscosity Consider a stack of copy paper laying on a flat surface. ush horizontally near the top and it will resist your push. F

5 Viscosity Think of a fluid as being composed of layers like the individual sheets of paper. When one layer moves relative to another, there is a resisting force. This frictional resistance to a shear force and to flow is called viscosity. It is greater for oil, for example, than water. Typical values roperty Density ρ (kg/m 3 ) Bulk modulus K (N/m ) Viscosity µ (kg/ms) Water 000 x x 0-3 Air x 0-5

6 Shearing of a solid (a) and a fluid (b) The crosshatching represents (a) solid plates or planes bonded to the solid being sheared and (b) two parallel plates bounding the fluid in (b). The fluid might be a thick oil or glycerin, for example. Shearing of a solid and a fluid Within the elastic limit of the solid, the shear stress τ = F/A where A is the area of the surface in contact with the solid plate. However, for the fluid, the top plate does not stop. It continues to move as time t goes on and the fluid continues to deform.

7 Shearing of a fluid Consider a block or plane sliding at constant velocity δu over a well-oiled surface under the influence of a constant force δf x. The oil next to the block sticks to the block and moves at velocity δu. The surface beneath the oil is stationary and the oil there sticks to that surface and has velocity zero. No-slip boundary condition--the condition of zero velocity at a boundary is known in fluid mechanics as the no-slip boundary condition. Shearing of a fluid

8 Shearing of a fluid It can be shown that the shear stress τ is given by du τ = µ dy The term du/dy is known as the velocity gradient and as the rate of shear strain. The coefficient is the coefficient of dynamic viscosity, µ. (kg/m s) Shearing of a fluid And we see that for the simple case of two plates separated by distance d, one plate stationary, and the other moving at constant speed V du τ = µ = dy V µ h

9 Coefficient of dynamic viscosity Intensive property of the fluid. Dependent upon both temperature and pressure for a single phase of a pure substance. ressure dependence is usually weak and temperature dependence is important. Shearing of a fluid Fluids are broadly classified in terms of the relation between the shear stress and the rate of deformation of the fluid. Fluids for which the shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of deformation are know as Newtonian fluids. Engineering fluids are mostly Newtonian. Examples are water, refrigerants and hydrocarbon fluids (e.g., propane). Examples of non-newtonian fluids include toothpaste, ketchup, and some paints.

10 Shear stress in moving fluids Newtonian fluid du τ = µ dy τ y U τ m = viscosity (or dynamic viscosity) kg/m s n = kinematic viscosity m /s ν = µ / ρ Non-Newtonian Fluids τ lastic seudo-plastic Shear thinning Newtonian Shearthickening Ideal fluid Rate of shear, du/dy

11 Variation of Fluid Viscosity with Temperature 0 Viscosity µ (kg/ms) WATER AIR SAE 30 SAE 0W HYDROGEN Temperature C SAE 0W oil Absolute viscosity N. sec/cm

12 END HERE GO TO OVERHEADS ART II

13 Fluid Mechanics ressure ressure = F/A Units: Newton's per square meter, Nm -, kgm - s - The same unit is also known as a ascal, a, i.e. a = Nm - ) Also frequently used is the alternative SI unit the bar, where bar = 0 5 Nm - Dimensions: M L - T - Fluid Mechanics ressure Gauge pressure: p gauge = ρ gh Absolute ressure: p absolute = ρ gh + p atmospheric Head (h) is the vertical height of fluid for constant gravity (g): h = p/ ρ g When pressure is quoted in head, density (ρ) must also be given.

14 Fluid Mechanics Specific Gravity Density (r): mass per unit volume. Units are M L -3, (slug ft -3, kg m -3 ) Specific weight (SW): wt per unit volume. Units are F L -3, (lbf ft -3, N m -3 ) sw= rg Specific gravity (s): ratio of a fluid s density to the density of water at 4 C s= r/r w r w =.94 slug ft -3, 000 kg m -3 Fluid Mechanics Continuity and Conservation of Matter Mass flow rate ( ṁ) = Mass of fluid flowing through a control surface per unity time (kg s - ) Volume flow rate, or Q = volume of fluid flowing through a control surface per unit time (m 3 s - ) Mean flow velocity (V m ): V m = Q/A

15 Continuity and Conservation of Mass Flow through a pipe: Conservation of mass for steady state (no storage) says ṁin = ṁout ṁ ṁ ρ A V m = ρ A V m For incompressible fluids, density does not changes (ρ = ρ ) so A V m = A V m = Q Fluid Mechanics Continuity Equation The equation of continuity states that for an incompressible fluid flowing in a tube of varying cross-sectional area (A), the mass flow rate is the same everywhere in the tube: ρ A V = ρ A V Generally, the density stays constant and then it's simply the flow rate (Av) that is constant.

16 Bernoulli s equation Y A V ṁ = ṁ Y ρ A V = ρ A V For incompressible flow A V A V = A V Assume steady flow, V parallel to streamlines & no viscosity Bernoulli Equation energy Consider energy terms for steady flow: We write terms for KE and E at each point Y Y A V A V E E E i = KE i + E i & + = mv gm y = m& V + gm& y & As the fluid moves, work is being done by the external forces to keep the flow moving. For steady flow, the work done must equal the change in mechanical energy.

17 Bernoulli Equation work Consider work done on the system is Force x distance We write terms for force in terms of ressure and area Y A V W i = F i V i dt = i V i A i dt Y A V W W Note V i A i dt = m i /ρ i = m& / ρ = m& / ρ Now we set up an energy balance on the system. Conservation of energy requires that the change in energy equals the work done on the system. Bernoulli equation- energy balance Energy accumulation = Energy Total work 0 = (E -E ) (W +W ) i.e. no accumulation at steady state Or W +W = E -E Subs terms gives: m& ρ m& ρ m& ρ ( m& V + g m& y ) ( m& V + g m& ) = y & & m& + m V + g m y y = + m V + g m ρ & & For incompressible steady flow m & & and = m ρ = ρ = ρ + ρ V + g ρ y = + ρ V + g ρ y

18 Forms of the Bernoulli equation Most common forms: + ρ V = + ρ V + g ρ h S + V = S + V + ht The above forms assume no losses within the volume If losses occur we can write: S + V = S + V + losses + ht And if we can ignore changes in height: S + V = S + V + losses Key eqn Application of Bernoulli Equation Daniel Bernoulli developed the most important equation in fluid hydraulics in 738. this equation assumes constant density, irrotational flow, and velocity is derived from velocity potential:

19 Bernoulli Equation for a venturi A venturi measures flow rate in a duct using a pressure difference. Starting with the Bernoulli eqn from before: Because there is no change in height and a well designed venturi will have small losses (<~%) We can simplify this to: Applying the continuity condition (incompressible flow) to get: ht V S V S losses = + V S V V S S or = + = + = ) ( A A V S S ρ Venturi Meter Discharge Coefficient C e corrects for losses = f(r e ) = ) ( A A C V S S e ρ

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