Supplement Reading on Diode Circuits. edu/~ee40/fa09/handouts/ee40_mos_circuit.pdf


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1 EE40 Lec 18 Diode Circuits Reading: Chap. 10 of Hambley Supplement Reading on Diode Circuits edu/~ee40/fa09/handouts/ee40_mos_circuit.pdf Slide 1
2 Diodes Circuits Load Line Analysis Analysis of Diode Circuits by assumed states Diode Logic Circuits Wave Shaping Circuits Rectifying Circuits Slide 2
3 SOLVING CIRCUITS WITH NONLINEAR ELEMENTS Look at circuits with a nonlinear element like this: Linear circuit I L V L   I NL V NL Nonlinear element A nonlinear element with its own IV relationship, attached to a linear circuit with its own IV relationship. 1. I L = f L (V L ) (linear circuit IV relationship) 2. I NL = g NL (V NL ) (nonlinear element IV relationship) 3. I NL = I L 4. V NL = V L Slide 3
4 SOLVING CIRCUITS WITH NONLINEAR ELEMENTS The 4 equations can be reduced to 2 equations in I NL and V NL I NL = f L (V NL )  the linear loadline I NL = g NL (V NL ) which we can equate and solve for V NL, or graph the two equations and solve for the intersection. Slide 4
5 1 kω EXAMPLE I NL = 15 I Given : I 0 10 A. 2 V L  V L V_ NL Find V NL _ 1. I L = (V L  2) / I NL = ( ) V / e NL 1 3. I NL = I Substitute 1 and 2 in 3 L ( ) 4. V NL = V V e NL / = [ (VNL 2)/1000] L Solve by iteration, V NL ~ 0.725V Slide 5
6 linear nonlinear Graphical Solution Loadline: I=  (V2)/ I_NL Diode IV 0.725V V_NL Slide 6
7 Piecewise linear Model of Nonlinear Devices 5.5V intercept 1.5V intercept Segment A : i = v / 400 Segment B : i = (v 1.5) / 100 Segment C : i = (v 5.5) / 800 Slide 7
8 I D Ideal Diode Model of PN Diode Circuit symbol IV characteristic Switch model I D (A) V D forward bias reverse bias V D (V) I D V D Diode behaves like a switch: closed in forward bias mode open in reverse bias mode used when voltage of interest >> 0.6V Slide 8
9 Piecewise Linear Model Circuit symbol IV characteristic Switch model I D I D (A) I D V D forward bias V Don reverse bias V D (V) V Don V D For a Si pn diode, V Don 0.6 V Diode behaves like a voltage source in series with a switch: closed in forward bias mode open in reverse bias mode Slide 9
10 Zener Diode A Zener diode is designed to operate in the breakdown mode. (l k ) t I D (A) reverse (leakage) current forward current breakdown voltage V BD V D (V) v s (t) >15V for all t R t v s (t) V BD = 15V v o (t) integrated circuit it Slide 10
11 Piecewiselinear Model of a Zener Diode Slide 11
12 Diode Circuit Analysis by Assumed Diode States 1) Specify Ideal Diode Model or PiecewiseLinear Diode Model I D (A) I D (A) reverse bias forward bias V D (V) reverse bias forward bias V Don 2) Each diode can be ON or OFF 3) Circuit containing n diodes will have 2 n states 4) The combination of states that works for ALL diodes d (consistent t with KVL and KCL) will be the solution Slide 12
13 Example Analysis by assumed Diode States 1.75mA D1=on D2=on 0.5mA D1=off D2=off D1=off D2=on 10 3 D1=on D2=off 6 3 Slide 13
14 Transfer Function of Diode Circuits PiecewiseLinear Model with 0.6V voltage drop Slide 14
15 Diode Logic: AND Gate AND gate PiecewiseLinear Model with 0.6V voltage drop V cc Inputs A and B vary between 0 Volts ( low ) and V cc ( high ) R AND V OUT Between what voltage levels does C vary with V CC =5V A C 5 B EOC Slope =1 Shift 0.7V Up Output t voltage C is high h only if both A and B are high V IN Slide 15
16 Diode Logic: OR Gate OR gate A B PiecewiseLinear Model with 0.6V voltage drop C C VOUT R OR 5 Inputs A and B vary between 0 Volts ( low ) and V cc ( high ) h ) Between what voltage levels does C vary with V CC =5V? EOC Output voltage C is high if either (or both) A and B are high Slope =1 Shift 0.7V Down V 5 V IN Slide 16
17 Diode Logic: Incompatibility and Decay Signal Decays with each stage (Not regenerative) AND gate output voltage is high only if both A and B are high OR gate output voltage is high if either (or both) A and B are high V cc A R AND B A C AND R OR C OR B 0.6V drop Slide 17
18 Clipper Circuits Assume forward diode has 0 voltage drop Slide 18
19 Peak Detector Circuit Assume the ideal (perfect rectifier) model. V i (t) V i i( (t) C V C (t) V i t Idea: The capacitor charges due to one way current behavior of the diode. V C (t) V C Slide 19
20 Peak Detector with Load Resister Slide 20
21 Level Shift Circuit V C V IN V C V IN C V OUT t   V OUT 1 3 V OUT =V C V IN 2 t 1) Diode =open, V C =0, V OUT = V IN 2) Diode =short, V C = V IN, V OUT =0, 3) Diode =open, V C = V IN (min), V OUT =V IN V C Slide 21
22 Clamp Circuit (level shifter) Max of v in (t)=5 sin(ωt) is shifted by 5V by the diodevoltage d source combination Slide 22
23 Voltage Doubler Circuit V C1 C 1 V IN R 1 V OUT V IN C 2 V C21  R 2 V OUT Level Shift Peak Detect See Homework problem Output is the peak to peak voltage of the input. Slide 23
24 Half Wave Rectifier Equivalent circuit V >0.6V, diode = short circuit V o = V I V < 0.6V, diode = open circuit Vo =0 Slide 24
25 Adding a capacitor: what does it do? V m sin (ωt) C R V 0  Slide 25
26 HalfWave Rectifier Current charging up capacitor Slide 26
27 Full Wave Rectifier Slide 27
28 Small Signal Linear Equivalent Circuit Suppose the nonlinear device has the functional dependence I = i(v) is biased with a DC voltage v G at the Q point (quiescent point). A small differential voltage v is added on top of v G. Using Taylor series expansion di i(v Q v) = i(v Q ) v... dv v Q We can define a dynamic resistance r at the Q point r ii 1 di dv v Q v r Slide 28 i v G v i Tangent line v
29 Small Signal Model of Diode i v r Q1 Q2 i i v v Slide 29
30 Small Signal Model Example V C and R C Determines r d at Q point of diode Slide 30
31 Small Signal Model Example The large capacitors and DC bias source are effective shorts for the ac signal in smallsignal signal circuits * See Hambley for an application of voltage controlled Attenuator Slide 31
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