Ottoman Contributions to Science and Technology: Some Examples from Medicine, Astronomy and Geography

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1 Ottoman Contributions to Science and Technology: Some Examples from Medicine, Astronomy and Geography Salim AYDÜZ, PhD a a Senior Researcher at the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and Visiting Scholar at the University of Manchester and Associate Professor at Fatih University, İstanbul Ya zış ma Ad re si/cor res pon den ce: Salim AYDÜZ, PhD Senior Researcher at the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and Visiting Scholar at the University of Manchester and Associate Professor at Fatih University, İstanbul, TÜRKİYE/TURKEY ABS TRACT The Ot to man con tri bu ti on to Sci en ce and Tech no logy du ring the ir six hun dred ye ar ru le is be yond me a su re. This ar tic le is a bri ef out li ne of just so me of the Ot to man sci en ti fic ac ti vi - ti es and re la ted ins ti tu ti ons that bro ught abo ut the re vi val of cul tu re, sci en ce, and le ar ning in ci vi - li za ti ons thro ug ho ut the world. This ar tic le dis cus ses the Ot to man Con tri bu ti ons to mo dern sci en ce and tech no logy, ci ting examp les from me di ci ne, as tro nomy and ge og raphy. In me di cal are a, we ga - ve so me examp les from me di cal ins ti tu ti ons such as chi ef physi ci ans hip ins ti tu ti on (he kim ba şı lık) and Su ley ma ni ye Ma di cal Mad ra sa. In the fi eld of as tro nomy, examp les ma inly co me from Is tan - bul Ob ser va tory and its fo un der Ta qi Al-Din s works the re. It al so men ti ons the map ma king and map ma kers such as the fa mo us sa i lors Pīrī Re is, Say di Ali Re is and Ma car Ali Re is. Key Words: Ot to man me di ci ne; Ot to man as tro nomy; Su ley ma ni ye Ma di cal Mad ra sa; chi ef physi ci an; Pi ri Ra is; Ta qi al-din Ra sid; Say di Ali Ra is; Ot to man Sci en ce ÖZET Al tı asır hü küm sü ren Os man lı Dev le ti nin bi lim ve tek no lo ji ala nın da dün ya me de ni ye ti ne yap tı ğı kat kı lar hay li çok tur. Bu ça lış ma Os man lı la rın bi lim, kül tür ve eği tim ala nın da yap mış ol - du ğu bi lim sel ak ti vi te le ri ve ku rum la rı kı sa ca ele al mak ta dır. Ça lış ma da özel lik le Os man lı la rın tıp, as tro no mi ve coğ raf ya alan la rın da dün ya me de ni ye ti ne yap mış ol du ğu kat kı la rı in ce le mek te dir. Tıp ala nın da He kim ba şı lık Ku ru mu ve Sü ley ma ni ye Tıp Med re se si gi bi ku rum lar ele alı nır ken as - tro no mi sa ha sın da ise İstan bul Ra sat ha ne si n den ve Ta ki yüd din Ra sıd tan ör nek ler ve ril mek te dir. Coğ raf ya ala nın da ise ha ri ta ya pım cı lı ğı ko nu su ile Pi ri Re is, Sey di Ali Re is ve Ma car Ali Re is gi bi de niz ci ler den ve ha ri ta ya pan coğ raf ya cı lar dan bah se dil mek te dir. Anah tar Ke li me ler: Os man lı tıb bı; Os man lı As tro no mi si; Sü ley ma ni ye Tıp med re se si; he kim ba şı; Pi ri Re is; Ta ki yüd din Ra sid; Sey di Ali Re is; Os man lı Bi li mi Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2): Copyright 2010 by İslâmî Araştırmalar SETTING THE STAGE n its his tory and de ve lop ment, the in no va ti ve fe a tu res of Ot to man scien ce are ob vi o us and va ri o us. Whilst the ol der Is la mic cen tres of sci en - ce and cul tu re inf lu en ced ini ti ally Ot to man sci en ti fic tra di ti on, it qu ickly re ac hed a po int whe re it co uld it self inf lu en ce the se old cen tres and ser ve as an examp le to them. Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 127

2 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... The gre at chan ges in the sci en ti fic and edu ca - ti o nal li fe of the Ot to mans we re ac hi e ved over an ex ten si ve pe ri od of ti me. Con se qu ently, it is dif fi - cult to con nect the ra di cal chan ges in Ot to man history to spe ci fic events or to start from a cer ta in da te. In ge ne ral, old and ne w exis ted si de by si de. To subs tan ti a te such a cla im, fo cus will be la id in this sec ti on on the for ma ti on and de ve lop ment of the clas si cal Ot to man sci en ti fic tra di ti on that was ba sed on the Is la mic clas si cal sci en ti fic tra di ti on, inc lu ding the he ri ta ge of the Sel juks and ot her Mus lim and Tur kish sta tes. 1 The Ot to man Em pi re was es tab lis hed as a small prin ci pa lity at the turn of the 14 th cen tury and gra du ally ex pan ded in to the Byzan ti ne Em pi - re and ot her Mus lim and non-mus lim sta tes. Its aut ho rity re ac hed its hig hest po int in the 16 th cen tury, and it be ca me the most po wer ful sta te of the world. The Em pi re ex ten ded from Cen tral Euro pe to the In di an Oce an and las ted for many centu ri es by ke e ping the ba lan ce of po wer with mo dern Eu ro pe. 2 Sci en ti fic ac ti vi ti es in the Ot to man sta te emer - ged and de ve lo ped in Ana to li an ci ti es from the scien ti fic le gacy and ins ti tu ti ons of the pre-ot to man Sel juk pe ri od and be ne fi ted from the ac ti vi ti es of scho lars who ca me from Egypt, Syri a, Iran, and Tur - kes tan- that is, from the subs tan ti al sci en ti fic and cul tu ral cen tres of the ti me. Along si de the old centres of Is la mic ci vi li za ti on, new cen tres, such as Bur - sa, Edir ne, Is tan bul, Amas ya, Skop je, and Sa ra je vo flo u ris hed du ring to Ot to man pe ri od. The de ve lop - ments of this pe ri od form the he ri ta ge that cons ti - tu tes the cul tu ral iden tity and sci en ti fic le gacy of pre sent-day Tur key, as well as an im por tant part of the in tel lec tu al his tory of se ve ral Midd le Eas tern, North Af ri can, and Bal kan co un tri es. The Ot to mans al so be ne fi ted gre atly from the ir non-mus lim subjects and Eu ro pe an ne igh bo urs, and pro vi ded very fa vo u rab le wor king con di ti ons for sci en tists from many dif fe rent fi elds, inc lu ding me di ci ne, as tro - nomy, and mat he ma tics, by in vi ting them to conduct the ir stu di es at the im por tant cen tres of sci en ce and cul tu re in the Is la mic world. 3 En ga ging the ser - vi ces of sci en tists and ar tists from eit her the west or the east as ne e ded, wit ho ut re gard to re li gi on or nati o na lity, was an es tab lis hed and ad van ta ge o us practi ce in the Ot to man Em pi re. 4 Du ring the clas si cal pe ri od, Ot to man sci en tists and scho lars sho wed re mar kab le suc cess in de ve - lo ping sci en ce and we re ab le to pro du ce many works in va ri o us branc hes. This pa per pro vi des an over vi ew, with examp les, of the for ma ti on and deve lop ment of Ot to man sci en ce and the sci en ti fic ac ti vi ti es, es pe ci ally in me di ci ne, as tro nomy and ge og raphy. Du ring the clas si cal pe ri od ( ), Ot to man sci en tists and scho lars had re mar kab le suc cess in de ve lo ping Is la mic sci en ce and we re ab - le to pro du ce many works in va ri o us branc hes of sci en ce. The Ot to man con tri bu ti on to Sci en ce and Tech no logy du ring the ir six hun dred ye ar ru le is be yond me a su re. This ar tic le is a bri ef out li ne of just so me of the Ot to man sci en ti fic ac ti vi ti es and re la ted ins ti tu ti ons that bro ught abo ut the re vi val of cul tu re, sci en ce, and le ar ning in ci vi li za ti ons thro ug ho ut the world. This ar tic le dis cus ses the Otto man Con tri bu ti ons to mo dern sci en ce and techno logy, ci ting examp les from me di ci ne, as tro nomy and ge og raphy. The Ot to man con tri bu ti ons to scien ce and tech no logy ha ve be en sub ject to va ri o us re se arch pro jects in the past. Each of the se works, cla rify and po int to dif fe rent as pects of the his tory of Ot to man sci en ce. In this work, all pre vi o us re se - arch has be en eva lu a ted and the Ot to man con tri - bu ti ons on me di ci ne, as tro nomy and ge og raphy ha ve be en tre a ted in an en com pas sing fas hi on, sho - wing the im por tan ce of it. Whi le do ing so, both the ins ti tu ti o nal and the in di vi du al ac hi e ve ments are stres sed and a ge ne ral eva lu a ti on has be en ma de of the sci en ti fic ac ti vi ti es of the Ot to mans in the sixte enth cen tury. This work, which starts with the most com mon edu ca ti o nal ins ti tu ti on of Is la mic ci - vi li za ti on, the Mad ra sa, con ti nu es with ot her scien ti fic ins ti tu ti ons and conc lu des with the ac ti vi ti es on the fi elds of as tro nomy and ge og - raphy. THE OTTOMAN MADRASAS Mad ra sas was the co re so ur ce of sci en ce and edu - ca ti on and the most im por tant ins ti tu ti on of le ar - ning in the Ot to man Em pi re. The Ot to man 128 Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

3 OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... Salim AYDÜZ mad ra sas con ti nu ed the ir ac ti vi ti es from the es tab - lish ment of the sta te un til ap pro xi ma tely the turn of the twen ti eth cen tury. The ba sic struc tu re of the mad ra sas re ma i ned the sa me wit hin the fra me work of the Is la mic tra di ti on, but in terms of or ga ni za ti - on, they un der went se ve ral chan ges du ring the Otto man pe ri od. Star ting with the first mad ra sa es tab lis hed in 1331 in Iz nik (Ni ca e a) by Or han Bey, the se cond Ot to man sul tan ( ), all mad - ra sas had waqfs (pub lic fo un da ti ons) sup por ting the ir ac ti vi ti es. 5 Shortly af ter Meh med II con qu e red Is tan bul, he bu ilt the Fātih Kül li ye (comp lex) known as the Sahn-i Samān Mad ra sas (Eight Co urt Col le ges) which com pri sed a mos qu e lo ca ted at the cen ter, as well as col le ges, a hos pi tal, a mek tep (ele men tary mos qu e scho ol), a pub lic kitc hen, and ot her bu il - dings lo ca ted aro und the mos qu e. It was the first edu ca ti o nal comp lex bu ilt in Is la mic ci vi li za ti on which con ta i ned all re li gi o us and so ci al com po nents of city li fe. It set an examp le for si mi lar struc tu res bu ilt by the sul tan s suc ces sors and high-ran king mem bers of the ru ling class. The mad ra sas of the Fa - tih Comp lex, com pri sing six te en ad ja cent mad ra sas, rep re sen ted the first Ot to man mad ra sas that had the struc tu re of a uni ver sity cam pus. Owing to the poli ti cal sta bi lity and eco no mic we alth of the re ign of Meh med, dis tin gu is hed scho lars and ar tists of the Is la mic world as semb led in Is tan bul. 6 Scho lars from dif fe rent cul tu res and re li gi ons al so ca me to Is tan - bul, brin ging di ver sity to the in tel lec tu al li fe of the Em pi re. As the waqfs, which we re the fi nan ci al so - ur ces of mad ra sas, grew rich, sci en ti fic and edu ca - ti o nal li fe de ve lo ped furt her. 7 Ot to man sci en ce de ve lo ped owing to the perso nal in te rest of Meh med II and the edu ca ti o nal ins ti tu ti ons that he es tab lis hed af ter the con qu est of Is tan bul. Con se qu ently, so me bril li ant scho lars emer ged and ma de ori gi nal con tri bu ti ons to sci en - ce in this pe ri od. Meh med pat ro ni zed the Is la mic scho lars and at the sa me ti me ma de use of scho lars of ot her na ti o na li ti es by or de ring a Gre ek scho lar from Trab zon, Ge or gi os Ami rut zes, and his son to trans la te Pto lemy s Ge og raphy in to Ara bic and to draw a world map. Meh med al so en co u ra ged the scho lars of his ti me to pro du ce works in the ir speci al fi elds. 8 For examp le, for the com pa ri son of al- Gha za li s cri ti cisms of pe ri pa te tic phi lo sop hers (meshshâiyyûn) re gar ding me taph ysi cal mat ters, ex pres sed in his work tit led Tahāfut al-falāsi fa (The In co he ren ce of the Phi lo sop hers), and Ibn Rushd s ans wers to the se cri ti cisms in his work Tahāfut al-tahāfut (The In co he ren ce of In co he - ren ce), he or de red two scho lars, Ho cazāde and Alā al-dīn al-tūsī, each to wri te a work on this subject. 9 Fo re ign ex perts from all over the world we re wel co med in to the Em pi re and ma de con tri bu ti ons to the ir spe ci al fi elds. 10 Wit ho ut a do ubt the most dis tin gu is hed sci en - tist of Meh med II s re ign was Ali Kus cu (d. 1474), a rep re sen ta ti ve of the Sa mar kand tra di ti on. He wro - te twel ve bo oks on mat he ma tics and as tro nomy. 11 One of them is his com men tary on the Zīj-i Ulug Bey in Per si an. His two works in Per si an, na mely, Risāla fi l-hay a (Tre a ti se on As tro nomy) and Risāla fi l-hisāb (Tre a ti se on Arith me tic) we re ta - ught in the Ot to man mad ra sas. He rew ro te the se two works in Ara bic with so me ad di ti ons un der new tit les, al-fat hiy ya (Com me mo ra ti on of Conqu est) and al-mu ham ma diy ya (The Bo ok de di ca - ted to Sul tan Meh med), res pec ti vely. 12 A re mar kab le scho lar of Ba ye zid II s re ign ( ) was Mol la Lūtfi (d. 1494). He wro te a tre a ti se abo ut the clas si fi ca ti on of sci en ces tit led Mawdūāt al-ulūm (Sub jects of the Sci en ces) in Ara bic and com pi led a bo ok on ge o metry tit led Tad īf al-madh bah (Dup li ca ti on of the Cu be), which was partly trans la ted from Gre ek. Mi rim Ce - le bi (d. 1525), a well-known as tro no mer and mat - he ma ti ci an of this pe ri od and the grand son of Ali Kus cu and Qādī Zādeh, con tri bu ted to the es tab - lish ment of the sci en ti fic tra di ti ons of mat he ma tics and as tro nomy and was re now ned for the commen tary he wro te on the Zīj of Ulugh Beg. 13 In me di ci ne, the works of Sa bun cu og lu Se re - fed din (d. ca. 1468) we re par ti cu larly im por tant in the de ve lop ment of Ot to man me di cal li te ra tu re and the ir inf lu en ce on Sa fa vid me di ci ne. The first bo ok on sur gery that he wro te in Tur kish en tit led Jarrāhiyāt al-khāniy ya (Tre a ti se on Sur gery of the Sul tans) com pri ses the trans la ti on of Abu l-qāsim Zahrāwī s al-tasrīf, a self-con ta i ned hand bo ok of Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 129

4 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... the me di cal arts, and the thre e sec ti ons that he him self wro te. This work is re now ned in the history of Is la mic me di ci ne in that it il lus tra tes sur gi - cal ope ra ti ons with mi ni a tu res for the first ti me. Be si des the clas si cal Is la mic me di cal in for ma ti on, this work con ta ins Tur co-mon go li an and Far Eas t- ern inf lu en ces as well as the aut hor s own ex pe ri - en ces. 14 The es tab lish ment of the Sü ley ma ni ye Kül li - ye (comp lex) by Sü ley man the Mag ni fi cent ( ) in the six te enth cen tury mar ked the fi nal sta ge in the de ve lop ment of the mad ra sa system whe re, be si des the con ven ti o nal mad ra sas, a spe ci - a li zed one cal led Dār al-tib (Me di cal Col le ge) was fo un ded. Thus, for the first ti me in Ot to man history, in ad di ti on to the si fa ha nes (hos pi tals), an inde pen dent ins ti tu ti on was es tab lis hed to pro vi de me di cal edu ca ti on. 15 Sci en ti fic li te ra tu re de ve lo ped con si de rably in the re ign of Sü ley man the Mag ni fi cent. We find two ma jor mat he ma ti cal bo oks in Tur kish en tit led Jamāl al-kuttāb wa Kamāl al-hussāb (Be a uty of Scri bes and Per fec ti on of Ac co un tants) and Um dat al-hisāb (Tre a ti se on Arith me tic) by Nasûh al- Silâhî al-matrâqî (d. 1564). His bo ok in Tur kish entit led Beyân-i Menâzil-i Se fer-i Ira keyn (Des crip ti on of the en cam ping on the Cam pa ign to the Two Iraqs), re la ted to ge og raphy, sho uld al so be men ti o ned. 16 Mûsâ ibn Hâmûn (d. 1554) shows how di ver sity be ne fi ted sci en ce in the Ot to man Em pi re. One of the most fa mo us Je wish physi ci ans of An da lu si an des cent, Mûsâ ibn Hâmûn was appo in ted as Sul tan Sü ley man s physi ci an and wro te the first Tur kish and one of the ear li est in de pen - dent works on den tistry which is ba sed on Gre ek, Is la mic, and Uig hur Tur kish me di cal so ur ces, and in par ti cu lar on Sa bun cu og lu Se re fed din s works. In the six te enth cen tury, the rep re sen ta ti ves of the Egy pt-da mas cus tra di ti on of as tro nomy-mat he ma - tics wro te im por tant works on as tro nomy. The gre - a test as tro no mer of this pe ri od was Taqī al-dīn al-rāsid (d. 1585), who com bi ned the Egy pt Da - mas cus and Sa mar kand tra di ti ons. He wro te mo re than thirty bo oks in Ara bic on the sub jects of mat - he ma tics, as tro nomy, mec ha nics, and me di ci ne. SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS In ad di ti on to the mad ra sas, which ga ve ba sic edu - ca ti on, the re we re the ins ti tu ti ons whe re me di cal sci en ces and as tro nomy we re prac ti ced and ta ught by the mas ter-ap pren ti ce met hod. The se we re the si fa ha nes (hos pi tals), which we re ma in ta i ned by a chi ef physi ci an (ha kim bas hi), the of fi ce of the munaj jim-bas hi (chi ef as tro no mers hip), 17 the Is tan bul ob ser va tory, and the mu vak kit ha nes (ti me ke e ping ho u ses). 18 HOS Pİ TALS (SHİFÂHÂNAS) The chi ef physi ci an who was res pon sib le for pa la - ce and sta te he alth mat ters un der to ok the ad mi nis - tra ti on of all dar al-shi fas (hos pi tals) among the Ot to mans. The chi ef physi ci an wo uld ma in ta in a re gis ter con ta i ning the na mes and ot her in for ma ti - on per ta i ning to pub lic ser vi ce doc tors. When the - re was a ne ed for a doc tor any whe re, the chi ef physi ci an wo uld ap po int one in the ap prop ri a te or - der-that is, ba sed on the ava i la bi lity of physi ci ans of a par ti cu lar rank and qu a li fi ca ti on. 19 Shi fa ha nas car ri ed out the sa me func ti ons as hos pi tals do to - day. As waqf ins ti tu ti ons, they we re con cer ned with the pub lic he alth of all so ci al stra ta. They al - so of fe red me di cal edu ca ti on or ga ni zed along appren ti ces hip li nes. In the Ot to man li te ra tu re, the bu il dings whe re he alth-re la ted ac ti vi ti es we re carri ed out we re known va ri o usly as Dâr al-shifâ, dârüs sihhâ, sifâhâne, bîma ristân, bîmarhâne and ti - marhâne. Be gin ning in the early ni ne te enth century un der the inf lu en ce of the new wes tern-style me di cal ins ti tu ti ons that we re emer ging, the term hos pi ta l be gan to co me in to use. Many hos pi tal bu il dings cons truc ted in the ci ti es of Kon ya, Si vas, and Kay se ri du ring the Sel juk ye ars con ti nu ed to func ti on du ring the Ot to man pe ri od as they had ear li er, wit ho ut any chan ges in the ir char ter re gu - la ti ons. In this sen se, it can be sa id that the Sel juk hos pi tal and me di cal tra di ti on had a ma jor im pact, first on the Ot to mans, and la ter on the Eu ro pe ans. 20 Si mi larly, the Ot to mans bu ilt se ve ral da rüs si fas in ci ti es such as Bur sa, Edir ne, and Is tan bul. So me so - ur ces men ti on that the re we re a gre at num ber in Is tan bul in the six te enth and se ven te enth cen tu ri - es. This in di ca tes the im por tan ce that Ot to mans at- 130 Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

5 OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... Salim AYDÜZ tri bu ted to da rüs si fas. The Ot to man da rüs si fas we - re not cons truc ted as in de pen dent bu il dings, but as part of a kül li ye. The re was a hi e rarchy of hos pi - tals, and the hig hest-ran king hos pi tal was the Süley ma ni ye Dâr al-shifâ, which of co ur se was the most im por tant me di cal ins ti tu ti on in the Ot to man Em pi re. 21 The re we re a lar ge num ber of hos pi tals fo un - ded du ring the Ot to man pe ri od, par ti cu larly in Istan bul. The first of the se was the Dâr al-shifâ in the Fâtih comp lex (1470). This hos pi tal con ta i ned 70 ro oms and 80 do mes and had se pa ra te sec ti ons for fe ma le pa ti ents. Mu sic was used in the tre at - ment of men tally ill pa ti ents, who we re be ing bur - ned or tor tu red in Eu ro pe sa me ti me. The re are few tra ces left of this hos pi tal, which con ti nu ed to func ti on un til The Bâyezîd Dâr al-shifâ cons truc ted by Sultan Bâyezîd II in Edir ne in 1488 was well known for the tre at ment of the men tally ill and of di se a ses of the eye. The bu il ding, which is re ally an his to - ri cal mo nu ment, is es pe ci ally no tab le among Tur - kish hos pi tals in an arc hi tec tu ral sen se. The struc tu re was de sig ned in an es pe ci ally at trac ti ve way and had an im pact on the de sign of Eu ro pe an hos pi tal bu il dings. Ev liyâ Ce le bi, in his Se ya - hatnâme (Tra vels), dis cus ses how men tally ill pa ti - ents we re tre a ted with mu sic. 23 ME DICAL INS TI TU TI ONS: SÜ LEY MA Nİ YE ME DI CAL MAD RA SA The Sü ley ma ni ye Comp lex (kül li ye), spon so red by Sü ley man the Mag ni fi cent and bu ilt from 1550 to 1557 in Is tan bul by the gre at arc hi tect Sinān ( ), is the lar gest of the Ot to man bu il ding en terpri ses. 24 It is a ra ti o nally plan ned so ci o-re li gi o us comp lex with ge o met ri cally or ga ni zed de pen den - ci es, con sis ting of the mo nu men tal Su ley ma ni ye Mos qu e and mad ra sas and ot her com po nents. 25 It fol lows the examp le of the Fa tih Comp lex, but Sinān ma de its arc hi tec tu ral qu a li ti es vastly su pe ri - or. The co urt yard was sur ro un ded by stre ets whe - re the re we re mad ra sas for dif fe rent le vels of edu ca ti on, a me di cal scho ol, and a lar ge hos pi tal, and ot her so ci al bu il dings we re set up on the slo pes of the ter ra in. Arc hi tec tu rally, the Me di cal Mad ra sa was plan ned as a com po nent of the mul ti-func ti o nal Sü ley ma ni ye Comp lex. 26 The Me di cal Mad ra sa, with a per pen di cu lar flo or plan, was com po sed of twel ve do med cells li ned up next to the shops on Tir ya ki ler Stre et, which was lo ca ted in the so uthwes tern part of the Sü ley ma ni ye Mos qu e. 27 The Me di cal Mad ra sa was re la ted to the ot her com po - nents of the comp lex: the Dâr al-shi fa (hos pi tal), the Dār al-aka kir (drugs to re), the Tab ha ne (the pla - ce whe re pa ti ents stay du ring the ir con va les cen ce pe ri od), and the Ima ret ha ne (pub lic kitc hen). In terms of hand ling the me di cal stu dents, a kind of di vi si on of la bor shows it self with res pect to the se com po nents. The me di cal stu dents de pen ding on the Mad ra sa used the cells as a dor mi tory, had fre - e me als co o ked in the kitc hen, used the hos pi tal for prac ti cing the the o re ti cal les sons they le ar ned in the Me di cal Mad ra sa, re ce i ved the ir me di ci ne from the drugs to re, and, af ter be ing cu red in the hos pi - tal, they wo uld stay in the Tab ha ne for the pe ri od of con va les cen ce. The cons truc ti on of this mad ra sa is con si de red to be a new sta ge in the his tory of Ot to man me di - cal ins ti tu ti ons. The Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Scho ol was the first for mal te ac hing ins ti tu ti on for Ot to - man me di ci ne. Un li ke the pre vi o us tra di ti o nal me - di cal scho ols, which we re just com po nents of hos pi tals, Sü ley ma ni ye was the first me di cal scho - ol in the Is la mic ci vi li za ti on to ha ve a de ed of trust (waq fiy ya) that men ti o ned its cha rac ter as an ins - ti tu ti on for me di cal le ar ning. 28 The Me di cal Scho - ol was des cri bed in the char ter as the go od mad ra sa which will ho u se the sci en ce of me di ci - ne. The Me di cal Mad ra sa was es tab lis hed to tra in spe ci a li zed physi ci ans and oc cu pi ed a very im por - tant pla ce in the fi eld of Ot to man me di cal edu ca ti - on in terms of me di cal spe ci a li za ti on. 29 Me di cal edu ca ti on ac qu i red an in de pen dent ins ti tu ti o nal struc tu re with the fo un ding of this scho ol. 30 The en tran ce to the me di cal scho ol, which was lo ca ted ac ross from the hos pi tal, of which only the so uthwes tern wing has sur vi ved to this day, ope ned out on to Tiryâki ler Mar ket. The north-eas tern wing of the struc tu re was lo ca ted abo ve the arc hes and shops of the mar ket. Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 131

6 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... The Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Mad ra sa was the first ins ti tu ti on to be bu ilt next to the Dār al-shifā in Is tan bul. Sü ley man the Mag ni fi cent or de red the es tab lish ment of a me di cal mad ra sa in his comp lex to edu ca te highly skil led physi ci ans for the ne eds of both the pub lic and army. The Me di cal Mad ra sa and the Dār al-shifā bu il dings we re bu ilt si de-by-si - de to pro vi de both a me di cal edu ca ti on and a public he alth ser vi ce. This is very si mi lar to con tem po rary uni ver sity hos pi tals. Sinān pla ced the scho ol and the hos pi tal pa ral lel to each ot her in a se pa ra te block in one cor ner of the very lar ge comp lex, next to two rec tan gu lar co urt yards. The ide a of two bu il dings to get her, a Me di cal Mad ra sa and the Dār al-shifā, is con si de red su pe ri or in app - li ca ti on and was ahe ad of its ti me. Af ter a les son in me di cal the ory, the me di cal stu dent wo uld go the Dār al-shifā stra ight away to put in to prac ti ce what he had le ar ned. Hen ce, the Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Scho ol and Dār al-shifā ha ve a very im por tant pla - ce in the his tory of me di cal edu ca ti on and its app - li ca ti on to hos pi tals. STAFF OF THE ME DICAL MAD RA SA Ac cor ding to the de ed of the comp lex, the Me di cal Mad ra sa had a very ba sic and small staff. One Mu - der ris (lec tu rer), eight da niş mends (stu dents), and thre e au xi li ary staff -the nok ta ci (as sis tant), bev vab (do or ke e per) and fer rash (cle a ner)- we re as sig ned. 31 The re was a mu der ris as he ad of the mad ra sa, just as at the ot her mad ra sas. Ho we ver, the re we re so - me spe ci al con di ti ons for a mu der ris of a me di cal mad ra sa: they had to be well edu ca ted on the me - di cal sci en ces and be ab le to di rect the stu dents thro ugh the me di cal sci en ces. 32 The first te ac her at the Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Scho ol was Ta bib Ah med Çe le bi b. İsa Çe le bi, who re ce i ved sixty ak ças per day. 33 The de ed men ti o ned the da ily wa ge of the mu der ris was twenty ak ças per day, but he re ce i ved a hig her sa lary du e to his le vel of skill in me di ci ne. So me of the Me di cal Mad ra sa mu der ris ses we re ap po in ted to ot her me - di cal ins ti tu ti ons as a sha gird. 34 As we se e from the do cu ments, so me fa mo us physi ci ans we re ap po in - ted as mu der ris ses at the me di cal mad ra sas, such as chi ef physi ci ans Bü yük Ha ya tizâde Mus ta fa Fey zi, Ayaş lı Şaban Şifa i, Ömer Efen di, and Gev rekzâde Ha san Efen di. 35 THE EDU CA TION AT THE ME DICAL MAD RA SA Alt ho ugh we ha ve no so ur ces ava i lab le that fully exp la in the te ac hing and edu ca ti o nal met hods follo wed in the Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Mad ra sa, it is un ders to od from its de ed, from the cons ti tu ti ons for co urts and mad ra sas (il mi ye ka nun na me le ri), and from pri mary so ur ces be lon ging to the clas si cal pe ri od ( ), that the scho ol was for merly ta ught and car ri ed out along the li nes of the master-ap pren ti ce met hod. This prac ti cal met hod al so used to be po pu lar among ot her me di cal and so ci - al ins ti tu ti ons, such as the tra de mar ket system and ahl-i hi raf (ar ti sans) or ga ni za ti ons. This system was al so com mon be fo re the Ot to mans, in the Sel juk pe ri od. The text bo oks used in the Sü ley ma ni ye Me - di cal Mad ra sa are only ge ne rally men ti o ned in the de eds and ot her so ur ces. They ta ught the fa mo us me di cal text bo oks at the Me di cal Mad ra sa. Alt ho - ugh the de ed do es not men ti on the na mes of the text bo oks, we do ha ve a list of bo oks which we re gi ven to the he ad physi ci an to te ach. In the list, we find sixty-six fa mo us me di cal bo oks, of which eigh - te en we re writ ten by Ibn Sīnā. 36 Alt ho ugh the re is no in di ca ti on that the se bo oks we re gi ven for Me - di cal Mad ra sa te ac hing pur po ses, we know that at that ti me, the se bo oks we re cir cu la ting among physi ci ans for edu ca ti o nal pur po ses. Ac cor ding to the de eds, in ad di ti on to me di cal text bo oks, co ur - ses on lo gic (ilm-i mi zan), me di ci ne (ilm-i ab dan), and ra ti o nal sci en ces (fenn-i hik met, ulum-i ak li ye) we re al so so me how ta ught at the Scho ol. In the de eds, the re is no cle ar sta te ment abo ut the days and ho urs of the co ur ses. In ge ne ral, we know that that Sü ley man the Mag ni fi cent sti pu la - ted the te ac hing of fi ve co ur ses a day on fo ur we - ek days. It is tho ught that pre-ot to man prac ti ces we re fol lo wed by ta king Tu es day, Thurs day, and Fri day as ho li days. Fes ti val days we re al so ho li days, but the se ho li days co uld be dec re a sed ac cor - dingly. 37 The rest of the days we re for te ac hing. The Me di cal Mad ra sa was un der the ad mi nis - tra ti ve con trol of the Chi ef Physi ci an s Of fi ce (He- kim ba şı). 38 The chi ef physi ci an was res pon sib le for 132 Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

7 OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... Salim AYDÜZ the he alth of the sul tan and that of the per son nel of the pa la ce, as well as for ma na ging all sta te he alth ins ti tu ti ons. His of fi ce mo ni to red all ap po int ments and any ot her stu di es at the Me di cal Mad ra sa. All stu dents with dip lo mas from me di cal mad ra sas, me di cal scho ols (Mek teb-i Tıb bi ye), and hos pi tals wo uld re gis ter with the chi ef physi ci an upon gra - du a ti on and wo uld then awa it ap po int ment to a me di cal ins ti tu ti on. 39 The chi ef physi ci an wo uld ap po int new doc tors to va cant posts and wo uld appro ve the pro mo ti on of tho se re com men ded for such. As a me di cal ins ti tu ti on, the staff of the mad - ra sa was un der the ae gis of the ge ne ral Ot to man ap po int ment system. Un for tu na tely, the re is no exact in for ma ti on on how many ye ars me di cal edu ca ti on las ted at this mad ra sa. Ah med b. İbra him, aut hor of Tas hil al- Tadâbir, men ti o ned that he him self gra du a ted from the Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Scho ol af ter fif te en ye ars and then be ca me a physi ci an at the pa la ce. From his ca se, we un ders tand that the edu ca ti o nal pro - cess was very long. 40 Most of the physi ci ans ap po - in ted to the pa la ce as pa la ce physi ci ans we re se lec ted from physi ci ans who gra du a ted from the Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Scho ol, and, of co ur se, su i ta - bi lity was a very im por tant po int for ap po int - ments. Abbé To de ri ni, who li ved in Is tan bul bet we en 1781 and 1786, pro vi des in for ma ti on on the te ac - hing met hod in the Me di cal Mad ra sa of Sü ley ma - ni ye in a chap ter of his fa mo us bo ok, De La Littéra tu re Des Turcs. Ac cor ding to To de ri ni, Tur - kish me di cal lec tu rers ta ught co ur ses in ge ne ral pat ho logy and sur gery in Sü ley ma ni ye for fo ur days a we ek. In ad di ti on to me di cal stu dents, the co ur - ses we re open to tho se who wis hed to at tend. The - re was no bar ri er to Franks (Eu ro pe ans) at ten ding the se co ur ses. Ube zi o, a Eu ro pe an physi ci an, sa id that he fol lo wed the co ur ses many ti mes as a lis te - ner. The te ac hing met hod con sis ted of re a ding me - di cal bo oks, stud ying di se a ses and me di ci nes thro ugh cli ni cal ob ser va ti on, and le ar ning from the physi ci ans know led ge and ad vi ce. 41 The Sü ley ma ni ye Me di cal Scho ol of fe red me - di cal edu ca ti on for abo ut thre e cen tu ri es and was the ins ti tu ti on which pro vi ded doc tors for al most all of the Ot to man me di cal ins ti tu ti ons, and mostly for the Fa tih Hos pi tal in Is tan bul. Sü ley ma ni ye Me - di cal Mad ra sa s gra du a tes and stu dents, such as Os - man Sa ib Efen di, Ab dül hak Mol la, and Mus ta fa Beh çet Efen di we re among the fo un ders and te ac - hers of the mo dern me di cal scho ol in Is tan bul in Thus, they pi o ne e red the mo der ni zing of me - di cal edu ca ti on in Tur key. The Scho ol most li kely con ti nu ed to tra in students un til the midd le of the ni ne te enth cen turythat is, un til so me ti me af ter the new me di cal scho ol (tıb bi ye) ope ned. 42 Af ter the Se cond Cons ti tu ti o nal Pe ri od (II. Meş ru ti yet), the Sü ley ma ni ye Mad ra sa was inc lu ded in the body of Dâru l-hi la fe ti l-aliy - ye Med re se si, which was a plan to as semb le all the mad ra sas of Is tan bul un der one ro of. It is un ders - to od that the Me di cal Mad ra sa was out of use and ne e ded res to ra ti on du ring the ye ar It al so se - ems that on 21 De cem ber 1918, pe op le who had lost the ir ho mes du ring a fi re used this mad ra sa. Sin ce 1946, af ter a full res to ra ti on, the bu il ding has be en used as a Ma ter nity Cli nic (Sü ley ma ni ye Do - ğum ve Ço cuk Ba kı me vi). ASTRONOMY From as far back as the ti me of the Prop het, we know that Mus lims had ne e ded as tro nomy for the de ter mi na ti on of ti mes, an im por tant fac tor in reli gi o us du ti es, and ge og raphy to find the di rec ti on of the Ka ba. The pre ci se cal cu la ti on of the pra yer ti mes, as well as of the be gin ning and the end of the da ily fast in the month of Ra ma dan, fell na tu - rally wit hin the do ma in of the as tro no mer. It is tru - e that for the ti mes of re gu lar pra yers, for examp le, Mus lims we re gi ven ap pro xi ma te di rec ti ons and we re al lo wed so me la ti tu de; simp le ru les con cer - ning the se mat ters co uld be fo und in the Tra di ti - ons. From the very be gin ning of Is lam, Mus lim scho lars had to work on the se two sub jects un der very strict ru les. Du e to clo se ness of the fi elds, most of the Mus lim scho lars had a de ep know led ge of both sci en ces and they pro du ced a con si de rab le num ber of bo oks. As tro no mi cal stu di es in the Is la mic ci vi li za ti - on star ted in the very early days. Ob ser va ti ons of Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 133

8 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... the sun and the mo on and the cal cu la ti on of the pra yer ti mes re qu i red pre ci si on. The ob ser va tory was one of the most highly de ve lo ped ins ti tu ti ons of sci en ce and le ar ning in Is lam and one of the high-wa ter marks of the Mus lim ci vi li za ti on. The - re is no do ubt that the ob ser va tory, as a spe ci a li zed sci en ti fic ins ti tu ti on, owes a gre at de al to Is lam. It may very re a so nably be cla i med that it was in Is lam that the ob ser va tory, as a spe ci a li zed ins ti tu ti on with an of fi ci al and le gal sta tus and with a fi xed loca ti on whe re ob ser va ti on and ot her work on stellar bo di es was syste ma ti cally car ri ed out thro ugh the co o pe ra ti on of se ve ral sci en tists, first ca me in - to exis ten ce. Al re ady early in the 9 th cen tury, the Ca liph Al- Ma mun ini ti a ted the tra di ti on of fo un ding ob ser - va to ri es in Is lam, by fo un ding two ma jor but very short-li ved ob ser va to ri es, the Sham ma si ya in Baghdad and Qa si yun in Da mas cus. The re are eight ot - her examp les of the bu il ding of full-fled ged and ela bo ra te of fi ci al sta te ob ser va to ri es in the Is la mic re alm up to the 17 th cen tury. The Ma rag ha Ob ser va tory, fo un ded in 1259 un der the pat ro na ge of Hu la gu, was one of the most ela bo ra te ins ti tu ti ons of its kind and the sce ne of im por tant work. Prin ce Ulugh Bey bu ilt anot her gi gan tic ob ser va tory in Sa mar qand in 1420, and finally the Top ha ne Ob ser va tory in Is tan bul was fo - un ded by Mu rad II I in IS TAN BUL OB SER VA TORY In the Ot to man ci vi li za ti on, sci en ti fic ins ti tu ti ons, in the fi eld of as tro nomy, inc lu ded the chi ef as tro - no mer s of fi ce (mu naj jim bas hi), the mu vaq qithānes and the Is tan bul Ob ser va tory. Tho ugh one can find ori gi nal and trans la ted works in the fi elds of as tro - nomy and as tro logy from the early pe ri od, the first ca len dri cal works only be gan du ring the ti me of Sul tan Mu rad II ( ). The se ca len dars we - re pre pa red as pa la ce al ma nacs and we ha ve no ide - a abo ut the aut hors. 43 They con ti nu ed the clas si cal Is la mic as tro no mi cal tra di ti on in this fi eld, and com bi ned the tra di ti ons of both the Sa mar kand and Ma rag ha scho ols of as tro nomy in the ir works. Ulug Bey s Zīj, which was pre pa red in the Sa mar kand ob ser va tory, be ca me a very sig ni fi cant ma nu al for Ot to man as tro no mers and as tro lo gers. 44 The Ot to mans had well or ga ni zed as tro no mi - cal ins ti tu ti ons such as the post of Chi ef-as tro no - mer (mu naj jim bas hi lik) and ti me ke e ping ho u ses (mu waq qithānas). In the Ot to man pa la ce ad mi nis - tra ti on, the per son in char ge of di rec ting the as tro - no mers was cal led mu naj jim bas hi, that is Chi ef As tro no mer. The po si ti on of Chi ef As tro no mer was es tab lis hed so me ti me bet we en the la te 15 th and early 16 th cen tu ri es. The Chi ef As tro no mer s most im por tant duty was the pre pa ra ti on of an nu al ca l- en dars. They we re res pon sib le for de ter mi ning the be gin ning of fas ting ti mes (imsāqi ya) be fo re the month of Ra ma dan and pre pa ring ho ros co pes (zāyi ja) and as tro no mi cal tab les (zījs) for the pa la ce pe - op le and pro mi nent of fi ci als. The ti me ke e per s of fi ces (mu vaq qithānes) we - re pub lic bu il dings lo ca ted in the co urt yards of mos qu es or mas jids in al most every town. They we - re wi dely bu ilt by the Ot to mans es pe ci ally af ter the con qu est of Is tan bul. They we re ad mi nis te red by the fo un da ti on (waqf) of the comp lex (kül li ye) and the pe op le who wor ked in the mu vaq qithānes we - re na med mu vaq qit, me a ning the per son who kept the ti me, es pe ci ally for the ti mes of pra yer. In ad di ti on to ot her sci en ce re la ted ins ti tu ti - ons, the ob ser va tory fo un ded in Is tan bul was admi nis te red by the chi ef as tro no mer Taqī al-dīn al-ra sid (d. 1585). The first Ot to man ob ser va tory was al so the last big ob ser va tory of the Is la mic Ci - vi li za ti on. With the sup port of Sul tan Mu rad II I, he star ted the cons truc ti on of the Is tan bul ob ser - va tory. As well as using the exis ting ins tru ments of ob ser va ti on, Taqī al-dīn in ven ted new ones in or - der to de ter mi ne the equ i no xes. He al so de ve lo ped and used gra vity and spring dri ven mec ha ni cal clocks and in ven ted a six-cylin der pump (en gi ne) for ra i sing wa ter in a con ti nu o us man ner. 45 In addi ti on, he wro te mo re than thirty bo oks in mat he - ma tics, as tro nomy, mec ha nics, and me di ci ne. Ta qi al-din, who was born in Da mas cus in 1526, wor ked for a ti me as a qadīi and a te ac her af - ter comp le ting his edu ca ti on in Da mas cus and Egypt. Du ring his ti me in Egypt and Da mas cus, he 134 Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

9 OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... Salim AYDÜZ pro du ced so me im por tant works in the fi elds of astro nomy and mat he ma tics. In 1570, he ca me to Istan bul from Ca i ro, and one ye ar la ter (1571-2) was ap po in ted Chi ef As tro no mer (Mu naj jim bas hi) on the de ath of the Chi ef As tro no mer Mus ta fa b. Ali al-mu waq qit. Ta qi al-din ma in ta i ned clo se re la ti - ons hips with many im por tant mem bers of the ulemā (scho lars) and sta tes men, chi ef among whom was Ho ca Sāded din, and was pre sen ted to Sul tan Mu rad by the Grand Vi zi er So kul lu Meh med Pas - ha. 46 Ta qi al-din in for med Sul tan Mu rad, who had an in te rest in as tro nomy and as tro logy, that the Ulug Beg s As tro no mi cal Tab les con ta i ned cer ta in ob ser va ti o nal er rors, re sul ting in er rors in the calcu la ti ons ba sed on tho se tab les. Ta qi al-din in di - ca ted that the se er rors co uld be cor rec ted if new ob ser va ti ons we re ma de and pro po sed that an obser va tory be bu ilt in Is tan bul for that pur po se. Sul tan Mu rad was very ple a sed to be the pat ron of the first ob ser va tory in Is tan bul and as ked that cons truc ti on be gin im me di a tely. He al so pro vi ded all the fi nan ci al as sis tan ce re qu i red for the pro j- ect. In the me an ti me, Ta qi al-din pur su ed his stu - di es at the Ga la ta To wer, and con ti nu ed them in 1577, at the par ti ally comp le ted new ob ser va tory cal led Dār al-ra sad al-jadīd (the New Ob ser va - tory). The ob ser va tory, con sis ting of two se pa ra te bu il dings, one lar ge and one small, was cons truc - ted at a lo ca ti on in the hig her part of Top ha ne in Istan bul. Ta qi al-din had the ins tru ments used in the old Is la mic ob ser va to ri es rep ro du ced with gre at ca - re. In ad di ti on, he in ven ted so me new ins tru ments, which we re used for ob ser va ti o nal pur po ses for the first ti me. The ob ser va tory had a staff of six te en pe - op le: eight ob ser ver s (rāsid), fo ur clerks, and fo - ur as sis tants. 47 The ob ser va tory was de sig ned to pro vi de for the ne eds of the as tro no mers and inc lu ded a lib rary lar gely con sis ting of bo oks on as tro nomy and mat - he ma tics. This ins ti tu ti on was con ce i ved as one of the lar gest ob ser va to ri es in the Is la mic world and was comp le ted in It was com pa rab le to Tycho Bra he s ( ) Ura ni en borg ob ser va tory bu ilt in In ad di ti on, the re is a stri king si mi la rity bet we en the ins tru ments of Tycho Bra he and tho - se of Ta qi al-din but tho se of Ta qi al-din we re of su pe ri or qu a lity. 49 When com pa red with tho se of his con tem po rary Da nish as tro no mer, Ta qi al-din s ob ser va ti ons are mo re pre ci se. In Ta qi al-din s as tro no mi cal tab les, cal led the Sid ra tu Mun ta ha l-afkār fī Ma la kut al-fa lak al- Davvār (Lo tus of Cul mi na ti on of Tho ughts in the King dom of Ro ta ting Sphe res), Ta qi al-din sta tes that he star ted as tro no mi cal ac ti vi ti es in Is tan bul with 15 as sis tants in The ob ser va tory conti nu ed to func ti on un til 22 Ja nu ary 1580, the da te of its des truc ti on. Re li gi o us ar gu ments we re put forth to jus tify this ac ti on, but it was re ally ro o ted in cer ta in in ter nal po li ti cal strugg les NEW OB SER VA TIO NAL İNS TRU MENTS OF TA QI AL-DIN Ta qi al-din in ven ted new ob ser va ti o nal ins tru - ments that we re ad ded to tho se al re ady in use for ob ser va ti on in the Is la mic world. Among the ins - tru ments in ven ted by Ta qi al-din in the ob ser va - tory we re the fol lo wing: The Sex tant (mus hab ba ha bi- l manātiq): used to me a su re the dis tan ces bet we en the stars. Ta qi al- Din s mus hab ba ha bi l manātiq and Tycho Bra he s sex tant sho uld be con si de red among the gre at ac hi - e ve ments of the 16 th cen tury as tro nomy. A mus - hab ba ha bi-l manātiq is com po sed of thre e ru lers. Two of them are at tac hed as the ru lers of the tri qu - et rum. An arc is at tac hed to the end of one of the ru lers. Ta qi al-din ma de this ins tru ment to ob ser - ve the ra di us of Ve nus that was men ti o ned in the X th bo ok of the Al ma gest. 52 The ins tru ment with cords (Dhāt alaw tar): de sig na tes the spring and au tumn equ i no - xes. So me as tro no mers set up a ring, which was not di vi ded, pa ral lel to the equ a tor to de sig - na te this. The ins tru ment was com po sed of a ba se in the form of a rec tang le and fo ur co lumns. The two co lumns we re set on this ba se so that a string was stretc hed bet we en them. One of them was equ al to the co si ne of the la ti tu de of the co untry and the ot her to the si ne. A ho le was ma - de on each of the se parts ac cor ding to this pro por- Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 135

10 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... ti on. A ro pe was hung from the se ho les with a plumb The as tro no mi cal clock: Ta qi al-din used a mec ha ni cal clock, which he ma de him self for his ob ser va ti ons, and a wo o den wall di al, which he set up in the ob ser va tory. He wro te in The As tro no - mi cal Ins tru ments for the Em pe ror s Tab le: The ninth ins tru ment is an as tro no mi cal clock. The follo wing sta te ment is re cor ded from Pto lemy: I wo - uld ha ve be en ab le to es tab lish a gre at re gu la rity in met hod if I was ab le to me a su re the ti me pre ci sely. Now Ta qi al-din plan ned, with the help of God, the as tro no mi cal clock by the com mand of the Sultan, God per pe tu a tes his ru ling days. Thus, he was ab le to do what Pto lemy had fa i led to do. Ta qi al- Din says in Sid rat al-mun tahā: we bu ilt a mec ha - ni cal clock with a di al sho wing the ho urs, mi nu tes and se conds and we di vi ded every mi nu te in to fi - ve se conds. This is a mo re pre ci se clock than clocks used pre vi o usly and is, as a re sult, con si de - red to be one of the most im por tant 16 th cen tury de ve lop ments in app li ed as tro nomy. 54 When we com pa re the ins tru ments which Ta - qi al-din used in his ob ser va tory with tho se used by Tycho Bra he, they are mostly si mi lar, but so me of Ta qi al-din s are lar ger and mo re pre ci se. Both, for examp le, used a mu ral qu ad rant (Lib na) for the ob ser va ti ons of the dec li na ti ons of the sun and the stars. It is sa id that Ta qi al-din pre fer red the mu ral qu ad rant to the Fak hri sex tant (Suds-i Fakhrī) and two rings used by pre vi o us as tro no mers. Ta qi al- Din s qu ad rant was com po sed of two brass qu ad - rants with a ra di us of six me ters; it was pla ced on a wall and erec ted on the me ri di an. Tycho Bra he s si mi lar ins tru ment was only two me ters in di a me - ter. 55 In his work, Ta qi al-din in teg ra ted two tra di - ti ons of as tro nomy, tho se of Da mas cus and Sa mar - kand. His first task at the ob ser va tory was to cor rect the Zīj bo ok (As tro no mi cal Tab le) of Ulugh Beg. He al so un der to ok va ri o us ob ser va ti ons of ec - lip ses of the sun and the mo on. The co met that was pre sent in the ski es of Is tan bul for one month du - ring Sep tem ber 1578 was ob ser ved day and night and the re sults of the ob ser va ti ons we re pre sen ted to the sul tan. As a re sult of the new met hods he deve lo ped and the equ ip ment he in ven ted, Ta qi al- Din was ab le to ap pro ach his ob ser va ti ons in an in no va ti ve way and pro du ce no vel so lu ti ons to astro no mi cal prob lems. He al so subs ti tu ted the use of a de ci mally ba sed system for a se xa ge si mal one and pre pa red tri go no met ric tab les ba sed on de ci mal frac ti ons. He de ter mi ned the ec lip tic deg re e as 23º 28 40, which is very clo se to the cur rent va lu e of 23º 27. He used a new met hod in cal cu la ting so lar pa ra me ters. He de ter mi ned that the mag ni tu de of the an nu al mo ve ment of the sun s apo ge e was 63 se conds. Con si de ring that the va lu e known to day is 61 se conds, the met hod he used ap pe ars to ha ve be - en mo re pre ci se than that of Co per ni cus (24 se c- onds) and Tycho Bra he (45 se conds). Ta qi al-din al so wro te the first Ot to man bo ok on au to ma tic mac hi nes, tit led el-tu ruq al-sa niy ya fi l-ālāt alrûhāniy ya. 56 The ob ser va tory was wit ness to a gre at de al of ac ti vity wit hin a short pe ri od of ti me. Ob ser va ti - ons un der ta ken the re we re col lec ted in the abo ve men ti o ned tre a ti se Sid ra tu Mun ta ha l-afkār fī Ma - la kut al-fa lak al-davvār. 3. MUS TA FA BIN ALI AL-MU WAQ QIT Mus ta fa b. Ali al-mu waq qit al-salīmī was anot her es sen ti al Ot to man poly math scho lar. 57 He was well-known in the se cond half of the16 th cen tury as an as tro no mer, mat he ma ti ci an, ge og rap her, clock-ma ker (sa at ji) and mu waq qit (ti me ke e per). He ma de va lu ab le con tri bu ti ons in the fi elds of astro nomy and ge og raphy, pro du cing many bo oks of which tho se on ma king and using as tro no mi cal ins tru ments are par ti cu larly im por tant. The se bo - oks we re used as text bo oks in mad ra sas, and so me of them we re co pi ed un til the midd le of the 19 th cen tury. He was ini ti ally ti me ke e per at the Ya vuz Se lim Mos qu e in Is tan bul and la ter be ca me the Chi ef Astro no mer (mu naj jim bas hi) for ten ye ars. He to ok as tro nomy co ur ses and be ca me mu waq qit at the Sul tan Se lim Mos qu e Mu waq qit ha na. He wro te most of his works whi le hol ding this post. He in- 136 Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

11 OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... Salim AYDÜZ ven ted a new ins tru ment for as tro no mi cal ob ser - va ti on cal led the rub-i āfākī (ho ri zon tal qu ad - rant). The re are 24 works which are de fi ni tely known to ha ve be en writ ten by him; thre e in Arabic, the rest is in Tur kish. By wri ting in the Tur - kish lan gu a ge abo ut as tro no mi cal mat ters, he was ai ming to ma ke as tro no mi cal works ac ces sib le in this lan gu a ge who was be co ming the sci en ti fic lan gu a ge of the Ot to man Em pi re. He al so pro du - ced new and ori gi nal so lu ti ons to as tro no mi cal prob lems. The re fo re, his ide as be ca me wi dely diffu sed among as tro no mers, mu waq qits and ot her edu ca ted pe op le. In par ti cu lar, his bo ok exp la i - ning as tro no mi cal ins tru ments was very po pu lar among tho se in te res ted in as tro nomy. In ad di ti on to as tro nomy, he al so wro te thre e tre a ti ses of geog raphy: Hal lu Dā ira ti Mu ad dil al-nahār, I lam al- Ibād fī A lām al-bilād I lām al- Ibād fī A lām al-bilād and Ki fayāt al-wakt li Ma ri fat al-dā ir wa Faz lihī wa al-samt. 58 V. GEOGRAPHY As in the fi eld of as tro nomy, the Ot to mans con ti - nu ed the clas si cal tra di ti on in the fi eld of ge og - raphy. The Ot to mans ne e ded ge og rap hi cal know led ge in or der to de ter mi ne the bor ders of the ir con ti nu o usly ex pan ding ter ri tory and to estab lish con trol over mi li tary and com mer ci al ac ti - vi ti es. They ma de use of both the ge og rap hi cal works of pre vi o us Mus lim ge og rap hers and works of Eu ro pe an ori gin. By ad ding the ir own ob ser va - ti ons, Ot to man ge og rap hers al so pro du ced ori gi nal ma te ri al. 59 The Sa mar kand scho ol of ge og raphy and as tro nomy pro vi ded the pri mary so ur ces for the Ot to man s know led ge of ge og raphy, map-ma king and re la ted fi elds. From the 16 th cen tury on wards, Pīrī Re is, Mat rak ci Na suh, Saydī Ali Ce le bi and ot - her scho lars pro du ced no te worthy ge og rap hi cal works. PÎRÎ REÎS The most pro mi nent Ot to man ge og rap her is Mu - hid din Pīrī Reīs (d. 962 A.H./1554 C.E.) who al so pro du ced ori gi nal works in the fi elds of ma ri ne geog raphy and na vi ga ti on at the co urt of Se lim I and Su ley man the Mag ni fi cent. He was in te res ted in the sci en ce of car tog raphy and comp le ted a map of the world in 1513 C.E. This map is part of the lar - ge sca le world map pre pa red in two parts on a ga - zel le hi de, of which only the wes tern part is pre ser ved. It was drawn ba sed on both his rich and de ta i led drafts and Eu ro pe an maps, inc lu ding Co - lum bus map of Ame ri ca. This was the first Ot to - man map which inc lu ded pre li mi nary in for ma ti on abo ut the New World de picts so uth wes tern Eu ro - pe, nort hwes tern Af ri ca, so ut he as tern and Cen tral Ame ri ca. The map has the sha pe of a port lan d type of map which do es not con ta in la ti tu di nal and lon gi tu di nal li nes, but inc lu des co ast li nes and islands and ser ves to fa mi li a ri ze one with the va ri o - us re gi ons of the world. Pîrî Reîs al so drew a se cond world map in 1528 C.E. which he pre sen ted to Sü ley man the Mag ni fi - cent. Only the por ti on de pic ting the wes tern he - misp he re sur vi ves. It is in co lo ur and has or na men tal fi gu res on the mar gins with exp la na - tory no tes. The ex tant por ti on shows the nort hern part of the At lan tic Oce an and the newly dis co ve - red re gi ons of North and Cen tral Ame ri ca. It shows fo ur wind ro ses and the Tro pic of Can cer, which was not shown in his first map of the world, ap pe - ars on this map. The sca les used in the se cond map are lar ger than the first. The dra wing of the co ast - li nes shows a gre at im pro ve ment in tech ni qu e and al so be ars a clo se re semb lan ce to the mo dern concep ti on of the se are as. The stony and rocky sec ti ons are gi ven spe ci al ca re. Pīrī Re is al so wro te a bo ok on ma ri ne ge og - raphy en tit led Kitāb-i Bah ri ye (Bo ok of the Se a, 1521). In this work, he pre sents dra wings and maps of the ci ti es on the Me di ter ra ne an and Ae ge an co - asts, and gi ves ex ten si ve in for ma ti on abo ut na vi ga - ti on and na u ti cal as tro nomy. The bo ok con ta ins 209 chap ters with 215 maps, charts and pic tu res to gi ve exact ac co unt of the co asts and is lands of the Me di ter ra ne an and the Black Se a, along with a des crip ti on of the se as. Ba si cally the bo ok is a kind of gu i de to na vi ga ti on and is ba sed on his per so nal obser va ti ons. He gat he red to get her all pre vi o us in for- Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 137

12 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... ma ti on on the sub ject but ad ded to it ot her prac ti - cal know led ge ne ces sary for sa i lors on the most impor tant co as tal ro u tes, and drew lar ge maps for every chap ter. In this way, the bo ok be ca me not only a simp le gu i de bo ok, but al so the gre a test Otto man con tem po rary por to la no with the most advan ced car tog raphy tech ni qu es. SEYDÎ ALİ RE İS Anot her outs tan ding per so na lity was the Ot to man ad mi ral, ge og rap her, as tro no mer and po et Seydī Ali Re is (al so as known Kātibī or Kātib-i Rûmī) (d. 1562), who was an ex pert on ma ri ne ge og raphy. 60 He wro te bo oks on ge og raphy, mat he ma tics and as tro nomy which show his sci en ti fic and na vi ga ti - o nal ex pe ri en ce and know led ge. His works, written in Tur kish, are chi efly trans la ti ons from Per si an or Ara bic and de al with mat he ma tics, astro nomy and na vi ga ti on in the In di an Oce an. So - me of his works ha ve be en trans la ted in to many lan gu a ges. In ad di ti on to ge og raphy, he al so wro - te bo oks on mat he ma tics and as tro nomy. He wro - te a very va lu ab le work in Tur kish, en tit led Kitāb al-muhīt fī ilm al-aflāk wa al-ab hur well-known as al-muhīt (The Oce an) con ta i ning the as tro no - mi cal and ge og rap hi cal in for ma ti on re qu i red for long se a vo ya ges as well as his own ob ser va ti ons abo ut the In di an Oce an. Af ter his tra ve lo gu e, this is Saydī Ali s most fa mo us work, and is ba sed on Ara bic works de a ling with na vi ga ti on in the In di - an Oce an. The al-muhīt con sists of 10 sec ti ons and of Por tu gu e se vo ya ges of dis co very, inc lu ding Ma - gel lan s cir cum na vi ga ti on of the glo be. 61 Saydī Ali s ac co unt en han ces the re pu ta ti on of the Ot to - man sul tan among his co-re li gi o nists every whe re he tra vel led, and de mons tra tes the uni ver sa lity of the Tur kish ele ment and the ef fec ti ve ness of Ot to - man Tur kish sol di ers, who we re in de mand at every co urt. In ad di ti on to this ge og rap hi cal work, he al so wro te tre a ti ses on as tro nomy. The first of which is Mir āt-i kāināt (Mir ror of the Uni ver se), a tre a ti se on as tro no mi cal me a su re ments and ins tru ments, chi efly app li cab le to the art of na vi ga ti on by ce les - ti al ob ser va ti on. This has be en trans la ted in to many lan gu a ges. His se cond bo ok on as tro nomy is Hulāsat al-hay a (Es sen ce of As tro nomy), a tre a ti se on ge o metry and mat he ma tics con ta i ning a transla ti on of Ali Qush ji s al-fat hiy ya fī al-hay a, enric hed with ex cerpts from Chaghmīnī and Ka di za de-i Rumī. His ot her bo oks on as tro nomy are: Ri sa la-i Dhāt al-qursī a tre a ti se abo ut as tro - nomy and so me as tro no mi cal ins tru ments; Ri sa lai mir at-i kā inat min alāt-i ir ti fa which is cal led the Mir ror of the Uni ver se ac cor ding to ins tru - ments for me a su ring al ti tu de. His ot her works are: Ri sa la-yi hay at (Tre a ti se on As tro nomy); Sa ya - hat-nāma-yi as tur lab rub mu jay yab amal bi l-jayb mu qan tarāt da i ra al-mu ad dal dhāt al-kursī (Bo ok of tra vel on the as tro la be, si ne Qu ad rant, Equ a to ri - al Circ le, and the Ins tru ment with a Thro ne); Ri sa - la-i Da i rat al-mu ad dil; 62 Ri sa la-i As tur lab and Ri sa la-i Rub i Mu jay yab. Anot her sig ni fi cant Ot to man poly math scho - lar was Mat rak ci Nasûh b. Ka ra göz al-bos nawī al- Si lahī. 63 He was re now ned in the 16 th cen tury as a mat he ma ti ci an, his to ri an, ge og rap her, car tog rap - her, to pog rap her, mus ke te er, and was an outs tan - ding sol di er, cal lig rap her and en gi ne er. He ma de con tri bu ti ons in the fi elds of ge og raphy, mat he - ma tics, his tory, mi li tary art and cal lig raphy and pro du ced im por tant bo oks. He al so in ven ted a mi l- i tary lawn ga me cal led Mat ra k. Mat rak çi Na suh was an im por tant fi gu re in the fi eld of des crip ti ve ge og raphy. His first im por tant bo ok Bayān-i Manāzil-i Sa far Ira qayn (Exp la na ti on of en cam - ping pla ces of two ex pe di ti ons of Iraq) was in Tur - kish. 64 His mi ni a tu res sho wing the ro ads con nec ting Is tan bul, Tab riz and Bagh dad are li ke maps. His his tory of the cam pa ign to Iran and Iraq 65 inc lu des a do ub le fo li o de pic ting Is tan - bul with all the con tem po rary struc tu res of the city shown in re mar kab le de ta il. 66 The Gol den Horn runs ver ti cally in the cen tre, se pa ra ting the Ga la ta sec ti on with its fa mo us to wer (on the left) from the city pro per (on the right), which inc lu des such ma jor struc tu res as the Top ka pı Pa la ce, Ha gi - a Sop hi a, At Mey da nı (Hip pod ro me), Grand Ba za - ar, Old Pa la ce, and the comp lex (kul li ya) of Meh med II. A ma jor do cu ment for the study of Is- 138 Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

13 OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... Salim AYDÜZ tan bul in the 1530 s, the il lus tra ti on is an examp le of the to pog rap hic gen re of pa in ting ini ti a ted by Na suh that con ti nu ed for cen tu ri es. Mat rak çı s land maps are con si de red equ al with Pīrī Re is port land ma ri ti me maps to be fo und in his Kitāb-i Bah ri ye. 67 Two ot her works of Mat - rak çi con ta i ning mi ni a tu res are im por tant from a ge og rap hi cal pers pec ti ve. In one cal led Ta rikh-i Fath-i Shik los wa Es ter gon wa Is tol ni bel grad, Mat rak çi drew the inns bet we en Is tan bul and Bu da - pest as well as the ci ti es of Ni ce, To u lon and Mar se il les du ring Bar ba ros vi sits and the Ot to man fle et with which he ca me. 68 As a mem ber of the ad mi nis tra ti on, Na suh accom pa ni ed Su ley man the Mag ni fi cent on va ri o us cam pa igns and ca re fully re cor ded the events and il lus tra ted the ci ti es and ports con qu e red by the Ot to mans. He par ti ci pa ted in the Mo haç cam pa ign (1526) and the two Bagh dad ex pe di ti ons of Su ley - man. He pa in ted the pic tu re of every city whe re the army was bil le ted or pas sed by. 69 Anot her work of the 16 th cen tury in the fi eld of ge og raphy, which con ta ins in for ma ti on abo ut the ge og rap hi cal dis co ve ri es and the New World (Ame ri ca), is the bo ok en tit led Tārih-i Hind-i Garbī (His tory of the West In di es) (pro bably writ ten by Mu ham mad b. Amir al-suûdī al-nik sarī (d. 1591) in the 16 th cen tury). 70 This work, ba sed on Spa nish and Ita li an ge og rap hi cal so ur ces, was pre sen ted to Sul tan Murād III in It is im por tant in sho w- ing that the Ot to mans knew abo ut the ge og rap hi - cal dis co ve ri es of the West. The work has thre e parts; but the re al we ight, con sis ting of two-thirds of the bo ok, is in the third sec ti on whe re Co lum - bus dis co very of Ame ri ca and the Eu ro pe an conqu ests over the pe ri od of sixty ye ars bet we en 1492 and 1552 are re la ted. Ta rih-i Hind-i Garbī tells the ama zing sto ri es of the exp lo ra ti ons and con qu ests of Co lum bus, Cor tes, Pi zar ro, and ot hers, and it al - so en de a vo urs to in cor po ra te the new ge og rap hic in for ma ti on in to the body of Is la mic know led ge. It pre sents a ma jor ef fort by an Ot to man Mus lim scho lar, al most uni qu e in the 16 th cen tury; firstly, to trans mit thro ugh trans la ti on in for ma ti on from one cul tu re (Eu ro pe an Chris ten dom) to anot her (Ot to man Is lam), and se condly, to cor rect and expand Is la mic ge og raphy and car tog raphy. 71 In the Top ka pi Pa la ce Mu se um Lib rary (Ha zi - ne 644), Is tan bul, the re is an At las en tit led Ali Ma - car Re is At la s. The at las con sists of six por to lan charts and one map pa mun di, all on do ub le pa ges, i.e., the re are fo ur te en pa ges. 72 They are drawn on parc hment le a ves and bo und in le at her, for ming an ap pe a ling small vo lu me. 73 As a work of art, this at - las cer ta inly ranks among the most suc cess ful. The ar tist-car tog rap her who drew the se charts must ha - ve be en pro fes si o nally con nec ted to tho se who drew ot her si mi lar maps in Chris ti an Eu ro pe; and the ar tis tic per fec ti on of this at las strongly ar gu es aga inst it be ing the iso la ted work of a cap ta in who wo uld only ha ve be en imi ta ting such mo dels; the aut hor must ha ve be en a craft sman with gre at expe ri en ce of this type of work. Car tog raphy se ems to ha ve be en or ga ni zed as a pro fes si on in the Ot to man Em pi re; for examp le, in the 17 th cen tury, fif te en in di vi du als we re oc cu - pi ed with the art of sur ve ying, in eight lo ca ti ons in Is tan bul and ne arby are as. Ot to man ge og rap hers we re ab le to ob ta in infor ma ti on abo ut both West and East at a ti me when the re we re no maps of the East ava i lab le in Eu ro pe. This in di ca tes that the Ot to mans we re mo re ad van - ced in this are a than had pre vi o usly be en tho ught. Ot to man con tri bu ti ons to ge og raphy inc lu ding car tog raphy are very sig ni fi cant, vast, in con tent and ha ve a de fi ni te pla ce in the his tory of ge og - raphy. It is al so tru e that whi le the Arabs mostly inf lu en ced the Turks they did not fol low them sla - vishly. Ot to man ge og rap hers es pe ci ally car tog rap - hers ma de so me very sig ni fi cant con tri bu ti ons and they may be sa id to ha ve for med a brid ge bet we en me di e val Is la mic and mo dern car tog raphy. 74 CONCLUSION Ot to man con tri bu ti ons to Sci en ce and Tech no logy du ring a six hun dred ye ar ru le over a hu ge do ma in are be yond me a su re. The abo ve is me rely a bri ef out li ne of so me of the Ot to man sci en ti fic ac ti vi ti - es and re la ted ins ti tu ti ons that bro ught abo ut the Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 139

14 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... re vi val of cul tu re, sci en ce, and le ar ning in ci vi li za - ti ons thro ug ho ut the world. Many ex cel lent works exist that can gu i de fu tu re re se arc hers in te res ted in this sub ject. Op por tu ni ti es for furt her study abo - und, as the examp les pre sen ted in this pa per co uld cer ta inly be ex ten ded to co ver a lar ger per cen ta ge of the vast con tri bu ti ons the Ot to mans ma de over six hun dred ye ars. The clas si cal sci en ti fic tra di ti on that pro du ced its fi nest works in the most mag ni - fi cent pe ri od of the Em pi re was set forth in the scien ti fic and edu ca ti o nal ins ti tu ti ons that ha ve be en bri efly men ti o ned, in the scho larly circ les es tab lis - hed, and de ve lo ped aro und the se ins ti tu ti ons. Still, the Ot to man clas si cal tra di ti on was pre ser ved du r- ing this se cond pha se of Ot to man sci en ce, when many mo re trans la ti ons and trans fers we re ma de from Eu ro pe an lan gu a ges, and sur vi ved with so me of its ba sic ele ments un til the se cond half of the 19 th cen tury. 1. Ek me led din Ih sa nog lu, Ot to man Edu ca ti o nal and Scho larly-sci en ti fic Ins ti tu ti ons, in vol. 2 of His tory of the Ot to man Sta te, So ci ety and Ci vi li sa ti on, ed. Ek me led din Ih sa nog lu (İstan- bul: IR CI CA, 2002), pp Ha lil Inal cik, Ot to man Met hods of Con qu es t, in The Ot to man Em pi re: con qu est, or ga ni za ti - on and eco nomy, (Lon don: Va ri o rum, 1978), pp Sa lim Ay düz, Tophâne-i Âmi re ve Top Dö küm Tek no lo ji si, (An ka ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu, 2006), pp Ce vat İzgi, Os man lı Med re se le rin de İlim, (İstan bul, İz Ya yın cı lık, 1998), vol I, pp For ilm li fe in the for ma ti ve pe ri od lo ok Arif Bey, "Dev let-i Os ma ni ye'nin te es süs ve ta karrü rü dev rin de ilim ve ule ma [Ilm and Ule ma in the for ma ti on and de ve lop ment of the Ot to - man Sta te]," Da rül fü nun Ede bi yat Fa kül te si Mec mu a sı 2 (1913), pp ; İ. H. Uzun - çar şı lı, Os man lı Dev le ti nin İlmi ye Teş ki la tı (An ka ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu, 1965), pp ; Şaha bet tin Te kin dağ, Med re se Dö ne - mi, Cum hu ri ye tin 50. Yı lın da İstan bul Üni ver si te si (1973), pp. 3 4; Ha lil İnal cık, Le- ar ning, The Med re se and the Ule ma, in The Ot to man Em pi re: The Clas si cal Age (Lon don: We i den feld and Ni col son, 1973), pp ; Mus ta fa Bil ge, İlk Osman lı Med re se le ri (İstan bul: İstan bul Üni ver - si te si Ede bi yat Fa kül te si, 1984), pp. 5-64; Ca hid Bal ta cı, XV-XVI. asır lar da Os man lı med re se le ri: Teş ki lat, ta rih (İstan bul: İrfan Mat ba a sı, 1976), va ri o us pa ges. 6. Fa tih re ign is not only a tur ning po int in terms of mad ra sa or ga ni za ti on but al so in terms of pers pec ti ve or ap pro ach. In the fa mo us law regar ding or ga ni za ti on and pro to col the re we re pro vi si ons abo ut ule ma for the first ti me. In addi ti on, a cle ar-cut dif fe ren ti a ti on was ma de bet we en il mi ye, sey fi ye and ka le mi ye oc cu pati ons, with so me pre fe ren ces with re gard to REFERENCES ori gins, edu ca ti o nal back gro unds and for ma ti - ons of the yo ung sters that wo uld ser ve in tho - se fi elds. Meh met Ip sir li, The Ot to man Ule ma, The Gre at Ot to man-tur kish Ci vi li sa ti - on (ed. Ke mal Ci cek), (An ka ra: Ye ni Tür ki ye, 2002), v. II I, pp Furt her in for ma ti on se e: Ah met Sü heyl Ün ver, İstan bul Üni ver si te si Ta ri hi ne Baş lan gıç Fa tih, Kül li ye si ve Za ma nı İlim Ha ya tı (İstan bul: İstan bul Üni ver si te si Tıp Fa kül te si, 1946), pp ; Fah ri Unan, Fa tih Kül li ye si: Ku ru lu - şun dan Gü nü mü ze (An ka ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru - mu, 2003), va ri o us pa ges. 8. Franz Ba bin ger, Meh med the Con qu e ror and his Ti me, trans. Ralph Man he im, ed. Wil li am C. Hick man (Prin ce ton: Prin ce ton Uni ver sity, p Muh yid din Mu ham med Ka ra ba ği, Ta'li ka ala Şer hi Te ha fü ti'l-fe la si fe li-ho ca za de, ed. Abdur ra him Gü zel (An ka ra: Kül tür Ba kan lı ğı), p Ge or ge N. Vla ha kis et al. Sci en ce in the Otto man World, Im pe ri a lism and Sci en ce (Denver: ABC-CLI O, 2006), p Ek me led din Ih sa nog lu and ot hers, Os man lı As tro no mi Li te ra tü rü Ta ri hi, vol. 1. İstan bul: IR- CI CA, p Ah met Sü heyl Ün ver, Türk Po zi tif İlim ler Ta - ri hin den Bir Ba his Ali Kuş çi, Ha ya tı ve Eserle ri, (İstan bul: Ke nan Mat ba a sı, 1948), pp. 9-68; Ge or ge Sa li ba, "al-qush jis Re form of the Pto le ma ic Mo del for Mer cury, Ara bic Scien ces and Phi lo sophy 3 (1993): pp ; B.A. Ro sen feld and Ek me led din Ih sa nog lu, Mat he ma ti ci ans, As tro no mers and Ot her Scho lars of Is la mic Ci vi li sa ti on and the ir works (7th-19th c.) (Is tan bul: IR CI CA, 2003), pp Sa lim Ay düz, Uluğ Bey Zi ci nin Os man lı Astro no mi Ça lış ma la rın da ki Ye ri ve Öne mi, Bi - lig 25. Spring p İlter Uzel, Amas ya lı He kim ve Cer rah Sa bun - cu oğ lu Şere fed din: ( ?) (Amas ya: Amas ya Va li li ği p G. Ve ins te in, Su ley man, The Ency clo pa e di - a of Is lam. CD-ROM Edi ti on v. 1.0, 1999 Ko - nink lij ke Brill NV, Le i den, The Net her lands; Ali Hay dar Ba yat, Os man lı Dev le ti n de Tıp Eği ti - mi, Os man lı lar da Sağ lık I, ed. Coş kun Yıl maz and Nec det Yıl maz. İstan bul: Bi o far ma, p Na suh b. Ab dul lah Mat rak çı Na suh, Be yan-ı Me na zil-i Se fer-i Ira keyn-i Sul tan Sü ley man Han, ed. Hü se yin G. Yur day dın. An ka ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu, p Sa lim Ay düz, Os man lı Dev le ti n de Mü nec - cim ba şı lık Mü es se se si, TTK Bel le ten, no. 257 An ka ra p Sa lim Ay düz, İs tan bul da Za ma nın Nab zı nı Tu tan Me kan lar, Is tan bul 51 (Sep tem ber 2004), pp Ars lan Ter zi og lu, Bîmâris tan, Tür ki ye Di ya - net Vak fı İslam An sik lo pe di si 6 (İstan bul 1992), pp Ars lan Ter zi og lu, "Di e Arc hi tek to nisc hen Merk ma le der Selds chu kisc hen, Ma me lu kisc - hen, und Os ma nisc hen Kran kenhäuser und ih re Einf lüs se auf di e Abendländisc hen Hospitäler, Fifth In ter na ti o nal Con gress of Tur kish Art, ed. G. Fe her, (Bu da pest: Aka de mi a i Ki a - do, 1978), pp ; Ay din Sa yi li, Cer ta - in As pects of Me di cal Ins truc ti on in Me di e val Is lam and Its Inf lu en ces on Eu ro pe, Bel le ten vol. 45, no. 178 (1981), pp. 9 21; Ay din Sa yi - li, Cen tral Asi an Con tri bu ti ons to the Ear li er Pha ses of Hos pi tal Bu il ding Ac ti vity in Is lam, Er dem 7. Ja nu ary p Ars lan Ter zi og lu, Bîmâris tan, Tür ki ye Di ya - net Vak fı İslam An sik lo pe di si 6. İstan bul p Ay kut Ka zan cı gil, Os man lı lar da Bi lim ve Tek - no lo ji. İstan bul: Ga ze te ci ler ve Ya zar lar Vak fı, p Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

15 OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... Salim AYDÜZ 23. Ra tıp Ka zan cı gil, Edir ne Sul tan II. Ba ye zid Kül li ye si (Edir ne: Trak ya Üni ver si te si Rek tör - lü ğü Ya yın la rı, 1997), p. 54; Öz ge Gen çel, Mü zik le Te da vi, Kas to mo nu Eği tim Der gi si 14, no. 2. Sep tem ber p Ah met Sü heyl Ün ver, Sü ley ma ni ye Kül li ye - sin de Da rüş şi fa, Tıp Med re se si ve Da rü la ka ki - re da ir ( ) , Va kıf lar Der gi si, 2 (1942), pp ; Ö. L. Bar kan, Sü ley ma ni ye Ca mii ve İma re ti Te sis le ri ne Ait Yıl lık Bir Mu ha se be Bilânço su, ( ), Va kıf lar Der gi si 9 (1971), pp : 47 50; Meb ru re De ğer, Sü ley ma - ni ye Da rüş şi fa sı ve Tıp Med re se si I. Türk Tıp Ta ri hi Kon gre si (İstan bul, l7-l9 Şubat l988) Kon gre ye Su nu lan Bil di ri ler (An ka ra: Ata türk Dil ve Ta rih Yük sek Ku ru mu Türk Ta rih Ku ru - mu, p ; Ya sin Yıl maz, Sü ley - ma ni ye Dârüş şi fa sı ve Tıp Med re se si, Os man lı lar da Sağ lık I. p Gül ru Ne ci pog lu-ka fa dar, The Sü ley ma ni ye Comp lex in Is tan bul: An In ter pre ta ti on, Mu - qar nas 3 (1985), p Ev li ya Çe le bi, Se ya hatnâme I, ed. O. Ş. Gök - yay (İstan bul, 1996), p. 65; Uzun çar şı lı, İlmi ye Teş kilâtı, p Sey yid Lok man, Hü nernâme, Top ka pı Pa la ce Mu se um Lib rary, Ha zi ne no. 1524, fol. 284b- 286b; Ün ver, Sü ley ma ni ye Kül li ye sin de, p For the de eds of the fo un da ti on of the Sü ley - ma ni ye Me di cal Mad ra sa, se e Sü ley ma ni ye Vak fi ye si, ed. Ke mal Edib Kürk cü og lu (An ka - ra: Va kıf lar Umum Mü dür lü ğü, 1962), p İzgi, Op. Cit.. p Nil Sa rı, Te ac hing Me di cal His tor y (pa per pre sen ted at the 36th In ter na ti o nal Con gress on the His tory of Me di ci ne, Tu nis, Tu ni si a, Sep tem ber 6 11, l998), Ac tes-pro ce e dings, Tu nis: p Ö. L. Bar kan. Sü ley ma ni ye Ca mi i ve Ima re ti Te sis le ri ne Ait Yıl lık Bir Mu ha se be Bi lan co su, ( ), VD 9 (1971), pp The de ed of fo un da ti on exp la ins the com pul - sory con di ti ons for the ins truc tor with this senten ce: They sho uld be in tel li gent, ha ve strong sen ses, be lo gi cal, edu ca ted well on me di ci - ne, Pla to of the ti me, Aris tot le of age, he sho - uld ha ve the re vi ving ef fect of Je sus, li ke Ga len, se lec ted bet we en physi ci ans, ca re ful abo ut stu dents who wish to le arn me di ci ne, and fol low the ru les of me di ci ne, who con ti nu - e me di cal les sons and will be gi ven 20 ak ças per day. Sü ley ma ni ye Vak fi ye si (An ka ra: K. E. Kürk çü oğ lu, 1962), pp Pe çuy lu, Ta rih I (İstan bul 1866), p Ün ver, Sü ley ma ni ye Kül li ye sin de. p A. Ad nan Adı var, Os man lı Türk le rin de İlim (İstan bul: Rem zi Ki ta be vi, 1970), p Tun cay Zor lu fo und 19 na mes who we re the Mu der ris at the Me di cal Mad ra sa from the be gin ning un - til the end. Tun cay Zor lu, Sü ley ma ni ye Tıp Med re se si I, Os man lı Bi li mi Araş tır ma la rı, ed. F. Gu ner gun 3, no p Top ka pi Pa la ce Mu se um Arc hi ve, D Bil ge, op. cit., pp Ali Hay dar Ba yat, Os man lı Dev le ti n de He kimba şı lık Ku ru mu ve He kim ba şı lar (An ka ra: Ata - türk Kül tür Mer ke zi, 1999), pp. 3-17; Ün ver, Sü ley ma ni ye Kül li ye sin de, p Ek me led din Ih sa nog lu and Mus ta fa Ka çar, Ay nı Mü na se bet le İki Nu tuk: Sul tan II Mahmud un Mek teb-i Tıb bi ye Zi ya re tin de İrad Et ti - ği Nut kun Han gi si Doğ ru dur? Ta rih ve Top lum, no. 83 (Ka sim 1990), pp ; Ekme led din Ih sa nog lu and Fe za Gü ner gun, Tip Egi ti min Türk ce les me si Me se le sin de Ba zi Tes pit ler, Türk Tip Ta ri hi Yil li gi= Ac ta Tur ci ca His to ri a e Me di ci na e. I. Ulus la ra ra si Tip Ta ri hi ve De on to lo ji Kon gre si ne Su nu lan Tip Ta ri hi ile İlgi li Bil di ri ler, ed. Ars lan Ter zi og lu (İstan- bul, 1994), pp Ün ver, Sü ley ma ni ye Kül li ye sin de. p Abbé To de ri ni, De La Littéra tu re des Turcs, vol. I (Pa ris 1789), pp Ay kut Ka zan cı gil, Os man lı lar da Bi lim ve Tek - no lo ji (İstan bul: Ga ze te ci ler ve Ya zar lar Vak fı, 1999), pp Os man Tu ran, İstan bul un Fet hin den Ön ce Ya zıl mış Ta rihî Tak vim ler (An ka ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu, 1984), pp Sa lim Ay duz, Uluğ Bey Zi ci nin Os man lı Astro no mi Ça lış ma la rın da ki Ye ri ve Öne mi Bi - lig, An ka ra (Spring 2003), is su e 25, pp Al-Has sa ni, Sa lim, and Al-La wa ti, Mo ham med A., The Six Cylin der Wa ter Pump of Taqī al- Dīn. So ur ce: lim He ri ta ge.com mus lim he ri ta ge.com/to pics/de fa ult.cfm?ar tic - le ID= J. H. Mord tmann, Das Ob ser va to ri um des Ta - qi ed-din zu Pe ra, Der Is lam vol. 12 (1913), p. 93; Ra ma zan Şeşen, "Meş hur Os man lı As tro - no mu Ta ki yüd din El-Râsıd'ın So yu Üze ri ne, Er dem 4, is su e 10 (1988), pp ; İzgi, Op. cit., vol 1, pp , 327, 192; vol. 2, pp ; Sa lim Ay düz, Ta ki yüd din Râsıd, Ya şam la rı ve Ya pıt la rıy la Os man lı lar An sik lo pe di si, vol. 1 (İstan bul: Ya pı Kre di Ya - yın la rı, 1999): Se e for Ta qi Al-Din s list of ma nus cripts and re la ted works: Ay düz, Sa lim, Taqī al-dīn Ibn Ma rūf: A Bi o-bib li og - rap hi cal Es sa y. So ur ce: lim he ri ta - ge.com/to pics/de fa ult.cfm?ar tic le ID= Ah met Sü heyl Ün ver, İstan bul Ra sathâne si (An ka ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu, 1986), pp J. L. E. Dre yer, Tycho Bra he: A Pic tu re of Scien ti fic Li fe and Work in the Six te enth Cen tury (New York/Lon don: Do ver Pub li ca ti ons/cons - tab le, 1963), pp Se vim Te ke li, Na si rud din, Ta ki yüd din ve Tycho Bra he nin Ra sat Alet le ri nin Mu ka ye se - si, An ka ra Üni ver si te si, Dil ve Ta rih Coğ raf ya Fa kül te si Der gi si 16, no. 3-4 (1958), pp Top ka pi Pa la ce Mu se um Lib rary, MS Ha zi ne no. 465/1. In ad di ti on, lo ok: Se vim Te ke li, Tri- go no metry in Two Six te enth Cen tury Works; The De Re vo lu ti o ni bus Or bi um Co e les ti um and the Sid ra al-mun ta ha, His tory of Ori en tal As tro nomy (Cam brid ge: Cam brid ge Uni ver sity Press, 1987), pp Se vim Te ke li, İs tan bul Ra sathâne si nin Araç - la rı, Araş tır ma 11 (1979), pp ; S. Te ke - li, Ta ki yüd din de Ki riş 2 ve Sin 1 nin He sa bı, Araş tır ma 3 (1965), pp ; S. Te ke li, Ta ki yüd din in De los Prob le mi ile il gi li Ça lış ma la rı, Araş tır ma 6 (1968), pp. 1-9; S. Te ke li, Ta ki yüd din in Sid ret ül-mün te ha sın da Alet ler Bah si, Bel le ten 30, no p Se vim Te ke li, As tro no mi cal Ins tru ments for the Zîj of Em pe ror, Aras tir ma 1 (1963), pp Ibid. 54. Ay din Sa yı lı, The Ob ser va tory in Is lam (An ka - ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu, 1991), p ; Ay - din Sa yı lı, Ala ud din Man sur'un İstan bul Ra sathâne si Hak kın da ki Şiir le ri, TTK Bel le - ten 20, no. 79 (1956). p. 414, Se vim Te ke li, Meç hul bir ya za rın İstan bul Ra - sat he si Alet le ri nin Tas vi ri ni ve ren: Alat-ı Ra - sa di ye li Zic-i Şehin şa hi ye Ad lı Ese ri, Araş tır ma 1 (1963), pp Egypt, Ca i ro Na ti o nal Lib rary, fa lak no. 3845, mi qat no. 557/ He was al so known as Mü nec cim ba şı Mus - ta fa Çe le bi and Ko ca Sa at çı. 58. Ya vuz Unat, Mus ta fa Ibn Ali el-mu vakkît ve İ lâm el- İbâd fî A lâm el-bilâd (Şehir ler Ale min - de Me sa fe le rin Bil di ri mi) Ad lı Ri sa le si, EJOS, VI I, (2004), No. 10. p His tory of Ge og rap hi cal Li te ra tu re Du ring the Ot to man Pe ri od, Ek me led din İhsa noğ lu and ot hers, (İstan bul: IR CI CA, 2000), I-XV. 60. For mo re in for ma ti on abo ut his li fe and works se e: A. Ad nan Adi var, Os man li Turk le rin de Ilim. (An ka ra: Rem zi Ki ta be vi, 1970), pp ; Mah mut Ak, Saydī Ali Re i s, Ya sam la ri ve Ya pit la riy la Os man li lar An sik lo pe di si, (Istan bul: Ya pi Kre di Kul tur Ya yin la ri, 1999), II, pp ; Bur sa li Meh med Ta hir, Os man - li Mu el lif le ri, (Is tan bul: Mat ba a-i Ami re, 1923), II I, ; Haj ji Kha li fa, Kashf al-zu nun an isa ma al-ku tub wa l-fu nun, (An ka ra: Mil li Egi - Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2) 141

16 Salim AYDÜZ OTTOMAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME EXAMPLES FROM MEDICINE... tim Ba kan li gi, 1941), I, 807; His tory of As tro - no mi cal Li te ra tu re du ring the Ot to man Pe ri - od, By. Ek me led din Ih sa nog lu and ot hers, (Is tan bul: Re se arch Cen ter for Is la mic History, Art and cul tu re, 1997), I, ; History of Ge og rap hi cal Li te ra tu re du ring the Ot to man Pe ri od, By. Ek me led din Ih sa nog lu and ot hers, (Is tan bul: Re se arch Cen ter for Isla mic His tory, Art and cul tu re, 2000), I, 35-38; Ce vat Iz gi, Os man li Med re se le rin de Ilim, (Istan bul: Iz Ya yin ci lik, 1997), I, 344, 388, 394, 449, 450; II, 256, 257; Meh med Su rey ya, Sijill-i Os ma ni, (Is tan bul: Mat ba a-i Ami re, 1308), II, ; Bo ris A. Ro sen feld and Ek me - led din Ih sa nog lu, Mat he ma ti ci ans, As tro no - mers and ot her Scho lars of Is la mic Ci vi li sa ti on and the ir Works (7th -19th c.), (Istan bul: Re se arch Cen ter for Is la mic His tory, Art and cul tu re, 2003), pp , No. 977; Svat So u cek, Si di Ali Re is. (Saydī Ali Re - is), Ency clo pa e di a of Is lam, CD-ROM Edi ti on 1999, Ko nink lij ke Brill NV, Le i den, The Net - her lands; Se re fed din Tu ran, Saydī Ali Re i s, Is lam An sik lo pe di si, (An ka ra: Mil li Egi tim Ba - kan li gi, 1966), X, M. Bitt ner, Di e to pog rap hisc hen Ca pi tal des in disc hen Se es pi e gels, Mo hit", Fests chrift 1897; Com pre hen si ve (Bo ok) on the Sci en ce of He a vens and Se as (al-muhīt fi ilm al-af lak wa l-ab hur), Nap les, Vi en na 1277; Gab ri el, Fer rand. L a mi ral Si di Ali et le Mu hit. In tro - duc ti on à l as tro no mi e na u ti qu e Ara be. Pa ris 1936; Mir'at al-ma ma lik. The tra vels and adven tu res of the Tur kish Ad mi ral Si di Ali Re is in In di a, Afg ha nis tan, Cen tral Asi a, and Per si - a, du ring the ye ars Trans. by. A. Vambéry. Lon don: Lu zac, 1899; Mir'atu'l-Me - ma lik: In ce le me, me tin, in deks, Saydī Ali Re - is. Pub lis hed by Meh met Ki re mit. An ka ra: Turk Dil Ku ru mu, 1999; Saydī Ali Ra is. Mir a tul ma - mo lik (Mam la kat lar kuz gu si). By. S. Zum nu - nab. Tash kent, 1963; Saydī Ali Re is, Mir at al-ma ma lik. By Ah mad Jaw dat Pas ha. Is tan - bul: Ik dam Mat ba a si, 1313 (1895); Si di Ra is. Di e to pog rap hisc he Ca pi tel des in disc hen Se - es pi e gel Mo hit. Übers. Von M. Bitt ner, mit ei - ner Ein le i tung von W. To masc hek. Wi en, Wil li am Bri ce, Co lin Im ber and Ric hard Lorch, The Da i re-yi Mu ad del of Saydī Ali Re is, Se - mi nar on Early Is la mic Sci en ce, Mo nog raph No. 1. Manc hes ter: The Uni ver sity of Manc - hes ter, Tho mas D Go od rich, Old Maps in the Lib - rary of Top ka pi Pa la ce in Is tan bu l, Ima go Mun di, vol. 45, (1993), pp ; Oleg Gra bar, An Ex hi bi ti on of High Ot to man Ar t. Mu qar nas, vol. 6 (1989), pp. 1-11; His tory of Ge og raphy Li te ra tu re du ring the Ot to man Pe ri od. Edi ted by Ek me led din İhsa noğ lu et al., (Is tan bul: IR CI CA, 2000), I, 42-45; History of Mat he ma ti cal Li te ra tu re du ring the Otto man Pe ri od, Edi ted by Ek me led din İhsa noğ lu et al., (Is tan bul: IR CI CA, 1999), I, 68-73; His tory of Mi li tary Art and Sci en ce Li t- e ra tu re Du ring the Ot to man Pe ri od. Edi ted by. Ek me led din İhsa noğ lu et al., (Is tan bul: IR CI CA, 2004), I, 10-11; Ek me led din İhsa - noğ lu, The Ot to man Sci en ti fic-scho larly Li t- e ra tu re, In His tory of the Ot to man Sta te, So ci ety and Ci vi li za ti on, II, (Is tan bul: IR CI - CA, 2002), pp. 543, ;, Nor man J. John ston, The Ur ban World of the Mat ra ki Ma nus crip t, Jo ur nal of Ne ar Eas tern Stu di - es, vol. 30, No. 3, (July 1971), pp ; Ma hir, Ba nu-ihsan Faz lı oğ lu, Na suh (Mat- rak çı), Ya şam la rı ve Ya pıt la rıy la Os man lı lar An sik lo pe di si. Is tan bul: YKB, 1999, II, ; Mat rak çi Na suh Bey b. Ab du lah (Ka ra - göz) al-si la hi, Beyân-i Menâzil-i Se fer-i Ira keyn-i sul tan sü ley man han. Pub lis hed by H. G. Yur day dın. An ka ra, 1976; H. G. Yurday dın, An Ot to man His to ri an of the XVIth Cen tury: Na suh al-mat rakî and his Beyân-i Menâzil-i Se fer-i Ira keyn and its Im por tan ce for so me Ira ki Ci ti es", Tur ci ca, vi i (1975), pp ; sa me aut hor, Mat rak çı Na suh un Min ya tür lü iki ye ni ese ri. At ti II. Con gre e İnter na ti o nal Ac ta Tur ca, Ve ne zi a, 1963, (Ve- ne dik, 1965), pp ; sa me aut hor, Mat rak çi, Ency clo pa e di a of Is lam, Le i den: Brill, CD ver si on, 2001; sa me aut hor, Mat - rak çı Na suh. An ka ra, Na suh b. Ab dul lah Mat rak çı Na suh, Be yan-ı Me na zil-i Se fer-i Ira keyn-i Sul tan Sü ley man Han, ed. Hü se yin G. Yur day dın (An ka ra: Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu, 1976). 65. Franz Ta esc hner, The Iti ne rary of the First Per si an Cam pa ign of Sul tan Sü ley man, , Ac cor ding to Na suh al-mat ra ki, Ima go Mun di, vol. 13 (1956), p S. So u cek, Is la mic Char ting in the Me di ter ra - ne a n, in The His tory of Car tog raphy: Car tog - raphy in the Tra di ti o nal Is la mic and So uth Asi an So ci e ti es, edi ted by J. B. Har ley and Da - vid Wo od ward, (Chi ca go: The Uni ver sity of Chi ca go, 1992), pp Tho mas D. Go od rich, Old Maps in the Lib rary of Top ka pi Pa la ce in Is tan bu l, Ima go Mun di, vol. 45. (1993. p Nor man J. John ston, The Ur ban World of the Mat ra ki Ma nus crip t, Jo ur nal of Ne ar Eas tern Stu di es, vol. 30, No. 3. (July p Tur kish his tory ins ti tu ti on (Türk Ta rih Ku ru mu) pub lis hed the city pa in tings he ma de du ring the ex pe di ti on (edi ted and pub lis hed by H. G. Yur day din, in 1976). 70. This ma nus cript is sto red at the Be ya zit Lib - rary, MS This bo ok pub lis hed as fac si mi le by Cul tu ral Mi nistry of Tur key: Mu ham med b. Emir el-ha - san Su di, Ta rih-i Hind-i Gar bi ve ya Ha dis-i Nev: A His tory of the Dis co very of Ame ri ca, (İstan bul: Kül tür ve Tu rizm Ba kan lı ğı, 1987). Tho mas D. Go od rich, The Ot to man Turks and the New World: A Study of Ta rih-i Hind-i Gar - bi and Six te enth-cen tury Ot to man Ame ri ca - na, Ne ar and Midd le East mo nog raphs, new se ri es, vol. 3, (Wi es ba den: O. Har ras so witz, p On the pa ge 4b the re is one no te abo ut the aut hor. It is a short sen ten ce in Ara bic along the right hard mar gin of the pa ge, in the are a of the At lan tic along the wes tern co ast of Spa - in; the ap pro xi ma te trans la ti on: The Humb le Ali Ma car wro te it with the aid of the Lord of De ci si on (i.e., God) in the month of Sa far, ye - ar 975, i.e., bet we en Au gust 7 and Sep tem - ber 4, No ot her chart or at las ma de by him is known. The first im pres si on thus might be that an Ot to man se a man ma de this at las on the ba sis of his ma ri ti me ex pe ri en ce. And des pi te the da te gi ven of 1567, the re is mi nor yet sig ni fi cant evi den ce that he drew this at - las be fo re 1542; for on 6a, Scot land is se pa - ra ted from Eng land by a chan nel which di sap pe a red from Ita li an charts af ter that ye - ar. 73. S. So u cek, The Ali Ma car Re is At las and The De niz Ki ta bi: The ir Pla ce in the Gen re of Por to lan Charts and At la se s, Ima go Mun di. A Re vi ew of Early Car tog raphy, N. 25 (1971), pp ; K. Öz de mir, Ot to man Na u ti cal Charts and the At las of Ali Ma car Re is, A Marma ra pub li ca ti on, (Is tan bul: Cre a ti ve Ya yi ın cı - lık ve Ta nı tım, 1992). 74. New Ency clo pe di a of Is lam, vol. IV, p. 1082; N. Ak mal Ay yu bi, Tur kish Con tri bu ti ons to Isla mic Ge og raph y, Er dem, vol IX, 26. An ka ra p Journal of Islamic Research 2010;21(2)

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