# Experiment (13): Flow channel

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and the flow can not be generated by external pressures but only by differences in potential energy due to the slope of the surface. The flow channel is one of the most important tools available for the teaching of hydraulic principles. The flow channel has been designed to allow students a wide range of experiments on water flow in an open channel under different flow conditions and analyze the effects of test models of various shapes on water flow. It also allows the verification of the Chezy equation and Mannings friction factor. In addition studies of 'specific energy-depth' relationships, the effect of various weirs and flumes, hydraulic jump and the determination of hydraulic mean depth can also be carried out. Flow channel: Flow channel is designed to allow a series of experiments on water flow through a rectangular channel to be conducted. The channel is of rectangular cross section 175mm high x 55mm wide and 2500mm long. The flow channel incorporates a specially designed entry section which incorporates a stilling pond, filled with glass spheres, to provide smooth non turbulent flow conditions at entry to the channel. At the discharge end of the channel an adjustable undershot sluice gate is provided which can be used to control the exit flow. The channel is supported on a steel framework which incorporates a variable height support at the right hand end allowing the slope of the channel to be varied. A measuring point is provided together with a clock distance gauge and the calibration is such that 1 revolution of the clock dial is equivalent to a slope of 1 :1500. Figure 1: Flow channel apparatus 1

2 Exercise A (Flow in open channels) Purpose: To investigate the flow of water through a rectangular open channel. Apparatus: 1. Flow channel. 2. Hydraulics bench to supply water to the flow channel apparatus (the flow of water can be measured by timed volume collection). Theory: Consider an open channel of uniform width B and with a flat but sloping bed as illustrated below, in which a liquid flows from left to right. Figure 2: Rectangular open channel At plane X let the Height of the channel bed above datum = Depth of liquid in the channel = Width of the channel = Wetted perimeter = = Mean velocity of the liquid = The hydraulic mean radius is defined as: Applying Bernoulli's equation to the liquid at plane X then the total energy head above the datum is: It is often advantageous to use the channel bed as the datum. The total energy head above the channel bed is known as the specific energy, is: 2

3 Rearranging to obtain the mean velocity: Depending on the slope of the channel, the depth of the liquid along the channel may be constant or it may either decrease or increase. Consideration of continuity of flow rate between two planes X1 and X2 requires that the flow rate is the same at each of the planes so that: and for a rectangular channel of uniform width : For a uniform or steady flow in a constant width channel the depth of liquid will be constant along the length of the channel = and therefore the slope of the surface must be parallel to the slope of the bed so that =. If the velocity along the bed increases then the depth decreases in the direction of flow > and the slope of the surface is greater than the slope of the channel bed > or if the velocity decreases then the depth increases < and <. Consider the case of constant flow, a mean velocity in a rectangular duct can be calculated using Chezy formula: where is the Chezy coefficient for the channel. The Manning formula is used exclusively for open channels and is usually used in large civil engineering applications. Whilst the formula of Darcy-Weisbach and Colebrook-White applied to channels are derived from flow in circular and non-circular pipes which are more suited to mechanical engineering problems. From the study of frictional forces in pipes, the friction factor is found to be dependent on the Reynolds number and on the relative roughness of the pipe wall, however for very rough pipes the friction factor becomes independent of Reynolds number and depends only on the roughness of the pipe wall. For many open channels found in civil engineering problems the channel walls are very rough and in studying these civil engineering channels Robert Manning found from experimental work that the Chezy coefficient varied as the sixth root of the hydraulic mean radius and inversely to the roughness of the channel. Where is the Manning roughness factor. The velocity in an open channel is given by the Manning formula: 3

4 Typical values of Manning's roughness factor with units of m 1/2 and sec -1 are: Irregular rock channels to Rough earth channels to Smooth earth channels to Rubble masonry to 0.03 Clean smooth brick or wood channels to Smooth metal channels to General experimental procedures: 1. Position the flow channel to the left hand side of the hydraulics bench so that the discharge from the flow channel will enter the weir channel of the hydraulics bench. 2. Adjust the feet of the flow channel support frame so that it does not rock. 3. Connect the delivery hose from the hydraulics bench to the inlet connection of the flow channel. 4. Lower the sluice gate at the discharge end of the tunnel to seal the exit from the tunnel. 5. Start the hydraulics bench pump and allow water to enter the channel until it is filled to a depth of approximately 20mm. 6. Measure the distance of the water level from the top edge of the channel wall at each end and by means of the slope adjusting knob, make the measurements equal. 7. Set the clock dial to zero and note the reading of the dial counter gauge. 8. Check that the depth of water in the channel is constant along the length of the channel. This is the setting for zero slope. Procedures: 1. Set up the hydraulics bench using the general experimental procedures. 2. Fully raise the sluice gate at the discharge end of the channel so that it will not restrict the flow. 3. Set the flow channel slope to a downwards gradient from left to right of 1 25 in 1500 i.e. 1¼ revolutions of the clock dial from the zero point. 4. Start the hydraulics bench pump and adjust the flowrate to approximately 1 5 liters/sec. 5. When the flow conditions have become stable measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank of the hydraulics bench and measure the depth of water in the flow channel at 50cm from the left hand end. 6. Keeping the flow rate constant flow repeat the above measurements for the following different downward gradients. 4

5 Slope Revs. on dial from 'zero slope' 1.7/ /10 1.8/ /10 2.5/ /2 3.0/ / / /2 Results and analysis: 1. Record the results on a copy of the results sheet. 2. For each value of slope of the channel calculate:- The water flow rate The flow area from The mean velocity from The hydraulic mean radius from The slope of the channel bed The expression 3. Plot a graph of the mean velocity against and determine the Manning roughness value from the slope of the graph. Conclusion: Comment on the value of Manning's roughness coefficient n and compare it with values quoted in text books. 5

6 Exercise B (Flow under a sluice gate) Purpose: To investigate the flow of water under a sluice gate. Apparatus: 1. Flow channel. 2. Hydraulics bench to supply water to the flow channel apparatus (the flow of water can be measured by timed volume collection). Theory: By applying Bernoulli's equation to the flow in a channel it was shown that the specific energy measured from the bed of the channel at any plane is given by: the mean velocity is: and the discharge is: Substituting for in the specific energy equation and defining as the volume flow per unit of channel width so that Now differentiating with respect to depth and equating to zero to determine the conditions for the minimum value of the specific energy : The critical depth corresponding to minimum specific energy is: and the velocity at this critical conditlon is: For a given value of discharge there will be two possible depths for a given value of specific energy as shown in the graph below. 6

7 Figure 3: Specific energy-depth curve For depths greater than the critical depth, the flow is said to be sub critical or tranquil and for depths less than the critical depth, the flow is described as supercritical or shooting. The flow under a sluice gate is dependent on the upstream head and the height under the sluice gate. Assuming tranquil conditions upstream, the flow under the sluice gate may be either tranquil or supercritical, if it is supercritical then a downstream hydraulic jump can occur if the slope is either insufficient to maintain the supercritical flow or if there is a downstream restriction. a) Free discharge Unrestricted downstream Figure 4: Flow under a sluice gate b) Flooded discharge Downstream restricted Procedures: 1. Set up the hydraulics bench using the general experimental procedures. 2. Fit the sluice gate in the channel at a distance of 50cm or more from the water flow entry. 3. Fully raise the sluice gate at the discharge end of the channel so that it will not restrict the flow.. 4. Turn on the hydraulics bench and adjust the water flow to approximately 1 5 liter/second. 5. Check that stable conditions are achieved at the upstream measuring point (20cm upstream 7

8 from the sluice gate) and when stable flow conditions are established in the channel measure the water depth: 20cm upstream of sluice gate. 10cm downstream of sluice gate. 20cm downstream of sluice gate. 6. Check the width of the flow channel at each of the three measuring points. Results and analysis: Record the results on a copy of the results sheet. 1. Calculate the water flow rate. 2. Calculate the specific energy for each of the three measurement points from: 3. Calculate the critical point using: and 4. Draw a graph of depth against specific energy for the three measured points and for the calculated critical point. Draw a smooth curve through the four points. 5. Superimpose on to the graph a line from the origin at a slope of to represent Conclusion: Discuss the shape of the graph of depth against specific energy. 8

9 Exercise C (Demonstration of a hydraulic jump) Purpose: To investigate the phenomenon of a hydraulic jump. Apparatus: 1. Flow channel. 2. Hydraulics bench to supply water to the flow channel apparatus (the flow of water can be measured by timed volume collection). Theory: If the flow in a channel is supercritical and there is insufficient slope for the gravity forces to overcome the frictional forces then the flow will suddenly change to a sub critical flow by means of a hydraulic Jump which is illustrated in the figure below. Figure 4: Hydraulic jump The depth of water before the jump is less than the critical depth and the depth after the hydraulic jump is greater than the critical depth. The specific energy before and after the hydraulic jump must be higher than the critical energy value. The hydraulic jump is a highly irreversible process, there is a loss in kinetic energy, and although there is a gain in potential energy, the irreversibility of the process requires that the specific energy downstream of the hydraulic jump is less than the specific energy upstream of the hydraulic jump. A hydraulic jump will occur in a supercritical flow if the downstream water level is raised above the critical depth by an obstruction. For continuity of flow through the hydraulic jump: In a hydraulic jump, the velocity changes from to and hence there is a change in momentum through the jump. The force producing this change in momentum is due to the difference in hydrostatic pressure resulting from the change of depth. By equating the resultant hydrostatic force to the rate of change of momentum, the conjugate depth can be calculated from the initial depth from the following relationship: 9

10 The loss of specific energy due to irreversibility in a hydraulic jump can be calculated as the following: Procedures : 1. Set up the flow channel as for exercise B. 2. Fully raise the sluice gate at the discharge end of the channel so that it will not restrict the flow. 3. Turn on the hydraulics bench and adjust the water flow to approximately 1 5 liter/second. 4. Adjust the height of the sluice gate fitted to the discharge end of the flow channel until the bottom of the sluice gate just touches the water surface. 5. A hydraulic jump will then form, make fine adjustments to the discharge sluice gate until a stable stationary position of the hydraulic jump is obtained between the two sluice gates. 6. Measure the water depth each side of the hydraulic jump. Results and analysis: 1. Record the results on a blank copy of the results sheet. 2. Calculate the water flow rate. 3. Calculate the specific energy for each of the three measurement points from: 4. Provided that the flow rate is unchanged from that for expercise B, superimpose on the graph for exercise B the two points for the depth and specific energy before and after the hydraulic jump. Conclusion: Discuss the shape of the water surface before and after the hydraulic jump. 11

### CEE 370 Fall 2015. Laboratory #3 Open Channel Flow

CEE 70 Fall 015 Laboratory # Open Channel Flow Objective: The objective of this experiment is to measure the flow of fluid through open channels using a V-notch weir and a hydraulic jump. Introduction:

### What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation)

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 1 3 Question What is the most obvious difference between pipe flow and open channel flow????????????? (in terms of flow conditions and energy situation) Typical open channel shapes Figure

### Open Channel Flow. M. Siavashi. School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology

M. Siavashi School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology W ebpage: webpages.iust.ac.ir/msiavashi Email: msiavashi@iust.ac.ir Landline: +98 21 77240391 Fall 2013 Introduction

### Open channel flow Basic principle

Open channel flow Basic principle INTRODUCTION Flow in rivers, irrigation canals, drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure

### Chapter 9. Steady Flow in Open channels

Chapter 9 Steady Flow in Open channels Objectives Be able to define uniform open channel flow Solve uniform open channel flow using the Manning Equation 9.1 Uniform Flow in Open Channel Open-channel flows

### CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1. This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in

CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1 2.1 Introduction and Objective This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in the teaching flume and to utilize the common

### Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report

Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment Report Name: Ahmed Essam Mansour Section: "1", Monday 2-5 pm Title: Flow in open channel Date: 13 November-2006 Objectives: Calculate the Chezy and Manning coefficients

### Chapter 13 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW

Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala McGraw-Hill, 2010 Lecture slides by Mehmet Kanoglu Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required

### 2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT

2.0 BASIC CONCEPTS OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT Open channel flow is defined as flow in any channel where the liquid flows with a free surface. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the

### LECTURE 9: Open channel flow: Uniform flow, best hydraulic sections, energy principles, Froude number

LECTURE 9: Open channel flow: Uniform flow, best hydraulic sections, energy principles, Froude number Open channel flow must have a free surface. Normally free water surface is subjected to atmospheric

### OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW. Free surface. P atm

OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW Open-channel flow is a flow of liquid (basically water) in a conduit with a free surface. That is a surface on which pressure is equal to local atmospheric pressure. P atm Free surface

### Hydraulic Jumps and Non-uniform Open Channel Flow, Course #507. Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.

Hydraulic Jumps and Non-uniform Open Channel Flow, Course #507 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com Many examples of open channel flow can be approximated

### ...Eq(11.6) The energy loss in the jump is dependent on the two depths y 1 and y 2 3 = E =...Eq(11.7)

. Open Channel Flow Contd.5 Hydraulic Jump A hydraulic jump occurs when water in an open channel is flowing supercritical and is slowed by a deepening of the channel or obstruction in the channel. The

### Open Channel Flow 2F-2. A. Introduction. B. Definitions. Design Manual Chapter 2 - Stormwater 2F - Open Channel Flow

Design Manual Chapter 2 - Stormwater 2F - Open Channel Flow 2F-2 Open Channel Flow A. Introduction The beginning of any channel design or modification is to understand the hydraulics of the stream. The

### Exercise (4): Open Channel Flow - Gradually Varied Flow

Exercise 4: Open Channel Flow - Gradually Varied Flow 1 A wide channel consists of three long reaches and has two gates located midway of the first and last reaches. The bed slopes for the three reaches

### M6a: Open Channel Flow (Manning s Equation, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy)

M6a: Open Channel Flow (, Partially Flowing Pipes, and Specific Energy) Steady Non-Uniform Flow in an Open Channel Robert Pitt University of Alabama and Shirley Clark Penn State - Harrisburg Continuity

### Civil Engineering Hydraulics Open Channel Flow. Adult: Where s your costume? What are you supposed to be?

Civil Engineering Hydraulics Calvin: Trick or treat! Adult: Where s your costume? What are you supposed to be? Calvin: I m yet another resource-consuming kid in an overpopulated planet, raised to an alarming

### EXAMPLES (OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW) AUTUMN 2015

EXAMPLES (OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW) AUTUMN 2015 Normal and Critical Depths Q1. If the discharge in a channel of width 5 m is 20 m 3 s 1 and Manning s n is 0.02 m 1/3 s, find: (a) the normal depth and Froude number

### Broad Crested Weirs. I. Introduction

Lecture 9 Broad Crested Weirs I. Introduction The broad-crested weir is an open-channel flow measurement device which combines hydraulic characteristics of both weirs and flumes Sometimes the name ramp

### Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow HDS 3 August 1961

Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow HDS 3 August 1961 Welcome to HDS 3-Design Charts for Open-Channel Flow Table of Contents Preface DISCLAIMER: During the editing of this manual for conversion to an electronic

### Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide

Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Activities for Unit 1 Basic Hydraulics Activity 1.1: Convert 45 psi to feet of head. 45 psis x 1 ft. = 103.8 ft 0.433 psi Activity 1.2: Determine

### 21. Channel flow III (8.10 8.11)

21. Channel flow III (8.10 8.11) 1. Hydraulic jump 2. Non-uniform flow section types 3. Step calculation of water surface 4. Flow measuring in channels 5. Examples E22, E24, and E25 1. Hydraulic jump Occurs

### Lecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions. I. General Characteristics of Flumes. Flumes are often used:

Lecture 24 Flumes & Channel Transitions I. General Characteristics of Flumes Flumes are often used: 1. Along contours of steep slopes where minimal excavation is desired 2. On flat terrain where it is

### CIVE2400 Fluid Mechanics Section 2: Open Channel Hydraulics

CIVE400 Fluid Mechanics Section : Open Channel Hydraulics. Open Channel Hydraulics.... Definition and differences between pipe flow and open channel flow.... Types of flow.... Properties of open channels...

### CHAPTER 9 CHANNELS APPENDIX A. Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow

CHAPTER 9 CHANNELS APPENDIX A Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow SEPTEMBER 2009 CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX A Hydraulic Design Equations for Open Channel Flow Introduction The Equations presented

### Experiment 3 Pipe Friction

EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A cross-sectional

### Chapter 10. Open- Channel Flow

Updated: Sept 3 2013 Created by Dr. İsmail HALTAŞ Created: Sept 3 2013 Chapter 10 Open- Channel Flow based on Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 6th EdiAon By Munson 2009* *some of the Figures and Tables

### Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow 2.1 General Considerations Of interest is water flowing in a channel with a free surface, which is usually referred to as open channel flow.

### Lecture 25 Design Example for a Channel Transition. I. Introduction

Lecture 5 Design Example for a Channel Transition I. Introduction This example will be for a transition from a trapezoidal canal section to a rectangular flume section The objective of the transition design

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

### Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical

European Water 36: 7-35, 11. 11 E.W. Publications Backwater Rise and Drag Characteristics of Bridge Piers under Subcritical Flow Conditions C.R. Suribabu *, R.M. Sabarish, R. Narasimhan and A.R. Chandhru

### CITY UTILITIES DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL

CITY UTILITIES DESIGN STANDARDS MANUAL Book 2 (SW) SW9 June 2015 SW9.01 Purpose This Chapter provides information for the design of open channels for the conveyance of stormwater in the City of Fort Wayne.

### Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks

### Note: first and second stops will be reversed. Bring clothing and shoes suitable for walking on rough ground.

Open Channel Page 1 Intro check on laboratory results Field Trip Note: first and second stops will be reversed Irrigation and Drainage Field Trip Bring clothing and shoes suitable for walking on rough

### Topic 8: Open Channel Flow

3.1 Course Number: CE 365K Course Title: Hydraulic Engineering Design Course Instructor: R.J. Charbeneau Subject: Open Channel Hydraulics Topics Covered: 8. Open Channel Flow and Manning Equation 9. Energy,

### Appendix 4-C. Open Channel Theory

4-C-1 Appendix 4-C Open Channel Theory 4-C-2 Appendix 4.C - Table of Contents 4.C.1 Open Channel Flow Theory 4-C-3 4.C.2 Concepts 4-C-3 4.C.2.1 Specific Energy 4-C-3 4.C.2.2 Velocity Distribution Coefficient

### Open Channel Flow Measurement Weirs and Flumes

Open Channel Flow Measurement Weirs and Flumes by Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E. 1. Introduction Your Course Title Here Measuring the flow rate of water in an open channel typically involves some type of

### 2O-1 Channel Types and Structures

Iowa Stormwater Management Manual O-1 O-1 Channel Types and Structures A. Introduction The flow of water in an open channel is a common event in Iowa, whether in a natural channel or an artificial channel.

### Experimentation and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Roughness Effects in Flexible Pipelines

Experimentation and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Roughness Effects in Flexible Pipelines Sophie Yin Jeremy Leggoe School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering Daniel Teng Paul Pickering CEED

### STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DRAINAGE HANDBOOK OPEN CHANNEL. OFFICE OF DESIGN, DRAINAGE SECTION November 2009 TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DRAINAGE HANDBOOK OPEN CHANNEL OFFICE OF DESIGN, DRAINAGE SECTION TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA Table of Contents Open Channel Handbook Chapter 1 Introduction... 1

### EVALUATION OF UNSTEADY OPEN CHANNEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OVER A CRUMP WEIR

EVALUATION OF UNSTEADY OPEN CHANNEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OVER A CRUMP WEIR Mohd Adib Mohd Razi, Dwi Tjahjanto, Wan Afnizan Wan Mohamed, Siti Norashikin Binti Husin Department of Water Resource and Environmental

### Module 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains. Lecture 7 : Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains

1 P age Module 7: Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains Lecture 7 : Hydraulic Design of Sewers and Storm Water Drains 2 P age 7.1 General Consideration Generally, sewers are laid at steeper

### ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr

### CHAPTER 4 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS

CHAPTER 4 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS 4. Introduction Open channel flow refers to any flow that occupies a defined channel and has a free surface. Uniform flow has been defined as flow with straight parallel

### M6b: Water Surface Profiles and Hydraulic Jumps

Example.0 (Chin 006): Constriction in Channel M6b: Water Surface Profiles and Hdraulic Jumps Robert Pitt Universit of Alabama and Shirle Clark Penn State - Harrisburg A rectangular channel.0 m wide carries.0

### Basic Hydrology. Time of Concentration Methodology

Basic Hydrology Time of Concentration Methodology By: Paul Schiariti, P.E., CPESC Mercer County Soil Conservation District What is the Time of Concentration? The time it takes for runoff to travel from

### Module 3. Irrigation Engineering Principles. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 3 Irrigation Engineering Principles Lesson 9 Regulating Structures for Canal Flows Instructional objectives On completion of this lesson, the student shall be able to learn: 1. The necessity of

### Practice Problems on Pumps. Answer(s): Q 2 = 1850 gpm H 2 = 41.7 ft W = 24.1 hp. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 16 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 29

_02 A centrifugal with a 12 in. diameter impeller requires a power input of 60 hp when the flowrate is 3200 gpm against a 60 ft head. The impeller is changed to one with a 10 in. diameter. Determine the

### Storm Drainage Systems 11.9-1

Storm Drainage Systems 11.9-1 11.9 Gutter Flow Calculations 11.9.1 Introduction Gutter flow calculations are necessary in order to relate the quantity of flow (Q) in the curbed channel to the spread of

### Lecture 22 Example Culvert Design Much of the following is based on the USBR technical publication Design of Small Canal Structures (1978)

Lecture 22 Example Culvert Design Much of the following is based on the USBR technical publication Design of Small Canal Structures (1978) I. An Example Culvert Design Design a concrete culvert using the

### Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins)

Emergency Spillways (Sediment basins) DRAINAGE CONTROL TECHNIQUE Low Gradient Velocity Control Short-Term Steep Gradient Channel Lining Medium-Long Term Outlet Control Soil Treatment Permanent [1] [1]

### Figure 1. Head losses in a pipe

53:071 Principles of Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment #1 ENERGY AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES IN WATER PIPE SYSTEMS Principle The energy of a real fluid decreases as it moves through a pipe. The energy budget

### CHAPTER 3 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 3 STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 3.7 Storm Drains 3.7.1 Introduction After the tentative locations of inlets, drain pipes, and outfalls with tail-waters have been determined and the inlets sized, the next

### FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

### HYDRAULICS. H91.8D/C - Computerized Open Surface Tilting Flow Channel - 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 m long

HYDRAULICS H91.8D/C - Computerized Open Surface Tilting Flow Channel - 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 m long 1. General The series of channels H91.8D has been designed by Didacta Italia to study the hydrodynamic

### (Refer Slide Time: 05:33)

Water and Wastewater Engineering Dr. Ligy Philip Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Sedimentation (Continued) Lecture # 9 Last class we were discussing about sedimentation.

### INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS SIXTH EDITION ROBERT W. FOX Purdue University ALAN T. MCDONALD Purdue University PHILIP J. PRITCHARD Manhattan College JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

### 1. Carry water under the canal 2. Carry water over the canal 3. Carry water into the canal

Lecture 21 Culvert Design & Analysis Much of the following is based on the USBR publication: Design of Small Canal Structures (1978) I. Cross-Drainage Structures Cross-drainage is required when a canal

### Fluid Mechanics Definitions

Definitions 9-1a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V \$0& #V ) Specific Gravity

### Flow Over Weirs. By John Fuller. Fluid Mechanics Lab. Wednesday(1-345pm) Group member: Abdur Rahaman

Flow Over Weirs By John Fuller Fluid Mechanics Lab Wednesday(1-345pm) Group member: Abdur Rahaman Abstract The objective of this lab is to determine the characteristics of open-channel flow over, firstly,

### Heat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Heat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 04 Convective Heat Transfer Lecture No. # 03 Heat Transfer Correlation

### Proceeding of International Seminar on Application of Science Matehmatics 2011 (ISASM2011) PWTC, KL, Nov, 1-3, 2011

Proceeding of International Seminar on Application of Science Matehmatics 2011 (ISASM2011) PWTC, KL, Nov, 1-3, 2011 INFLUENCE OF BED ROUGHNESS IN OPEN CHANNEL Zarina Md Ali 1 and Nor Ashikin Saib 2 1 Department

### Open Channel Flow in Aquaculture

SRAC Publication No. 74 Southern Regional Aquaculture Center March 1995 PR VI Open Channel Flow in Aquaculture J. David Bankston, Jr. 1 and Fred Eugene Baker Open channel flow of water has been used in

### Urban Hydraulics. 2.1 Basic Fluid Mechanics

Urban Hydraulics Learning objectives: After completing this section, the student should understand basic concepts of fluid flow and how to analyze conduit flows and free surface flows. They should be able

### Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Sixth Edition. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics International Student Version BRUCE R. MUNSON DONALD F. YOUNG Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics THEODORE H. OKIISHI Department

### SECTION 5 - STORM DRAINS

Drainage Criteria Manual SECTION 5 - STORM DRAINS 5.1.0 GENERAL This The purpose of this section discusses briefly is to consider the hydraulic aspects of storm drains and their appurtenances in a storm

### Transient Mass Transfer

Lecture T1 Transient Mass Transfer Up to now, we have considered either processes applied to closed systems or processes involving steady-state flows. In this lecture we turn our attention to transient

### Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any

Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass

### These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.

Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers

### Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

### Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department. Lectures of. Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Amir M. Mobasher

Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Lectures of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher 1/14/2013 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir Mobasher Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering

### Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel

2-7 December 27 Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel M.G. Pullinger and J.E. Sargison School of Engineering University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 71 AUSTRALIA Abstract Computational

### Floodplain Hydraulics! Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis Dr. Philip Bedient

Floodplain Hydraulics! Hydrology and Floodplain Analysis Dr. Philip Bedient Open Channel Flow 1. Uniform flow - Manning s Eqn in a prismatic channel - Q, V, y, A, P, B, S and roughness are all constant

### Equipment for Engineering Education

Equipment for Engineering Education Instruction Manual Venturi Flume G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH Fahrenberg 4 D-885 Barsbüttel Germany Phone: ++49 (40) 670854.0 Fax: ++49 (40) 670854.4 E-mail: sales@gunt.de

### Travel Time. Computation of travel time and time of concentration. Factors affecting time of concentration. Surface roughness

3 Chapter 3 of Concentration and Travel Time Time of Concentration and Travel Time Travel time ( T t ) is the time it takes water to travel from one location to another in a watershed. T t is a component

### Package rivr. October 16, 2015

Type Package Package rivr October 16, 2015 Title Steady and Unsteady Open-Channel Flow Computation Version 1.1 Date 2015-10-15 Author Michael C Koohafkan [aut, cre] Maintainer Michael C Koohafkan

### Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow

ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Lab Page ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Spring Quarter 00 Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow Objectives: a) Calibrate a pressure transducer and two different flowmeters (paddlewheel

### There are a number of criteria to consider when designing canals Below is a list of main criteria, not necessarily in order of importance:

Lecture 15 Canal Design Basics I. Canal Design Factors There are a number of criteria to consider when designing canals Below is a list of main criteria, not necessarily in order of importance: 1. Flow

### Calculating resistance to flow in open channels

Alternative Hydraulics Paper 2, 5 April 2010 Calculating resistance to flow in open channels http://johndfenton.com/alternative-hydraulics.html johndfenton@gmail.com Abstract The Darcy-Weisbach formulation

### LECTURE 1: Review of pipe flow: Darcy-Weisbach, Manning, Hazen-Williams equations, Moody diagram

LECTURE 1: Review of pipe flow: Darcy-Weisbach, Manning, Hazen-Williams equations, Moody diagram 1.1. Important Definitions Pressure Pipe Flow: Refers to full water flow in closed conduits of circular

### Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement, Course #506. Presented by:

Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement, Course #506 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com A weir is basically an obstruction in an open channel

### Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness

### oil liquid water water liquid Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1

Answer, Key Homework 2 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 14 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

### CHAPTER 5 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW

CHAPTER 5 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Open-channel flows are those that are not entirely included within rigid boundaries; a part of the flow is in contract with nothing at all, just empty space

### Basic Hydraulic Principles

CHAPTER 1 Basic Hydraulic Principles 1.1 General Flow Characteristics In hydraulics, as with any technical topic, a full understanding cannot come without first becoming familiar with basic terminology

### A LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT WITH A LINEAR PRESSURE DROP VERSUS VOLUMETRIC FLOW. 1998 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting

TELEDYNE HASTINGS TECHNICAL PAPERS INSTRUMENTS A LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT WITH A LINEAR PRESSURE DROP VERSUS VOLUMETRIC FLOW Proceedings of FEDSM 98: June -5, 998, Washington, DC FEDSM98 49 ABSTRACT The pressure

### VOLUME AND SURFACE AREAS OF SOLIDS

VOLUME AND SURFACE AREAS OF SOLIDS Q.1. Find the total surface area and volume of a rectangular solid (cuboid) measuring 1 m by 50 cm by 0.5 m. 50 1 Ans. Length of cuboid l = 1 m, Breadth of cuboid, b

### Pressure drop in pipes...

Pressure drop in pipes... PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS Pressure drop or head loss, occurs in all piping systems because of elevation changes, turbulence caused by abrupt changes in direction, and friction

### Hydraulics Guide. Table 1: Conveyance Factors (English Units)... 7 Table 2: Conveyance Factors (Metric Units)... 8

Table of Contents 1.1 Index of Tables... 1 1. Index of Figures... 1 1.3 Overview of Hydraulic Considerations... 1.4 Discharge Curves... 1.5 Conveyance Method... 5 1.6 Flow Velocity Considerations... 9

### 1 Fundamentals of. open-channel flow 1.1 GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS OF OPEN CHANNELS

1 Fundamentals of open-channel flow Open channels are natural or manmade conveyance structures that normally have an open top, and they include rivers, streams and estuaries. n important characteristic

### Distinguished Professor George Washington University. Graw Hill

Mechanics of Fluids Fourth Edition Irving H. Shames Distinguished Professor George Washington University Graw Hill Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, Wl New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok

### FIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses

8 48 Glycerin at 40 C with r 1252 kg/m 3 and m 0.27 kg/m s is flowing through a 4-cm-diameter horizontal smooth pipe with an average velocity of 3.5 m/s. Determine the pressure drop per 10 m of the pipe.

### hose-to-hose coupling pump-to-hose coupling

pipe_02 A homeowner plans to pump water from a stream in their backyard to water their lawn. A schematic of the pipe system is shown in the figure. 3 m 1 m inlet pipe-to-pump coupling stream re-entrant

### A Verification of Open Channel Flow Relations and Flow Straightening

David Mack Han Kuk No Nick Sovocool University of Rocester ME Department A Verification of Open Channel Flow Relations and Flow Straightening Open channel flow equations were evaluated and tested in a

### XI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA

Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A

### The Viscosity of Fluids

Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et

### MIKE 21 FLOW MODEL HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN APPLICATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FLOODING AND DRYING

1 MIKE 21 FLOW MODEL HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN APPLICATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FLOODING AND DRYING This note is intended as a general guideline to setting up a standard MIKE 21 model for applications

### Flow Measurement Calibration and Measurement

Calibration and Measurement Flow Measurement Flow measurement for agricultural irrigation delivery can be accomplished with four general approaches. These categories are generalized below. I. Standard