# Viscosity. Desmond Schipper Andrew R. Barron. 1 Introduction

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Viscosity. Desmond Schipper Andrew R. Barron. 1 Introduction"

## Transcription

1 OpenStax-CNX module: m Viscosity Desmond Schipper Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 Abstract This module discusses how viscosity is characterized. 1 Introduction All liquids have a natural internal resistance to ow termed viscosity. Viscosity is the result of frictional interactions within a given liquid and is commonly expressed in two dierent ways. 1.1 Dynamic viscosity The rst is dynamic viscosity, also known as absolute viscosity, which measures a uid's resistance to ow. In precise terms, dynamic viscosity is the tangential force per unit area necessary to move one plane past another at unit velocity at unit distance apart. As one plane moves past another in a uid, a velocity gradient is established between the two layers (Figure 1). Viscosity can be thought of as a drag coecient proportional to this gradient. Version 1.2: May 9, :36 pm

2 OpenStax-CNX module: m Figure 1: Fluid dynamics as one plane moves relative to a stationary plane through a liquid. The moving plane has area A and requires force F to overcome the uid's internal resistance. The force necessary to move a plane of area A past another in a uid is given by (1) where V is the velocity of the liquid, Y is the separation between planes, and η is the dynamic viscosity. V/Y also represents the velocity gradient (sometimes referred to as shear rate). Force over area is equal to τ, the shear stress, so the equation simplies to (2). For situations where V does not vary linearly with the separation between plates, the dierential formula based on Newton's equations is given in (3). (1) (2) (3) 1.2 Kinematic viscosity Kinematic viscosity, the other type of viscosity, requires knowledge of the density, ρ, and is given by (4), where ν is the kinematic viscosity and η is the dynamic viscosity. (4) 1.3 Units of viscosity Viscosity is commonly expressed in Stokes, Poise, Saybolt Universal Seconds, degree Engler, and SI units.

3 OpenStax-CNX module: m Dynamic viscosity The SI units for dynamic (absolute) viscosity is given in units of N S/m 2, Pa S, or kg/(m s), where N stands for Newton and Pa for Pascal. Poise are metric units expressed as dyne s/cm 2 or g/(m s). They are related to the SI unit by g/(m s) = 1/10 Pa S. 100 centipoise, the centipoise (cp) being the most used unit of viscosity, is equal to one Poise. Table 1 shows the interconversion factors for dynamic viscosity. Table 2 lists the dynamic viscosities of several liquids at various temperatures in centipoise. The eect of the temperature on viscosity is clearly evidenced in the drastic drop in viscosity of water as the temperature is increased from near ambient to 60 degrees Celsius. Ketchup has a viscosity of 1000 cp at 30 degrees Celsius or more than 1000 times that of water at the same temperature! Unit Pa*S dyne s/cm 2 or g/(m s) (Poise) Centipoise (cp) Pa*S dyne s/cm 2 or g/(m s) (Poise) Centipoise (cp) Table 1: The interconversion factors for dynamic viscosity. Liquid η (cp) Temperature( C) Water Water Milk Olive Oil Toothpaste 70, , Ketchup Custard 1, Crude Oil (WTI)* 7 15 Table 2: Viscosities of common liquids (*at 0% evaporation volume) Kinematic viscosity The CGS unit for kinematic viscosity is the Stoke which is equal to 10-4 m 2 /s. Dividing by 100 yields the more commonly used centistoke. The SI unit for viscosity is m 2 /s. The Saybolt Universal second is commonly used in the oileld for petroleum products represents the time required to eux 60 milliliters from a Saybolt Universal viscometer at a xed temperature according to ASTM D-88. The Engler scale is often used in Britain and quanties the viscosity of a given liquid in comparison to water in an Engler viscometer for 200cm 3 of each liquid at a set temperature. 2 Newtonian versus non-newtonian uids One of the invaluable applications of the determination of viscosity is identifying a given liquid as Newtonian or non-newtonian in nature. Newtonian liquids are those whose viscosities remain constant for all values of applied shear stress.

4 OpenStax-CNX module: m Non-Newtonian liquids are those liquids whose viscosities vary with applied shear stress and/or time. Moreover, non-newtonian liquids can be further subdivided into classes by their viscous behavior with shear stress: Pseudoplastic uids whose viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate Dilatants in which the viscosity increases with shear rate. Bingham plastic uids, which require some force threshold be surpassed to begin to ow and which thereafter ow proportionally to increasing shear stress. 3 Measuring viscosity Viscometers are used to measure viscosity. There are seven dierent classes of viscometer: 1. Capillary viscometers. 2. Orice viscometers. 3. High temperature high shear rate viscometers. 4. Rotational viscometers. 5. Falling ball viscometers. 6. Vibrational viscometers. 7. Ultrasonic Viscometers. 3.1 Capillary viscometers Capillary viscometers are the most widely used viscometers when working with Newtonian uids and measure the ow rate through a narrow, usually glass tube. In some capillary viscometers, an external force is required to move the liquid through the capillary; in this case, the pressure dierence across the length of the capillary is used to obtain the viscosity coecient. Capillary viscometers require a liquid reservoir, a capillary of known dimensions, a pressure controller, a ow meter, and a thermostat be present. These viscometers include, Modied Ostwald viscometers, Suspended-level viscometers, and Reverse-ow viscometers and measure kinematic viscosity. The equation governing this type of viscometry is the Pouisille law ((5)), where Q is the overall owrate, P, the pressure dierence, a, the internal radius of the tube, η, the dynamic viscosity, and l the path length of the uid. Here, Q is equal to V/t; the volume of the liquid measured over the course of the experiment divided by the time required for it to move through the capillary where V is volume and t is time. For gravity-type capillary viscometers, those relying on gravity to move the liquid through the tube rather than an applied force, (7) is used to nd viscosity, obtained by substituting the relation (6) with the experimental values, where P is pressure, ρ is density, g is the gravitational constant, and h is the height of the column. (5) (6) An example of a capillary viscometer (Ostwald viscometer) is shown in Figure 2. (7)

5 OpenStax-CNX module: m Figure 2: The capillary, submerged in an isothermal bath, is lled until the liquid lies at Mark 3. The liquid is then drawn up through the opposite side of the tube. The time it takes for the liquid to travel from Mark 2 to Mark 1 is used to compute the viscosity. 3.2 Orice viscometers Commonly found in the oil industry, orice viscometers consist of a reservoir, an orice, and a receiver. These viscometers report viscosity in units of eux time as the measurement consists of measuring the time it takes for a given liquid to travel from the orice to the receiver. These instruments are not accurate as the set-up does not ensure that the pressure on the liquid remains constant and there is energy lost to friction at the orice. The most common types of these viscometer include Redwood, Engler, Saybolt, and Ford cup viscometers. A Saybolt viscometer is represented in Figure 3.

6 OpenStax-CNX module: m Figure 3: The time it takes for a 60 ml collection ask to ll is used to determine the viscosity in Saybolt units. 3.3 High temperature, high shear rate viscometers These viscometers, also known as cylinder-piston type viscometers are employed when viscosities above 1000 poise, need to be determined, especially of non-newtonian uids. In a typical set-up, uid in a cylindrical reservoir is displaced by a piston. As the pressure varies, this type of viscometry is well-suited for determining the viscosities over varying shear rates, ideal for characterizing uids whose primary environment is a high temperature, high shear rate environment, e.g., motor oil. A typical cylinder-piston type viscometer is shown in Figure 4. Figure 4: A typical cylinder-piston type viscometer.

7 OpenStax-CNX module: m Rotational viscometers Well-suited for non-newtonian uids, rotational viscometers measure the rate at which a solid rotates in a viscous medium. Since the rate of rotation is controlled, the amount of force necessary to spin the solid can be used to calculate the viscosity. They are advantageous in that a wide range of shear stresses and temperatures and be sampled across. Common rotational viscometers include: the coaxial-cylinder viscometer, cone and plate viscometer, and coni-cylinder viscometer. A cone and plate viscometer is shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: A cone is spun by a rotor in a liquid paste along a plate. The response of the rotation of the cone is measured, thereby determining viscosity. 3.5 Falling ball viscometer This type of viscometer relies on the terminal velocity achieved by a balling falling through the viscous liquid whose viscosity is being measured. A sphere is the simplest object to be used because its velocity can be determined by rearranging Stokes' law ((8)) to (9), where r is the sphere's radius, η the dynamic viscosity, v the terminal velocity of the sphere, σ the density of the sphere, ρ the density of the liquid, and g the gravitational constant (8) A typical falling ball viscometric apparatus is shown in Figure 6. (9)

8 OpenStax-CNX module: m Figure 6: The time taken for the falling ball to pass from mark 1 to mark 2 is used to obtain viscosity measurements. 3.6 Vibrational viscometers Often used in industry, these viscometers are attached to uid production processes where a constant viscosity quality of the product is desired. Viscosity is measured by the damping of an electrochemical resonator immersed in the liquid to be tested. The resonator is either a cantilever, oscillating beam, or a tuning fork. The power needed to keep the oscillator oscillating at a given frequency, the decay time after stopping the oscillation, or by observing the dierence when waveforms are varied are respective ways in which this type of viscometer works. A typical vibrational viscometer is shown in Figure 7.

9 OpenStax-CNX module: m Figure 7: A resonator produces vibrations in the liquid whose viscosity is to be tested. An external sensor detects the vibrations with time, characterizing the material's viscosity in realtime. 3.7 Ultrasonic viscometers This type of viscometer is most like vibrational viscometers in that it is obtaining viscosity information by exposing a liquid to an oscillating system. These measurements are continuous and instantaneous. Both ultrasonic and vibrational viscometers are commonly found on liquid production lines and constantly monitor the viscosity. 4 Bibliography D.S. Viswanath, T.K. Gosh, D.H.L. Prasad, N.V.K. Dutt, K.Y. Rani. Viscosity of Liquids : Theory, Estimation, Experiment, and Data, Springer, 1st edn., C.W. Macosko, Rheology : principles, measurements, and applications, Wiley-VCH, New Jersey, 1st edn., F.A. Morrison, Understanding Rheology, Oxford University Press, New York, 1 st edn., The Physics Hypertextbook, ( accessed January, 2014). Spring Handbook for Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Ed. C. Tropea, A.L. Yarin, J.F. Foss, Springer, 1 st edn., 2007.

### Fig. 1. The velocity distribution will be linear over the distance dx, and experiments show that the velocity

Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is that property which tends to resist a shearing force. It can be thought of as the internal friction resulting when one layer of fluid is made to move in relation to

### PUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY

PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY The viscosity of a fluid is that property which tends to resist a shearing force. It can be thought of as the internal friction resulting when one layer of fluid is made to move

### Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline

1 Why is rheology important? Examples of its importance Summary of important variables Description of the flow equations Flow regimes - laminar vs. turbulent - Reynolds number - definition of viscosity

### 1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties. 1.1 Objectives of this section. 1.2 Fluids

1. Fluids Mechanics and Fluid Properties What is fluid mechanics? As its name suggests it is the branch of applied mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of fluids - both liquids and gases.

### XI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA

Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A

### Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations

Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations Hemi Nae, PhD Hydan Technologies, Inc. Key Words Complex Modulus, Creep/Recovery, Dilatant Flow, Dynamic Viscosity, Flow, Flow Curve, Flow Models, Frequency

### Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid

Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three

### CHAPTER 2: LIQUID VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 2: LIQUID VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT Objective Calculate viscosity (dynamic or absolute, and kinematic) and determine how this property varies with changes in temperature for a constant-composition

RHEOLOGY RHEOLOGY Science describing the flow and deformation of matter under stress. Rheo = the flow Viscosity (η) is the resistance of a fluid material to flow under stress. The higher the viscosity,

### CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS

CE 204 FLUID MECHANICS Onur AKAY Assistant Professor Okan University Department of Civil Engineering Akfırat Campus 34959 Tuzla-Istanbul/TURKEY Phone: +90-216-677-1630 ext.1974 Fax: +90-216-677-1486 E-mail:

### The Viscosity of Fluids

Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et

### Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation.

### Predicting and Measuring Viscosity of Crude Oil Blends

June 20 22, 2012 Kananaskis, Alberta Predicting and Measuring Viscosity of Crude Oil Blends Branko Banjac Joint CCQTA/COQA Meetings TABLE OF CONTENTS Viscosity measurement techniques Predicting viscosity

### Teil I. Student Laboratory Manuals

Teil I Student Laboratory Manuals 1 IR1 5. Fluid friction in liquids 5.1 Introduction Generally the term fluid is understood to be matter either in the gaseous or liquid state. The physics involved on

### 02/21/2006 10:13 AM. Viscosity. The Physics Hypertextbook 1998-2005 by Glenn Elert All Rights Reserved -- Fair Use Encouraged.

Viscosity The Physics Hypertextbook 1998-2005 by Glenn Elert All Rights Reserved -- Fair Use Encouraged prev up next Discussion definitions Informally, viscosity is the quantity that describes a fluid's

### PHYSICS FUNDAMENTALS-Viscosity and flow

PHYSICS FUNDAMENTALS-Viscosity and flow The origin of viscosity When a force is applied to a solid, it will yield slightly, and then resist further movement. However, when we apply force to a fluid, it

### CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Review of Fluid Mechanics Terminology

CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Review of Fluid Mechanics Terminology The Continuum Hypothesis: We will regard macroscopic behavior of fluids as if the fluids are perfectly continuous in structure. In reality,

### VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID. To determine the viscosity of a lubricating oil. Time permitting, the temperature variation of viscosity can also be studied.

VISCOSITY OF A LIQUID August 19, 004 OBJECTIVE: EQUIPMENT: To determine the viscosity of a lubricating oil. Time permitting, the temperature variation of viscosity can also be studied. Viscosity apparatus

### Ch 2 Properties of Fluids - II. Ideal Fluids. Real Fluids. Viscosity (1) Viscosity (3) Viscosity (2)

Ch 2 Properties of Fluids - II Ideal Fluids 1 Prepared for CEE 3500 CEE Fluid Mechanics by Gilberto E. Urroz, August 2005 2 Ideal fluid: a fluid with no friction Also referred to as an inviscid (zero viscosity)

### Viscosity (VIS) Topic: Mechanics. Laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Hagen-Poiseuille s law, Stokes law

Seite 1 Viscosity Topic: Mechanics 1 Key words Laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Hagen-Poiseuille s law, Stokes law 2 Literatur L. Bergmann, C. Schäfer, Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik, Band

### FLUID DYNAMICS. Intrinsic properties of fluids. Fluids behavior under various conditions

FLUID DYNAMICS Intrinsic properties of fluids Fluids behavior under various conditions Methods by which we can manipulate and utilize the fluids to produce desired results TYPES OF FLUID FLOW Laminar or

### Basic Principles in Microfluidics

Basic Principles in Microfluidics 1 Newton s Second Law for Fluidics Newton s 2 nd Law (F= ma) : Time rate of change of momentum of a system equal to net force acting on system!f = dp dt Sum of forces

### The Viscosity of Fluids

Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et

### Fluid Dynamics Viscosity. Dave Foster Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Email: dafoster@che

Fluid Dynamics Viscosity Dave Foster Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Email: dafoster@che che.rochester.eduedu 1 Chemical Engineering What do Chemical Engineers Do? Manufacturing

### INVESTIGATION OF FALLING BALL VISCOMETRY AND ITS ACCURACY GROUP R1 Evelyn Chou, Julia Glaser, Bella Goyal, Sherri Wykosky

INVESTIGATION OF FALLING BALL VISCOMETRY AND ITS ACCURACY GROUP R1 Evelyn Chou, Julia Glaser, Bella Goyal, Sherri Wykosky ABSTRACT: A falling ball viscometer and its associated equations were studied in

### 8.62 Viscometers Application and Selection

8.62 ViscometersApplication and Selection C. H. KIM (1969, 1982) B. G. LIPTÁK (1995, 2003) Definition of Viscosity: Viscosity Units: Types of Viscous Behavior: Absolute viscosity is the ratio of applied

### SIZE OF A MOLECULE FROM A VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT

Experiment 8, page 1 Version of April 25, 216 Experiment 446.8 SIZE OF A MOLECULE FROM A VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT Theory Viscous Flow. Fluids attempt to minimize flow gradients by exerting a frictional force,

### Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis An Important Example from Fluid Mechanics: Viscous Shear Forces V d t / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Ƭ = F/A = μ V/d More generally, the viscous

### I. INTRODUCTION: Phenomenology. N / m. N / m (2) kg G. Let s consider a shear force experiment on a solid cube. (Fig. 1)

I. INTRODUCTION: Phenomenology Let s consider a shear force experiment on a solid cube. (Fig. 1) We can easily verify that for the solid not to move or rotate, all forces acting on the cube must be of

### Journal bearings/sliding bearings

Journal bearings/sliding bearings Operating conditions: Advantages: - Vibration damping, impact damping, noise damping - not sensitive for vibrations, low operating noise level - dust tight (if lubricated

### The ratio of inertial to viscous forces is commonly used to scale fluid flow, and is called the Reynolds number, given as:

12.001 LAB 3C: STOKES FLOW DUE: WEDNESDAY, MARCH 9 Lab Overview and Background The viscosity of a fluid describes its resistance to deformation. Water has a very low viscosity; the force of gravity causes

### CANNON INSTRUMENT COMPANY

CANNON INSTRUMENT COMPANY There are hundreds of different types of viscometers: glass capillary, rotational, viscosity cup, falling ball, and many others. All viscometers should be checked periodically

### For Water to Move a driving force is needed

RECALL FIRST CLASS: Q K Head Difference Area Distance between Heads Q 0.01 cm 0.19 m 6cm 0.75cm 1 liter 86400sec 1.17 liter ~ 1 liter sec 0.63 m 1000cm 3 day day day constant head 0.4 m 0.1 m FINE SAND

### Primary Learning Outcome: Students will be able to define the term viscosity and identify viscosity as a physical property of matter.

SPLAT! Written by Amy Rowley and Jeremy Peacock Annotation In this laboratory exercise, students will measure the relative viscosities of several common food liquids and construct a standard curve to estimate

### Determination of Viscosity Using A Brookfield Viscometer for Conditioning Polymers

LUBRIZOL TEST PROCEDURE TP-N01004 Edition: December 2, 2013 Previous Editions: August 10, 2000 / November 1, 2011 Determination of Viscosity Using A Brookfield Scope A material's flow property is an important

### Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics

Lecture 24 - Surface tension, viscous flow, thermodynamics Surface tension, surface energy The atoms at the surface of a solid or liquid are not happy. Their bonding is less ideal than the bonding of atoms

### Fluid Mechanics Definitions

Definitions 9-1a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V \$0& #V ) Specific Gravity

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

### Unit 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.Introduction 1.2.Objectives

Structure 1.1.Introduction 1.2.Objectives 1.3.Properties of Fluids 1.4.Viscosity 1.5.Types of Fluids. 1.6.Thermodynamic Properties 1.7.Compressibility 1.8.Surface Tension and Capillarity 1.9.Capillarity

### VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia. Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries?

VISUAL PHYSICS School of Physics University of Sydney Australia FLUID FLOW VISCOSITY POISEUILLE'S LAW? Why do cars need different oils in hot and cold countries? Why does the engine runs more freely as

### Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department. Lectures of. Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Amir M. Mobasher

Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Lectures of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher 1/14/2013 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir Mobasher Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering

### Content. Seminar on rheology. Viscometers, rheometers and measuring systems

Seminar on rheology Viscometers, rheometers and measuring systems 1 Content Overview Finger, Ford cup Capillary viscometer Falling ball viscometer Rotational viscometer Rotational rheometer Sensor systems

### CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK PART - A

CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART - A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density

### Selecting a Centrifugal Pump to Handle a Viscous Liquid

Copyright 2002, 2005, 2008 Randall W. Whitesides, P.E. Introduction This course provides the student with an understanding of fluid viscosity and its effects on the performance of centrifugal pump operation.

### Natural Convection. Buoyancy force

Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient

### Lecture 5 Hemodynamics. Description of fluid flow. The equation of continuity

1 Lecture 5 Hemodynamics Description of fluid flow Hydrodynamics is the part of physics, which studies the motion of fluids. It is based on the laws of mechanics. Hemodynamics studies the motion of blood

### Chapter 8 Fluid Flow

Chapter 8 Fluid Flow GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it in an operational

### MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS BY THE STOKE S METHOD

130 Experiment-366 F MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS BY THE STOKE S METHOD Jeethendra Kumar P K, Ajeya PadmaJeeth and Santhosh K KamalJeeth Instrumentation & Service Unit, No-610, Tata Nagar, Bengaluru-560092.

### This document establishes MSHA s Standard Test Procedure (STP) for the Determining the Viscosity of a Hydraulic Fluid in Saybolt Universal Seconds.

DOCUMENT NO: ASTP 5005 VERSION: 2010-02-12 Page 1 of 9 1.0 PURPOSE This document establishes MSHA s Standard Test Procedure (STP) for the Determining the Viscosity of a Hydraulic Fluid in Saybolt Universal

### Standard Test Methods for Viscosity of Adhesives 1

Designation: D 1084 97 Standard Test Methods for Viscosity of Adhesives 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 1084; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year

### Viscosity experiments: physical controls and implications for volcanic hazards. Ben Edwards Dept of Geology, Dickinson College

Viscosity experiments: physical controls and implications for volcanic hazards Student Name: Ben Edwards Dept of Geology, Dickinson College OBJECTIVES OF LAB Learn about the rheological property called

### 01 The Nature of Fluids

01 The Nature of Fluids WRI 1/17 01 The Nature of Fluids (Water Resources I) Dave Morgan Prepared using Lyx, and the Beamer class in L A TEX 2ε, on September 12, 2007 Recommended Text 01 The Nature of

### Aids needed for demonstrations: viscous fluid (water), tubes (pipes), injections, paper, stopwatches, vessels,, weights

1 Viscous and turbulent flow Level: high school (16-17 years) hours (2 hours class teaching, 2 hours practical excercises) Content: 1. Viscous flow 2. Poiseuille s law 3. Passing from laminar to turbulent

### OUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

Unit 41: Fluid Mechanics Unit code: T/601/1445 QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 5 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 3 Be able to determine the behavioural characteristics and parameters of real fluid

### 4 Microscopic dynamics

4 Microscopic dynamics In this section we will look at the first model that people came up with when they started to model polymers from the microscopic level. It s called the Oldroyd B model. We will

### 1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, and handouts)

1. Introduction, fluid properties (1.1, and handouts) Introduction, general information Course overview Fluids as a continuum Density Compressibility Viscosity Exercises: A1 Applications of fluid mechanics

### Introduction to Microfluidics. Date: 2013/04/26. Dr. Yi-Chung Tung. Outline

Introduction to Microfluidics Date: 2013/04/26 Dr. Yi-Chung Tung Outline Introduction to Microfluidics Basic Fluid Mechanics Concepts Equivalent Fluidic Circuit Model Conclusion What is Microfluidics Microfluidics

### INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS SIXTH EDITION ROBERT W. FOX Purdue University ALAN T. MCDONALD Purdue University PHILIP J. PRITCHARD Manhattan College JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

### A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension

A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2 Objectives Have a working knowledge of the basic

### Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts (Bitumens) 1

Designation: D 2170 95 Designation: 319/84 (89) Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts (Bitumens) 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 2170; the number immediately

### CHAPTER 2.0 ANSWER B.20.2

CHAPTER 2.0 ANSWER 1. A tank is filled with seawater to a depth of 12 ft. If the specific gravity of seawater is 1.03 and the atmospheric pressure at this location is 14.8 psi, the absolute pressure (psi)

### 3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins

3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins 3.3.1. Introduction Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter 1. There has been significant appreciation of the importance of the rheological

### Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version

Viscosity: The Fluids Lab Teacher Version California Science Content Standards: 1. Motion and Forces: Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects. 1b. Students know that when forces are balanced,

### These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.

Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers

### Fluid Mechanic & Fluid Machine

Fluid Mechanic & Fluid Machine Contents Chapter Topic Page Chapter-1 Chapter-2 Chapter-3 s s s Problems Pressure and Its Measurements s s s Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces s s s No 7 8 15 15 20 22 22 24

### Understanding Rheology

Understanding Rheology Ross Clark Distinguished Research Fellow San Diego R&D Page 1 Background CP Kelco makes carbohydrate based water soluble polymers Fermentation Xanthan Gellan Plant derived Pectin

### Diffusion and Fluid Flow

Diffusion and Fluid Flow What determines the diffusion coefficient? What determines fluid flow? 1. Diffusion: Diffusion refers to the transport of substance against a concentration gradient. ΔS>0 Mass

### Measurement of the viscosities of He, Ne and Ar for the determination of their gas kinetic diameters.

American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) e-issn: 2320-0847 p-issn : 2320-0936 Volume-4, Issue-11, pp-57-62 www.ajer.org Research Paper Measurement of the viscosities of He, Ne and Ar for the determination

### User's Guide. Digital Viscotesters. Model 345060 High Range (0.3 to 4000 dpas) Model 345055 Low Range (1.5 to 330 mpas) Introduction

User's Guide Digital Viscotesters Model 345060 High Range (0.3 to 4000 dpas) Model 345055 Low Range (1.5 to 330 mpas) Introduction Congratulations on your purchase of the Extech Digital Viscotester. The

### Vatten(byggnad) VVR145 Vatten. 2. Vätskors egenskaper (1.1, 4.1 och 2.8) (Föreläsningsanteckningar)

Vatten(byggnad) Vätskors egenskaper (1) Hydrostatik (3) Grundläggande ekvationer (5) Rörströmning (4) 2. Vätskors egenskaper (1.1, 4.1 och 2.8) (Föreläsningsanteckningar) Vätska som kontinuerligt medium

### 1.4 Review. 1.5 Thermodynamic Properties. CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26,

CEE 3310 Thermodynamic Properties, Aug. 26, 2011 11 1.4 Review A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container

### ME19b. SOLUTIONS. Feb. 11, 2010. Due Feb. 18

ME19b. SOLTIONS. Feb. 11, 21. Due Feb. 18 PROBLEM B14 Consider the long thin racing boats used in competitive rowing events. Assume that the major component of resistance to motion is the skin friction

### Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today

### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES

Vol. XX 2012 No. 4 28 34 J. ŠIMIČEK O. HUBOVÁ NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES Jozef ŠIMIČEK email: jozef.simicek@stuba.sk Research field: Statics and Dynamics Fluids mechanics

### GAS VISCOSITY AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE. A Dissertation KEGANG LING

GAS VISCOSITY AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE A Dissertation by KEGANG LING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

### Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

### Swissmetro travels at high speeds through a tunnel at low pressure. It will therefore undergo friction that can be due to:

I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT. Swissmetro travels at high speeds through a tunnel at low pressure. It will therefore undergo friction that can be due to: 1) Viscosity of gas (cf. "Viscosity of gas" experiment)

### Flow Sensors. - mass flow rate - volume flow rate - velocity. - stream line parabolic velocity profile - turbulent vortices. Methods of measurement

Flow Sensors Flow - mass flow rate - volume flow rate - velocity Types of flow - stream line parabolic velocity profile - turbulent vortices Methods of measurement - direct: positive displacement (batch

### HEAVY OIL FLOW MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES

HEAVY OIL FLOW MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES 1 INTRODUCTION The vast majority of the world s remaining oil reserves are categorised as heavy / unconventional oils (high viscosity). Due to diminishing conventional

### A H M 531 Penetration & Ring & Ball & Ductility & Flash & Fire point By: Mu'men Al-Otoom

The Civil Engineering Center 1 Visit www.ahm531.com for more lecture notes and E-book! The Civil Engineering Center 2 Visit www.ahm531.com for more lecture notes and E-book! Introduction : The grades of

### BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND

BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND Goals: To become familiar with: Ultrasound wave Wave propagation and Scattering Mechanisms of Tissue Damage Biomedical Ultrasound Transducers Biomedical Ultrasound Imaging Ultrasonic

### Introduction VISCOSITY. Appearance Color Physical Properties Viscosity Technical Service Index

Introduction Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. It is commonly perceived as flow behaviour or resistance to pouring. Viscosity describes a fluids internal

### Viscosity Cup Reference Table 1

Viscosity Viscosity The extent to which a liquid resists a tendency to flow is defined as viscosity. In the coatings industry, this behaviour is one of the key parameters. Elcometer manufactures and supplies

### Asphalt Institute Technical Bulletin. Laboratory Mixing and Compaction Temperatures

ASPHALT INSTITUTE EXECUTIVE OFFICES AND RESEARCH CENTER Research Park Drive P.O. Box 14052 Lexington, KY 40512-4052 USA Telephone 859-288-4960 FAX No. 859-288-4999 Asphalt Institute Technical Bulletin

### Lab 5: Conservation of Energy

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Equipment SWS, 1-meter stick, 2-meter stick, heavy duty bench clamp, 90-cm rod, 40-cm rod, 2 double clamps, brass spring, 100-g mass, 500-g mass with 5-cm cardboard square

### Putting the Simple Back into Viscosity. Written by John Sander Vice President of Technology Lubrication Engineers, Inc.

White Paper LE WHITE PAPER Written by John Sander Vice President of Technology Lubrication Engineers, Inc. The Lubrication Reliability Source www.le-inc.com 800-537-7683 1 Abstract: Simply stated, viscosity

### Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's Law

OpenStax-CNX module: m42209 1 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's Law OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 Abstract

### Lecture L2 - Degrees of Freedom and Constraints, Rectilinear Motion

S. Widnall 6.07 Dynamics Fall 009 Version.0 Lecture L - Degrees of Freedom and Constraints, Rectilinear Motion Degrees of Freedom Degrees of freedom refers to the number of independent spatial coordinates

### Copyright Warning & Restrictions

Copyright Warning & Restrictions The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions

### The performance of centrifugal pumps when pumping ultra-viscous paste slurries

The performance of centrifugal pumps when pumping ultra-viscous paste slurries by J. Crawford*, F. van Sittert, and M. van der Walt Synopsis Significant advances have been made in the design of centrifugal

### When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.

Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs

### State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

5 Question 1. [Marks 28] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

### Chapter 28 Fluid Dynamics

Chapter 28 Fluid Dynamics 28.1 Ideal Fluids... 1 28.2 Velocity Vector Field... 1 28.3 Mass Continuity Equation... 3 28.4 Bernoulli s Principle... 4 28.5 Worked Examples: Bernoulli s Equation... 7 Example

### Physics 41 HW Set 1 Chapter 15

Physics 4 HW Set Chapter 5 Serway 8 th OC:, 4, 7 CQ: 4, 8 P: 4, 5, 8, 8, 0, 9,, 4, 9, 4, 5, 5 Discussion Problems:, 57, 59, 67, 74 OC CQ P: 4, 5, 8, 8, 0, 9,, 4, 9, 4, 5, 5 Discussion Problems:, 57, 59,

### VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATIONS

VISCOSITY CLASSIFICATIONS INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANT CASSIFICATIONS ISO (International Standards Organisation) viscosity classification The ISO viscosity classification uses mm 2 /s () units and relates to viscosity

### CHAPTER 3: FORCES AND PRESSURE

CHAPTER 3: FORCES AND PRESSURE 3.1 UNDERSTANDING PRESSURE 1. The pressure acting on a surface is defined as.. force per unit. area on the surface. 2. Pressure, P = F A 3. Unit for pressure is. Nm -2 or

### Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

### Scalars, Vectors and Tensors

Scalars, Vectors and Tensors A scalar is a physical quantity that it represented by a dimensional number at a particular point in space and time. Examples are hydrostatic pressure and temperature. A vector