Mr. Allen s Notes. U.S. History I

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1 Mr. Allen s Notes 1 U.S. History I

2 The Shaping of North America 225 million years ago-pangaea supercontinent 10 million years ago- Rocky Mountains exist Appalachians exist Continents are separated 2 million years ago- an Ice Age envelopes the planet and the water level lowers years ago- the Bering Land Bridge appears animals cross, followed by nomadic Asian hunters years ago- the Ice Age ends nomadic people create civilization years ago-1492 AD, the population grows to 72 million *only 7-10 million live in North America (South America has better conditions for farming) 2 Powerful Civilizations Aztecs Incas Mayans Iroquois o Over 2000 languages created o Religion o Culture o Farming techniques People who came to America before 1492: -Scandinavians led by Leif Erickson (Newfoundland) -Nomadic Asian hunters -Irish -Africans -Chinese [1492] Columbus discovered the New World (arrived at Hispañola/ Haiti) brought 20 people back-only two survive the ship ride was sent to get more for slavery in mines (creates slavery) Europeans bring smallpox into the Americas [1492] Haiti s population totals 3 million [1512] Haiti s population totals Columbus s discovery affects the futures of three groups: Europeans migrate to the Americas Native Americans dealt with harshly Africans source of labor leads to mass enslaving

3 Explorers Amerigo Vespucci [sails for Spain in 1499] [sails for Portugal in 1501] Writes vivid accounts of the East coast of North and South America Mapmakers base their maps on his accounts hence America 3 Vasco Nunez de Balboa [sails for Spain in 1513] First European to set eyes on the Pacific Ocean Says All land that touches the Pacific is Spain s Basis for Spanish claims in America Ferdinand Magellan [sails for Spain from ] First to circumnavigate the globe Hernando Cortez [sails for Spain in 1519] Crushes the Aztecs (attack and smallpox) Claims Mexico for Spain Ponce de Léon [sails for Spain in 1513] Explores Florida lays claim of Florida for Spain Looking for gold Francisco Coronado [sails for Spain in 1540] Searches for the fabled cities of gold First European to see the Grand Canyon First European to see herds of buffalo John Cabot [sails for England in 1497] Italian explores the East coast of New England Basis for English claims in the Americas Giovanni de Verrazano [sails for France in 1524] Hudson River and areas of NYC Henry Hudson [sails for the Dutch in 1608?] Hudson Bay and Hudson River Claims Manhattan for the Dutch Jacques Cartier [sails for France in 1534] Explores parts of Canada and claims area for France Hernando de Soto [sails for Spain from ] First European to see the Mississippi River

4 Settling the New World Spain Reasons for exploration: Gold Glory God Goods Lay claim to: New Mexico West coast of South America Florida All of Central America Texas Arizona California 4 [1565] settled the first permanently occupied settlement in the Americas -St. Augustine, FL [1588] Spanish Armada is defeated marks the decline of the Spanish Empire Encomienda system and hacienda system places Native Americans in state of slavery France Lay claim to: Canada Areas around the Mississippi [1608] First French settlement Quebec New France [1750] < people live in New France Why won t people live in New France? 1. Poor farmland 2. Isolated 3. Subject to Native American attacks 4. only French Catholics allowed 5. keep the discontented in France England [1558] Elizabeth I comes to the throne of England wants to expand the navy 1. Spread Protestant 2. Plunder and attack Spanish ships Gets seadogs to do the work (pirates) Sir Francis Drake is knighted for his success Settling Sir Walter Raleigh [1585] attempts to settle at Roanoke people didn t like it and came back [1587] tries again Virginia Dare is the first child from Britain born [1590] supply ship is sent to Roanoke Island no one is found the Lost Colony of Roanoke one word found Croatoan

5 Joint stock company Group of people invest money together [1606] Virginia Company of London receives charter for a colony [1607] Jamestown, VA is settled 104 males looking for gold [1608] 40 are left John Smith takes control of Jamestown if you don t work, you don t eat [1609] a terrible winter hits resorts to cannibalism [1610] out of 400 settlers, 60 are left [1612] John Rolfe perfects the growing of tobacco and begins the tobacco craze one of the first cash crops grown [1619] House of Burgesses created -first legislative assembly in America First slave ship shows up in America with 19 African slaves 5 Types of Colonies 1. Royal Colony -king/queen has total control over the colony 2. Proprietary Colony (most popular form) -king/queen picks a representative (friend/trusted) to run the colony -that representative picks a governor and sets up laws 3. Self-governing Colony -the colonists control the colony -least popular form Southern Colonies 1. Virginia [1607] Jamestown began as proprietary [1624] (King James disgusted by tobacco) becomes a royal colony tobacco-based economy plantation system develops -indentured servants pay back debts after 7-10 years of service, given own land -African slaves demand for land -push westward -angers the Native Americans this all creates an aristocratic society (wealthy) lack of cities in the South 2. Maryland [1634] founded by Lord Baltimore tobacco-based economy plantation system aristocratic society created because: -make profit -safe haven for Catholics

6 as times goes on Protestants outnumber the Catholics Act of Toleration [guarantees rights to all Christians] But Death Penalty if Jewish/atheist do not recognize Jesus as the Lord 3. South Carolina [1670] proprietary supposed to work in connection with the West Indies (sugar cane) supply station for the West Indies principal crop is rice plantation system 4. North Carolina [1691, formally 1712] population outcasts from South Carolina and Virginia pride themselves on being outlaws and outcasts (rich plantations owners pushing them off) hospitable to pirates resistant to authority [1691] break away informally [1712] officially becomes a colony 5. Georgia the Buffer Colony [1733] by James Olgethorpe (last colony founded) protects South Carolina against Spanish Florida population the Charity Colony -drunks -criminals -outlaws -very poor produce silk and wine prohibits alcohol granted some religious toleration try to get slavery outlawed failed in 1750 it was made legal 6 New England Colonies 1. Massachusetts [1620] Plymouth Separatist Puritans [1609] move to Holland-don t want children to be Dutchified 102 settlers on the Mayflower supposed to land in Virginia instead, land in Massachusetts Miles Standish and William Bradford Make the Mayflower Compact Pledge allegiance to the king Combine themselves into a civil body politic Obey laws of the new government 44 survive the first winter William Bradford becomes governor 30 times Massachusetts Bay Colony [1629] One of the most successful settlements in America Founded by non-separatist Puritans John Winthrop is the governor Industries: o Fishing o Ship-building o Fur-trading Jon Winthrop

7 Wants the Massachusetts Bay Colony to be an example a city upon a hill MBC- The Bible Commonwealth is extremely religious Dissenters in Massachusetts Anne Hutchinson Challenges the Puritan way Put on trial claims to have spoken with God Kicked out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Goes to Rhode Island, then New York killed by Natives Roger Williams Challenges to break away from the Church of England Escapes to Rhode Island founds his own colony 2. Rhode Island [1636] by Roger Williams colony known for religious toleration strongly independent not well-liked by the other colonies other colonies call Rhode Island the Lord s Debris made up of people that no one wants self-governing colony 3. Connecticut [1635] by Reverend Thomas Hooker self-governing created the Fundamental Orders a document that creates a democratically controlled government 4. New Hampshire [1623] good for fishing and trading the overgrowth of the Massachusetts Bay Colony becomes an official colony in The Middle Colonies 1. New York After Hudson s explorations in 1608 Dutch start settlement along the Hudson Called New Netherlands Manhattan was called New Amsterdam Problems for the Dutch o Poor leaders only decent one was Peter Stuyvesant o More concerned with profit o No democracy o No freedom of religion o Poorly run o Constantly attacked by Native Americans o Surrounded by the English [1664] Charles II gives the land of NY to the Duke of York (James) after threatening the Dutch with an invasion, Dutch give up the land Dutch legacy o Sleighing o Golf o Waffles o Easter eggs o Santa Claus o Skating

8 o Bowling o Harlem o Brooklyn Chief crop is wheat 2. Pennsylvania [1681] The Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) Persecuted by England William Penn emerges as a leader William Penn Idea to create land for Quakers [1681] founds Pennsylvania one of the best-advertised colonies Characteristics of Pennsylvania o Peaceful [Native Americans move in] o Liberal o Freedom of worship o Disliked slavery o Against military service o Chief crop is wheat o Well-planned cities o Very successful colony 3. New Jersey [1702] [1664] Duke of York gives parts of NJ to Berkeley and Carteret (proprietors) sold land to the Quakers split land into East and West Jersey gave land back to crown becomes royal colony [1702] 4. Delaware [1638] by the Swedes taken over by the Dutch after the Dutch leave in 1664 Delaware controlled by Pennsylvania 8 Early Native American and Colonial Wars colonial militia a practice learned from Europe each colony creates their own unit able-bodied men ages why? English provide no money for colonial defense (exception of Georgia) Militia meet every few weeks for training Militia Day turns into a party and meets annually 1. Anglo-Powhattan War [ ] Jamestown New governor Lord de la Warr Declares war against the Native Americans [1614] Pocahontas marries John Rolfe better relations 2. The First Tidewater War [1622] Native Americans attack white settlers kill ¼ of Jamestown s population John Rolfe is also killed 3. The Second Tidewater War [1644] Opechanough takes over Powhattans renews attack against white settlements

9 Opechanough is killed and Native American Confederacy dissolves Native Americans are pushed further west 4. Pequot War [ ] New England Colonies Results in the killing of 500 Pequot Indians in Connecticut end of the Pequots 5. King Philip s War [1675] New England Colonies Metacom (King Philip) After being forced to pledge allegiance to the English crown Vows revenge starts the Native American Confederacy After killing many settlers captured, quartered, and killed Halts the western boundary at New England Colonies for 40 years First large-scale military action by the colonial militia 6. Bacon s Rebellion Displays colonial anger and hatred to Native Americans Displays colonial hatred toward the Southern Aristocracy Nathaniel Bacon Gathered men Vows to kill all Native Americans Gets called an outlaw Gets so angry Burns down the settlement of Jamestown Dies as Jamestown burns Reveals the growing social gap between small farmers and plantation owners 9 Colonial unity [1643] New England Colonies the New England Confederation first time to have colonies working together for a better cause created by the Massachusetts Bay Colony Rhode Island is not included The Southern Plantation Economy Plantation owners constantly want land Near the end of the 1600s, price of tobacco falls dramatically So the plantation owners continue to grow more tobacco/cash crops *more land needs more labor Indentured servants Contract usually ran for seven years Voyage would be paid for At the end of the contract, receive freedom dues Small piece of land Tools Animals Clothes Eventually the plantation owners stopped giving freedom dues Headright System [Virginia and Maryland] Gives to each plantation owner 50 acres of land for every indentured servant brought into the colony Hit the Appalachian Mountains pause and indentured servitude dies Need another source of labor end of the 1600s, indentured servitude dies out

10 o Market for jobs gets better in England o Royal African Company [1698] loses its monopoly on the sale of slaves o Bacon s Rebellion leads plantation owners to fear the small farmer Slavery [1670] slaves in Virginia [1750] slaves represent 50% of the population in Virginia The Middle Passage -the forced voyage of slaves from Africa to the Americas -7.5 million from Africa to Americas, to the 13 colonies -slaves were sold into slavery by the kings and princes of tribes Conditions Dark Dirty Overcrowded put 600 in a ship built for 300 Disease Smelly Death Suicide Humiliated not seen as people but as property 20%-50% would die during the voyage upon arrival, slaves were unloaded and sold at slave auctions -Charleston, SC -Newport, RI -New York City, NY -Philadelphia, PA Once sold, slaves were subject to slave codes -slaves were not allowed to marry -illegal to teach a slave to read or write -slaves had no legal rights -punished severely for any wrongdoing -slave owners took ownership of the children Worst place to be sold into slavery was SC-life expectancy the lowest Lonely Rice fields brought diseases Virginia and Maryland -expect a longer life span -slave population grows much best place to be sold as a slave were the Northern Colonies -work in the cities -learn a skill -earn money -possible to be able to buy their freedom 10 Slavery in the Colonies Resistance Everyday resistance Worked slowly Break tools Leave gates open

11 Try to run away (not easy) Occasional revolts [1712] NYC Nine white deaths, 21 executed [1739] the Stono Rebellion 20 slaves uprising deaths of 80 whites GA militia captures the 20 slaves Sets the heads of the executed on mileposts for warning 11 Colonial Social Structure 1. Aristocrats, Merchants, Planters, Lawyers, Officials, Clergymen, Professional men 2. Small farmers (largest group) 3. Manual workers hired hands, lesser tradesmen 4. Indentured servants, jailbirds 5. Slaves Life in the Colonies Family life Mother (Woman) Most important person in the family Has children - average of children (about 3-4 die before adulthood) Raises children Cook Clean Sew, make clothes Help on the farm Father Work on the farm Work in shop Children Help out on the farm Male Learning trade from the father Help on the farm Female Help around the house Learn how to be a mother [1700] population [1775] population 2.5 million average age of a colonist is 16 *if live in the North, live about 10 years longer than South (average lifespan is 70) Education Only males were given formal education New England has a well set-up of formal education For every town with 50+ families, a school is required Southern Colonies taught at home by a tutor Education in the colonies was not reserved for only the elite Goal of School Learn to read (especially the Bible, be a better Christian) Learn to write

12 12 Colonial Colleges (only taught religion and languages eventually replaced with more modern classes) 1. Harvard [1636] 2. William and Mary [1693] 3. Yale 4. Princeton 5. University of Pennsylvania 6. Brown 7. Columbia 8. Rutgers [1766] 9. Dartmouth Journalism [1704] first successful colonial newspaper [1733] John Peter Zengor Case -writes criticisms of governor of NY -Governor of NY sues him for libel for writing about him in the news -court agrees to have Zengor not guilty for writing the truth -becomes the basis for freedom of press Art Colonies are very behind the rest of the world John Goddard designs desks John Smibert paints family portraits Science Benjamin Franklin The colonies greatest inventor, scientist, thinker, writer and good guy Some inventions Lightning rod Electrical battery Bifocals Odometer Stove Library Volunteer fire department Wrote Poor Richard s Almanac (second most popular in colonies, behind the Bible) Comes up with arithmetic puzzles (ex. Magic Square) Immigration in the Colonies Scots-Irish From Scotland Make up 7% of the colonies population by 1775 Spoke English Known as frontier people Settle from Pennsylvania to the Carolinas Germans Make up 6% of the colonies population by 1775 Tended to settle in Pennsylvania Kept to themselves and kept their own culture and language Inventions Conestoga Wagon -cloth tops

13 -big wheels Replace the musket with the more accurate rifle Improved the iron stove French Huguenots [1685] Edict of Nantes is repealed persecution of the Huguenots famous descendant is Paul Revere, the silversmith Africans Forced to immigrate to the colonies by % of in the Southern Colonies 13 Religion As population rises, importance of religion goes down Late 1600s, people begin to question accepted Christian ideas (ex. Calvinism) Result: Church creates the Half-Way Covenant Allows people to join church even if they have not officially converted Results in increased church membership but taints the purity of the church 1. Salem Witch Trials Salem, MA [1692] A group of girls begin to experience fits of rages The girls blame the rages on women who bewitched them Start a massive witch hunt 174 people are put on trial 19 women are executed (hung) 1 man is executed (pressed to death) 2 dogs are executed Governor Phips puts an end to the witch hunt after his wife is accused 2. The Great Awakening [1730s to the 1740s] A religious revival that sweeps across the nation Preach about: The emptiness of material goods Fury of divine wrath The need for repentance Preachers give very dramatic performances George Whitefield The Great Awakener Jonathan Edwards writes Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Gatherings of people By the mid-1740s the Great Awakening dies out Effects: -Stimulated the founding of more colonial colleges (Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth) -Revival that encompasses all of colonial society becomes the first shared colonial experience -Undermines the power of the older clergy -Makes religion more accessible to people

14 Church Membership of the colonial period [by 1775] 1. Congregationalists people out of Puritanism 2. Anglicans people Church of England 3. Presbyterians people similar to the Congregationalists 4. German churches people Found in Pennsylvania 5. Dutch-reformed people 6. Quakers people 7. Baptists 8. Roman Catholics people Maryland 9. Methodists 10. Jewish people 14 Ruling over the Colonies James I [ ] Does not like the colonies Hates tobacco Charles I [ ] Beheaded in 1649 Oliver Cromwell and the Protectorate [ ] Very strict Charles II is restored [ ] Decides to take a more hands-on approach to the colonies Tries to harness colonial trade [1675] Lords of Trade supposed to control colonial trade [1685] Charles II dies Indifferent to the colonies, allowing the colonies to grow independent from English rule James II [ ] (Charles II s brother and also the Duke of York) Continues to place restrictions on colonial trade -especially the North, who are growing very independent creates the Dominion of New England to combat the New England Confederation to enforce the Navigation Acts Navigation Acts [ ] Rooted in mercantilism a nation s power depends on its wealth Acquire gold and silver

15 15 Favorable balance of trade (exports up, imports low) Acquire colonies All ships trading in Europe must be built in England or the colonies 75% of crew had to be English or colonial All European nations wishing to trade with the colonies must first stop at England (taxed twice) England creates a list of enumerated articles (what colonies supposed to trade with England) Colonists, instead of heeding these laws smuggling (esp. NYC), bribes Dominion of England Led by Sir Edmund Andros Ends town meetings in MA, NJ, NY, RI, and CT Restrictions on schools, newspapers, courts Taxes without authority of colonial representative William and Mary/Glorious Revolution [ ] Relaxes the rules of the colonies Known as the period of salutary neglect Results: Control over the colonies is relaxed, but the English officials stay Colonists begin to resent the English officials Wars of North America England east coast, parts of Canada Spain Florida, Central America, Southwest North America France Canada, along the Mississippi River (pop only) (Russia) Native Americans are everywhere Thirteen Colonies east coast 1. King William s War [ ] French soldiers and Native American Allies attack frontier settlements in NY Colonial militia invades Canada and fails 2. Queen Anne s War [ ] Deerfield Massacre French and Native American allies attack Deerfield, MA Killed 50, captured 111 colonists 3. War of Jenkin s Ear/King George s War [ ] Caribbean French and Native Americans attack frontier settlements Colonial militia captures a French fort at Louisbourg At the mouth of St. Lawrence Bay At the end of the war, England gives Louisbourg back to the French Angers the colonies 4. The French and Indian War The French and Indian War Dispute between France, Virginians, Pennsylvania over the Ohio River Valley France begins building a line of forts throughout Ohio Valley [1752] VA sends 21-year-old surveyor, George Washington, to tell the French to leave French refuses

16 [1754] 150 VA militiamen head to Fort Duquesne, led by George Washington -marching to the fort, Washington encounters a small French fort and attacks it -Washington and the militia build Fort Necessity -French surround them after ten hours, Washington surrender [July 4, 1754] -returns to VA The French and Indian War soon merges into the Seven Years War -Great Britain -Colonies -Iroquois -some other Native American allies Vs. -France -Many Native American allies - (Spain) 16 [1755] British soldiers, led by General Edward Braddock and 950 VA militiamen led by George Washington, march to Fort Duquesne -Braddock plans on fighting European-style -On the way to the fort, French powers attack the troops taken by surprise -23 French deaths, 900 English deaths (including Braddock) -Washington rallies the British soldiers and the colonial militia and leads them to retreat emerges as a hero six times Washington was almost killed two horses shot from under him four bullets through his jacket A Torch lighted in the forests of America set all of Europe in conflagration. Voltaire [1754] The British called together a meeting of all colonies in Albany, NY Purpose: the renewed alliance with the Iroquois Benjamin Franklin draws political cartoon in the PA Gazette Join or Die snake Not advocating a revolution Need to join the colonies to survive The Albany Plan of Union Each colonial leader refused to sign the agreement failed But an important first step towards colonial unity [ ] British are badly beaten by the French despite the fact that the British outnumber the French 20:1 [1758] William Pitt becomes prime minister of Great Britain and takes over the war effort 1. Replaces the older generals 2. Gives the colonies money for raising troops 3. Turns the fighting over to the colonial militia Tide of the war changes to Britain -capture Fort Louisbourg (control over St. Lawrence River) -capture Fort Duquesne (renamed Fort Pitt) - [1759] General Wolfe and the British defeat General Montcolm and the French at the Battle of Quebec on the plains of Abraham just outside of Quebec Britain wins - [1760] Britain takes Montreal - [ ] Limited fighting between British and Spain -Spain loses Cuba and Florida Peace of Paris [1763] 1. France cedes all of Canada and land between the Mississippi and the Appalachians to Britain 2. France cedes land west of Mississippi to Spain 3. Britain keeps Florida 4. France keeps two islands off Newfoundland exclusively for fishing 5. Britain gives the sugar islands (West Indies) back to France 6. Cuba is given back to Spain

17 Significance of the French and Indian War 1. France is out of North America 2. Colonies no longer view the British as invincible 3. Colonial militia gains experience 4. George Washington emerges as a leader for all colonies 5. Colonies gain familiarity with each other Problem in the colonies: Travel Many places, roads are not existent or are not passable Roads were so bad that people would write out wills before going on long trips (ex. PA to NY) Stopped by taverns at night Become the center of political discussion 17 Road to the Revolution Colonial Situation [1763] Spanish and French menace is gone Colonies can move west More American than British subjects British Situation [1763] Have control over the largest empire of the world Largest debt in the world (140 million pounds worth) Believed in mercantilism George III [ ] comes to power As the French leave [1763] Tell Native Americans British are going to take over land and kill them Native Americans decide to do something about this led by Chief Pontiac Pontiac s Rebellion Native American Confederacy attacks, defeats 8 of 11 British forts in Ohio Valley Kill over colonists British are eventually able to put down this rebellion But this changes the development of the Ohio River Valley 1. Proclamation Line of 1763 Restrict colonial settling to east of the Appalachian Mountains Convinced the Ohio River Valley is not safe for settling Colonists are outraged They just fought the French and Indian War Settle the area anyway 2. Britain places British soldiers inside the colonies for protection of the settlers Sugar Act [1764] passed by George Grenville -replaces the Molasses Act 6 pence tax on sugar -now places a 3 pence tax on sugar -the colonists would bribe officials for one pence to smuggle the sugar into the colonies -colonists get outraged claim, no taxation without representation Stamp Act [1765] passed by George Grenville -tax on all paper products -colonists outraged boycott British products so successful that trade drops 13% in Britain Sons of Liberty are formed led by Samuel Adams Terrorize stamp tax agents Call a Stamp Act Congress

18 9 of 13 colonies meet in NY to discuss the Stamp Act [1766] Britain repeals the Stamp Act passes the Declaratory Act Britain can impose any taxes and laws that they desire Quartering Act [1765] Requires colonies to pay for provisions and build housing for British soldiers Townshend Acts [1767] Passed by Charles Townshend head of the British treasury Champagne Charlie 1. Taxes tea, lead, paint, glass 2. Enforces Navigation Acts Result: John Dickenson writes Letters of a Farmer in Pennsylvania Boycott British goods Riot against customs officials (esp. Boston, MA) MA sends a circular letter that urged colonies to stick together [1768] British imports to America drop 40% [1768] British soldiers are moved from the frontier to Boston strong guard customs officials property and custom officials -became a colonial pastime to taunt them -British soldiers are often profane and drunk -high unemployment British took jobs on the waterfront Work for less money than the colonists British are taking away jobs from the colonists The Boston Massacre [March 5, 1770] 5 colonists die including Crispus Attucks, a runaway, one of the first to die 10 British soldiers arrested and put on trial, including Captain Preston John Adams defends the soldiers Say they are acting in self defense Only two are accused guilty of manslaughter branded on hand Samuel Adams Comes up with the term Boston Massacre Revolutionary stirs up the crowd by propaganda Paul Revere Creates an engraving on the Boston Massacre eventually reproduced picture Uses propaganda that effectively arouses the colonists leads to outrage The image is reprinted throughout the colonies 18 Road to the Revolution [ ] After the Boston Massacre Tensions between the two sides die down Townshend Act is repealed [1772] Samuel Adams forms the Committee of Correspondence spreads propaganda very successful Tea Act [1773] The British East India company is bankrupt Parliament gives the company exclusive trading rights to tea in the colonies Colonists pay less for tea The company stays in business

19 Britain collects the taxes Smugglers lose out on financial gains calls this an outrage Claim the East India company has a monopoly on tea Colonies agree and refuse to accept any tea from the company The tea sits in colonial harbors for days Boston Tea Party [December 16, 1773] Colonists of Boston dress up as Mohawk Indians and board the ships Dumped 342 chests of tea in Boston Harbor worth $ Organized by the Sons of Liberty and Samuel Adams Very orderly, very quiet Tea party in Princeton burn chests of tea and an effigy of the MA governor Tea party in Annapolis, MD ship is also destroyed Britain is not pleased Britain s Response Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts (by the colonists) 1. Boston Port Act closes the Boston port 2. Administration of Justice Act send British officials who have committed a crime are sent to Britain for the trial 3. Massachusetts Governor act ends the MA legislative 4. Quartering Act if do not provide shelter, British soldiers will reside in colonial homes 5. Quebec Act extends the Canadian border to the Ohio River gives protection to Catholics Outrage VA, NY, MA, and PA wanted it for farmland [September 5, 1774] first meeting of the Continental Congress meet at Philadelphia at Carpenter s Hall 12 of the 13 colonies send delegates (except GA) 56 delegates Radicals Samuel Adams John Adams Patrick Henry Conservative John Jay (NY) John Dickenson George Washington (very conservative) Actions: Create the Declaration of Rights and Grievances by John Adams Outlines the colonies problem with British rule Create a Non-Importation Association Calls for a boycott of British goods more enforced [October 6, 1774] if things do not work out meet again May 1775 Lexington and Concord Concord, MA (minutemen) MA militia begun preparing for war store weapons British decide to destroy the weapons arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock [April 1775] British decide to march to Concord Paul Revere s Ride With William Dowes and Samuel Prescott Went to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock that the British are coming to arrest them Paul Revere is arrested during the ride The ride is silent stop by while telling colonists about the British 19

20 20 [April 1775] When the British get from Boston to Lexington 70 minutemen standing in the field at Lexington When told to move by the 700 British soldiers, a shot was heard The Shot heard Round the World 7 minutemen killed, 8 injured When British get from Lexington to Concord The larger force of minutemen push the British back at the North Bridge British begin to march back to Boston On their retreat colonists hear of the Lexington skirmish - swarm the retreating British guerilla warfare British soldiers are killed, wounded, or missing [May 10, 1775] meeting of the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia all 13 colonies show up Accomplishments 1. name George Washington as head of the Continental Army 2. Create privateers American pirates Fort Ticonderoga Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen capture the British fort of Ticonderoga Acquire more weapons Battle of Bunker Hill [June 1775] British controls Boston MA militia capture and fortify Breed s Hill British soldiers led by General Howe decide to attack the hill on the 3 rd try, capture the hill Americans had too little ammunition Significance 1000 British soldiers killed 1/8 of all British soldiers who die in the war die in Bunker Hill [June 1775] Continental Congress sends King George III the Olive Branch Petition -asks king to stop fighting -asks king to work out differences King doesn t even read it -goes to Prussia and hires Prussian soldiers Hessians -Britain needs soldiers, Prussia needs money Colonies decide to invade Canada want to make it the 14 th colony Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold are sent to attack Quebec By the time Arnold gets there, he is tired and weakened The attack fails miserably [October 17, 1775] the British burn the town of Falmouth in Maine [January 1776] British burn Norfolk, VA Thomas Paine writes a pamphlet Common Sense -outlines why the colonies should break away from Britain -uses simple, easy-to-understand arguments -one out of every five colonists reads or has read to them - Common Sense becomes the Declaration of Independence for the Common Man -leads to discussion throughout the colonies [March 1776] George Washington and MA troops defeat the British at Dorchester Heights and force the British to flee [June 1776] Richard Henry Lee of VA

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