2. Identify and describe each of the three levels of Colonial America:

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1 Life in Colonial America Chapter 4 p Colonial Society: Define the terms gentry and indentured servant Read pages in the textbook and the information sheets Answer questions #1-2 below and complete the importance for each vocab term. 1. How were social classes in America different than in England? In Europe a person s social status was determined by birth but in the colonies they had a better chance to improve their status and even own land (in Europe land was owned by a small number of wealthy individuals) 2. Identify and describe each of the three levels of Colonial America: Gentry Smallest in number but held the most power Owed large areas of land or prosperous businesses Held public office Plantation owners, royal officials, merchants, ministers, goldsmiths Middle Class Largest number of people in colonial society. Owned land which gave them the power to vote some even held public office Small farmers and artisans (shoemakers, smiths, cabinet makers) Poor Whites/ Indentured Servants / Free African Americans These people help very few rights if any They were landless and therefore couldn t vote Most of them were servants or worked for the gentry or middle class

2 Family Life: Define the terms domestic and apprentice Read pages in the textbook Answer questions #3-5 below and complete the importance for each vocab term. 3. What role did men take on within their family? They controlled the family's income and property viewed as the authority figure. They represented their family as a voter and as office holders. They had a large role in public life. They did most of the hard outside labor or worked on a daily basis. 4. What types of responsibilities or expectations did women have in their family? They were expected to marry men chosen by their parents for property, religion, and family interests. When a woman married, all her money and property became her husbands. Women were expected to be their husbands 'faithful helpers'. They had domestic responsibilities (cooked, did laundry, spun yarn, made clothing, etc.) and had virtually no role in public life. 5. By the age of 7, what were some expectations that children had? They started to work when they seven years old, with household or farm chores. Boys learned to work the fields and girls learned to run a household. Some boys learning trades became apprentices. Children played with toys (cornhusk dolls, toy soldiers, etc.) and played games (marbles, hopscotch, leapfrog, jump rope, etc.)

3 Slavery & Triangular Trade: Define the terms Middle Passage and slave code Read pages in the textbook Answer questions #6-8 below and complete the importance for each vocab term. 6. Triangular Trade occurred between what three locations? The American colonies, Africa and the West Indies 7. What goods were exchanged between each leg? A. Ships left from New England carrying fish, lumber, and other goods to the Caribbean Islands, or the West Indies. Traders bought sugar & molasses, which they took back to New England in order to make rum. B. Ships sailed from New England to West Africa with rum, guns, and other goods. Merchants then traded these goods for enslaved Africans. C. Ships carried the enslaved Africans to the West Indies where they were sold. With the profits from selling enslaved Africans traders bought molasses. 8. How were slaves treated in Colonial America? Provide at least TWO examples to support your answer. They were sold off and treated as though they were property owners were not held accountable for their treatment of slaves. They were enslaved for life (unlike slavery in previous times) a child born a slave most often died a slave. Many English colonists believed they were a superior race to Africans which led to racism and poor treatment of African Americans. They had strict laws/rules (slave codes) that restricted their daily lives: o Couldn t meet in large numbers o Couldn t own weapons o Couldn t be out at night or leave a plantation without permission

4 Education: Define the terms public school and dame school Read pages in the textbook Answer questions #9-11 below and complete the importance for each vocab term. 9. Why did Puritans see education as important and what did they create related to public schools? Puritans expected everyone to read the Bible so therefore reading and writing were taught. They passed laws that required communities establish a public school. 10. Describe colonial education: Schools were one-room schoolhouses with one teacher Mostly only boys attended from age 6 through 14 Religion was an important part of education Taught reading, writing, and math Schools were run/supported with both public and private money Some children received little or no formal education education was not mandatory Teacher could punish students for misbehavior (sit in corner, use of whispering stick, beatings/spanking) Rules were very strict stressed respect and obedience

5 Benjamin Franklin: 11. What were TWO inventions that Franklin created? Describe each one. a. bifocals he was tired of switching between glasses for near sightedness and far sightedness b. swim fins fins worn on the hands to increase the speed of swimmers c. Franklin Stove a cast iron stove located in the center of a room that would give off heat but keep smoke out. d. odometer used to measure distances and establish more efficient postal routes e. lightning rod based on his knowledge of electricity. It could be attached to the top of the building to channel the electricity to the ground and not the house itself. 12. What was ONE public institution/service created by Franklin? Public library a place where people could come and read books for free since many people couldn t afford to buy books Fire department fire was a common threat to people in Philadelphia to he created it to help prevent fires. 13. What was ONE publication started by Franklin? Poor Richards Almanac contained weather reports, recipes, and other predictions. Pennsylvania Gazette one of the most popular newspapers in the colonies which printed the first political cartoon. 14. What is ONE famous quote/saying of Franklin? Three may keep a secret, if two of them are dead God helps them that help themselves. Fish and visitors stink after three days. Well done is better than well said He that hath a Trade, hath an Estate An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

6 Enlightenment: Define the terms natural rights and divine rights Read pages in the textbook Answer questions and complete the importance for each vocab term. 15. What was the Enlightenment? It was an intellectual movement where some people believed that all problems could be solved with human reasoning. Great thinkers developed many new ideas in the areas of politics/government, society and economics. 16. John Locke argued that people have certain natural rights that they are born with. These rights cannot be taken away and include the right to life, liberty, and property. This differed from the idea of divine right, where the power was given to the monarch (king/queen) from God. The monarch then decides what rights to give to the people. 17. What is the purpose of separation of powers? It protects the rights of the people because it prevents one person or group from gaining too much power. 18. How many branches did Montesquieu suggest a government should have? three What are they? A. legislative branch make the laws B. executive branch enforce the laws C. judicial branch make judgments based on the laws

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