1. Which method did early Eastern Woodland Native Americans use to provide food for themselves?

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1 1. Which method did early Eastern Woodland Native Americans use to provide food for themselves? A. a stationary farming system B. a raid and burn system C. a hunting and gathering system D. a crop and field rotation system 2. Which crop was the most important part of a Native American diet? A. nuts B. tobacco C. squash D. corn 3. The Catawba tribe live near which region? A. W B. Z C. Y D. X

2 5. The Cherokee worked with what European power to try and prevent settlers from taking over traditional tribal lands? A. Netherlands B. Spain C. England D. France 6. Known as the river people lived near the rivers of the Piedmont known for their pottery Which Native American tribe is referred to by the list? A. Yemassee B. Cherokee C. Catawba D. Wateree 7. Living near water was a benefit for the Eastern Woodland Native Americans because A. water is a quick mode of transportation. B. it served as a natural boundary between tribes. C. it provided resources for religious rituals. D. it could be used as a guide when traveling. 8. lasted from 1715 to 1717 included an alliance of almost all the tribes living in South Carolina resulted in almost the total destruction of the Yemassee tribe

3 Which conflict is the list discussing? A. Tuscarora War B. Bacon's Rebellion C. Powhatan Rebellion D. Yamasee War 9. Due to cultural beliefs, the Eastern Woodland tribes changed the land's features by A. building their houses and villages. B. cutting down trees to clear farming land. C. building burial mounds for the dead. D. creating battlefields for war. 10. originally from Spanish Florida lived along the southern coast spoke the Muskhogean language Which Native American tribe is referred to by the list? A. Catawba B. Cherokee C. Yemassee D. Shawnee Answers 1. C 2. D 3. D 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. D 9. C 10. C

4 Explanations 1. Early Eastern Woodland tribes began by hunting and gathering their food. As time progressed, the tribes began to farm, which allowed tribes to live in permanent settlements. 2. Corn was the main crop of the Native Americans in South Carolina, especially the Catawba. Corn was eaten either by itself or mixed with other items to make hominy. 3. The Catawba tribe lived in the Piedmont region near the border with North Carolina. Rock Hill has been acknowledged as part of the Catawba's traditional lands. 5. Due to the movement of English settlers west and conflicts between settlers and the tribes, the Cherokee and the British tried to work together to prevent problems. In 1763, the British king passed The Royal Proclamation of 1763, which made it illegal for English settlers to move west of the Appalachian mountains. This was an attempt to prevent further conflict between the two groups. 6. The Catawba people, especially women were well known for the pottery that they created. Some legends even believed that the only way to cook specific dishes was in Catawba pottery pots. 7. For the Eastern Woodlands Native Americans travel was essential. During war or hunting expeditions, a tribe benefited greatly by having the ability to travel quickly. Usually, a tribe would use canoes to travel the river. 8. The Yemassee War was a conflict in South Carolina between settlers and many of the native tribes. Fearing enslavement, the Yemassee tribe started fighting back against settlers. The Yemassee War was crucial to early colonial structures because it changed relations between settlers and Native Americans. Many of the tribes then would come together, either as confederations or being included in larger tribes. 9. A common cultural practice among the Eastern Woodland tribes was to build huge mounds over their buried dead. These mounds forever changed the land's features, even in this present day. 10. The Yemassee tribe were originally from the area near the border of South Carolina and Georgia. After years of conflicts with the British, including the Yemassee War ( ), the Yemassee moved further south into Georgia and joined the larger Seminole tribes. 1. Spanish start a settlement in South Carolina. Which of the following best explains why the settlement did not last? A. The fort was attacked by Native Americans. B. All of the settlers starved to death.

5 C. All of the settlers died from disease. D. The fort was attacked by the French. 2. In 1566, the Spanish built Fort San Felipe. Which of the following best describes where the fort was located? A. It was on along the Congaree River, near where Columbia is today. B. It was in the same place where the French had built Charlesfort. C. It was in the same place where the settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape had been. D. It was in the location which later became the city of Charleston. 3. The Grand Council served as the first government within the Carolina colony. Which of the following is true of the Grand Council? A. It was the first colonial government to give women the right to vote. B. It was controlled directly by the proprietors. C. It was entirely made up of elected representatives. D. It controlled all branches of the government. 4. Albemarle Point along the Ashley River in South Carolina is an important location because A. it is where the English built their first settlement in South Carolina. B. it is where the English and the Native Americans signed their first treaty. C. it is where the first capital of South Carolina was located. D. it is where the English defeated the Spanish and gained control of South Carolina. 5. The French Huguenots were one of the ethnic groups that settled in South Carolina in the late 1600s. Which of the following best describes why they came there? A. They wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity. B. They wanted to trade with the other European colonists in the region. C. They wanted to live in a place where they could have slaves. D. They wanted to live in a place where they could freely practice their religion.

6 6. The use of the plantation system was an important factor in making South Carolina one of the wealthiest colonies in the British Empire. Which of the following contributed most to the success of the plantations? A. the use of indentured servants B. the use of wage laborers C. the use of slave labor D. the use of sharecroppers 7. Which of the following was one of the ways the natural environment of South Carolina had an impact on the development of the colony? A. The mountains of South Carolina made it very isolated from other colonies. B. The access to major rivers made trade with the inland areas of North America possible. C. The warm climate made it a good place to grow crops like rice and indigo. D. There were plentiful supplies of gold and silver which made it an excellent place for mining. 8. San Miguel de Gualdape, a Spanish settlement near the Waccamaw River, was built in Which present-day city is nearest to where this settlement was located? A. Charleston B. Rock Hill C. Columbia D. Georgetown 9. Which of the following best describes the colonial population of South Carolina? A. The population was equally divided between English and French settlers. B. The majority of people who lived in South Carolina were of Spanish descent. C. It was made up of people from many different European ethnic groups and African slaves. D. Only people who were from England were allowed to settle in South Carolina. 10. The Lords Proprietors were in charge of the government of South Carolina when it began as an English colony in In 1719, the people of South Carolina revolted against the proprietors because

7 A. they no longer wanted to be ruled by the British. B. they felt the proprietors were not loyal to the British monarch. C. they thought the proprietors were too involved with local issues. D. they felt the proprietors had not been effectively ruling the colony. Answers 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. A Explanations 1. In 1576, Native Americans attacked Fort San Felipe. Shortly after the attack, the settlers left the fort and went to the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine in Florida. 2. The Spanish built Fort San Felipe on Parris Island, the same location where the French had built Charlesfort in The Spanish inhabited the fort from 1566 until One year later, the Spanish returned to Parris Island and built Fort San Marcos. This settlement lasted until In all, there were three failed attempts by the French and the Spanish to settle Parris Island. 3. The Grand Council controlled all branches of government in the colony. This meant that it was in charge of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. 4. Albemarle Point was the original location of Charleston, the first English settlement in South Carolina. The settlement lasted for about ten years, and then was moved to its current location. 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. D 9. C 10. D 5. The French Huguenots were Protestants. They did not agree with many of the beliefs of the Catholic Church, which was the main religion in France. Some Huguenots came to South Carolina so that they could freely practice their religion. 6. The use of slave labor in South Carolina led to the profitability of the rice and indigo plantations. Slavery had been a part of the South Carolina from the very beginning. As the plantation economy grew, more slaves were brought from Africa to work in the fields. Because slaves were a cheap source of labor, they helped the plantation owners to become quite wealthy. 7. The climate of South Carolina was very favorable to growing crops like indigo and rice. Also, the Coastal Plain was a good place to grow crops. Separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the ten-mile Coastal Zone, the Coastal Plain is a large, flat area that is quite fertile. 8. The location of the Spanish settlement San Miguel de Gualdape was near the city of Georgetown. San Miguel de Gualdape was built in 1526, but it was abandoned in This was one of several failed attempts by

8 Europeans to build a settlement in South Carolina. 9. The population of colonial South Carolina was quite diverse. While people of English descent made up the largest ethnic group in South Carolina, there were many other groups of Europeans including people who were French, Scottish, German, Irish, Jewish, and Welsh. African slaves also made up a large portion of the population. 10. The colonists of Carolina were not pleased with the way the proprietors had been running the colony. The colonists thought the proprietors lived too far away from the colony and were not providing essentials to the colony. Another issue was that the proprietors wanted all of the laws of England to be followed in South Carolina. The colonists thought that only laws approved by the Carolina Assembly should be followed in the colony. The colonists also felt the proprietors were not providing adequate protection from attacks from the Spanish and from Native Americans. 1. In 1738, the Spanish passed a law promising freedom to slaves who went to A. San Antonio, Texas. B. New Orleans, Louisiana. C. Jamestown, Virginia. D. St. Augustine, Florida. 2. Many European American colonists accepted slavery as necessary because they falsely believed A. B. small farm planters could not make a large profit. the wealthy had to have someone work for them. C. D. there was not enough money to pay field workers. the economy could not survive without slaves. 3. What was the 1739 event where slaves near Charleston robbed a store for weapons and began to march toward Savannah? 4. A. the Stono Rebellion B. the 1739 Slave Mutiny C. the Perkin's Uprising D. the Charleston Revolt What was one effect of slavery on African American culture? After only one year, cultural values A. were lost. B. C. D. Owners encouraged the practice of African culture. Many forgot their native cultural traditions. Few slaves lived long enough to pass on their traditions. 5. Most of the original slaves in South Carolina were brought from which area? A. Barbados B. England

9 C. Africa D. Brazil 6. Plantation owners believed that slaves were property and the Constitution protected private property. Therefore, they did not believe that the central government A. B. could tell people where to buy property. had the right to declare war against the South. C. had the right to take away their slaves. D. could say how many workers they could hire. 7. The African American slave population soon outnumbered their European American owners, causing many to fear rebellion. Due to this fear, the population imbalance led to A. rules against befriending slaves. B. a decision to outlaw slavery. C. harsh punishments for slaves. D. laws restricting slaves' freedom. A. Quakers B. Gullah C. Scotch-Irish D. Cherokee 9. By the Revolutionary War, African Americans made up about one-fifth of the colonial population. In South Carolina the population of slaves 10. A. B. C. D. decreased, due to harsh treatment from owners. increased, then quickly declined due to sickness. stayed about the same, due to high death rates. increased, making slaves the majority in some areas. set penalty for cruel owners slaves could not earn money made it illegal to teach slaves to read and write 8. Their language is a mixture of Jamaican Creole, Bahamian Dialect, and Krio. They live in South Carolina and Georgia. They are known for storytelling, folk beliefs, music, and crafts. Which cultural group is described by the list above? The above examples are rules included in what law, passed in 1740, that determined standards about slaves and their owners? A. the Stono Decree B. the Carolinian Acts C. the Slave Code. D. the Carolina Rule Answers

10 1. D 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. B 9. D 10. C Explanations 1. In 1738, the Spanish passed a law stating that any slave that reached the Spanish city of St. Augustine, Florida, would be granted freedom. At this time, Florida was a Spanish colony. Because of this law, a group of slaves started a rebellion and attempted to escape from South Carolina. 2. Many colonists justified slavery claiming that the new American economy could not survive without slavery. This belief allowed people to look the other way or ignore the cruelty of slavery. 3. The Stono Rebellion began on September 9, 1739, when a group of slaves broke into a store and stole weapons and supplies. The group then began marching to Savannah. Along the way, the group was stopped by the South Carolina militia. By the end of the rebellion, several plantations were burned and over sixty total white Carolinians and slaves were dead. 4. Slave owners were very controlling. Most slaves were forbidden from practicing their native culture and traditions. Some were forced to convert religions. Few African American groups retained their original cultural beliefs. 5. Southern planters from Barbados brought the first slaves to South Carolina. Later, slaves were brought to South Carolina directly from Africa. 6. This was the South's main argument in favor of slavery. The Constitution clearly protected people's property, and Southerners thought of slaves as property. This issue of whether slaves were "property" was argued about by politicians from the Founding Fathers to the Civil War. 7. The population imbalance brought fear, causing planters and politicians to enforce laws restricting slaves' freedoms. There were few large-scale slave rebellions because owners kept their slaves isolated from others. 8. The Gullah are an African American cultural group. They are the descendants of slaves who were brought from Africa to South Carolina and Georgia. Over the past two centuries, the Gullah people have held tightly to their background and are known for preserving their original language and culture. 9. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, African American became the majority of the population in some areas of South Carolina. Many whites began to fear that the large slave population would unite and turn against their owners.

11 10. The Slave Code of South Carolina was passed in Its purpose was to establish standards for the treatment of slaves and rules for their owners. Politicians hoped the new codes would help avoid future rebellions. 1. Their language is a mixture of Jamaican Creole, Bahamian Dialect, and Krio. They live in South Carolina and Georgia. They are known for storytelling, folk beliefs, music, and crafts. Which cultural group is described by the list above? A. Scotch-Irish B. Quakers C. Cherokee D. Gullah 2. What was the 1739 event where slaves near Charleston robbed a store for weapons and began to march toward Savannah? A. the Charleston Revolt B. the 1739 Slave Mutiny C. the Perkin's Uprising D. the Stono Rebellion 3. Many European American colonists accepted slavery as necessary because they falsely believed A. small farm planters could not make a large profit. B. the economy could not survive without slaves. C. the wealthy had to have someone work for them. D. there was not enough money to pay field workers. 4. Most of the original slaves in South Carolina were brought from which area? A. Africa

12 B. Brazil C. Barbados D. England 5. set penalty for cruel owners slaves could not earn money made it illegal to teach slaves to read and write The above examples are rules included in what law, passed in 1740, that determined standards about slaves and their owners? A. the Carolina Rule B. the Slave Code. C. the Stono Decree D. the Carolinian Acts 6. By the Revolutionary War, African Americans made up about one-fifth of the colonial population. In South Carolina the population of slaves A. stayed about the same, due to high death rates. B. decreased, due to harsh treatment from owners. C. increased, then quickly declined due to sickness. D. increased, making slaves the majority in some areas. 7. Plantation owners believed that slaves were property and the Constitution protected private property. Therefore, they did not believe that the central government A. could say how many workers they could hire. B. had the right to declare war against the South. C. had the right to take away their slaves. D. could tell people where to buy property.

13 8. The African American slave population soon outnumbered their European American owners, causing many to fear rebellion. Due to this fear, the population imbalance led to A. harsh punishments for slaves. B. laws restricting slaves' freedom. C. rules against befriending slaves. D. a decision to outlaw slavery. 9. What was one effect of slavery on African American culture? A. Many forgot their native cultural traditions. B. Owners encouraged the practice of African culture. C. After only one year, cultural values were lost. D. Few slaves lived long enough to pass on their traditions. 10. In 1738, the Spanish passed a law promising freedom to slaves who went to A. Jamestown, Virginia. B. St. Augustine, Florida. C. New Orleans, Louisiana. D. San Antonio, Texas. Answers 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. D 7. C 8. B 9. A 10. B

14 Explanations 1. The Gullah are an African American cultural group. They are the descendants of slaves who were brought from Africa to South Carolina and Georgia. Over the past two centuries, the Gullah people have held tightly to their background and are known for preserving their original language and culture. 2. The Stono Rebellion began on September 9, 1739, when a group of slaves broke into a store and stole weapons and supplies. The group then began marching to Savannah. Along the way, the group was stopped by the South Carolina militia. By the end of the rebellion, several plantations were burned and over sixty total white Carolinians and slaves were dead. 3. Many colonists justified slavery claiming that the new American economy could not survive without slavery. This belief allowed people to look the other way or ignore the cruelty of slavery. 4. Southern planters from Barbados brought the first slaves to South Carolina. Later, slaves were brought to South Carolina directly from Africa. 5. The Slave Code of South Carolina was passed in Its purpose was to establish standards for the treatment of slaves and rules for their owners. Politicians hoped the new codes would help avoid future rebellions. 6. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, African American became the majority of the population in some areas of South Carolina. Many whites began to fear that the large slave population would unite and turn against their owners. 7. This was the South's main argument in favor of slavery. The Constitution clearly protected people's property, and Southerners thought of slaves as property. This issue of whether slaves were "property" was argued about by politicians from the Founding Fathers to the Civil War. 8. The population imbalance brought fear, causing planters and politicians to enforce laws restricting slaves' freedoms. There were few large-scale slave rebellions because owners kept their slaves isolated from others. 9. Slave owners were very controlling. Most slaves were forbidden from practicing their native culture and traditions. Some were forced to convert religions. Few African American groups retained their original cultural beliefs. 10. In 1738, the Spanish passed a law stating that any slave that reached the Spanish city of St. Augustine, Florida, would be granted freedom. At this time, Florida was a Spanish colony. Because of this law, a group of slaves started a rebellion and attempted to escape from South Carolina.

15 1. Which of the following groups made up the largest part of the population in South Carolina in the late 1700s? A. Puritans B. Huguenots C. Africans D. Barbadians 2. Indigo did not become a staple crop for South Carolina planters until after 1756 when war broke out and the British were cut off from indigo supplies in the West Indies. Which war was this? A. Revolutionary War B. French and Indian War C. Civil War D. Yemassee War 3. Trade was very important to colonial South Carolina. They traded with England and with other English colonies, like Barbados. Which of the following items was South Carolina able to get from trading with Barbados? A. molasses and sugar B. rice and lumber C. fish and furs D. tar and pitch 4. After the French and Indian War, the British made it illegal for settlers to move west of the Appalachian Mountains by passing which of the following? A. Townshend Acts of 1776 B. Treaty of Paris of 1783 C. Intolerable Acts of 1774 D. Royal Proclamation of The Lord Proprietors gave up their rule of Carolina, allowing North and South Carolina to become crown colonies, after which event?

16 A. Yemassee War B. French and Indian War C. American Revolution D. Seven Years War 6. The importation of African slaves led to the success of which crop? A. sugar B. corn C. potatoes D. rice 7. Eliza Lucas Pinckney was responsible for increasing the cultivation of which of the following crops? A. corn B. cotton C. indigo D. rice 8. Which of the following natural resources in South Carolina was used to make pitch and tar for ships in the English Navy? A. coal B. silver C. trees D. oil 9. Rather than be under the rule of the Lords Proprietors, the colonists of South Carolina wanted to become which type of colony? A. a proprietary colony B. a religious colony C. a self-governing colony D. a royal colony

17 10. A proprietary colony is typically ruled by which of the following? A. the King of England directly B. spiritual or religious leaders C. one or more private landowners D. a company with a royal charter Answers 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. C 8. C 9. D 10. C Explanations 1. Slaves from Africa made up a good deal of the population of South Carolina by the late 1700s. At first, some of these slaves were from places in the West Indies, but African slaves were cheaper so people began importing more of them. By the late 1700s, there were twice as many Africans as whites living in South Carolina. 2. The French and Indian War made indigo a staple crop for South Carolina because Great Britain was blocked from its regular indigo supplies found in the French West Indies. A staple crop is one that people can grow and easily make money from on a regular basis. Rice was the biggest staple crop for South Carolina during the colonial period, but indigo became important during the 18th century. 3. Trade was important to many colonies. They traded with England and also with other colonies. Through trade with Barbados, colonial South Carolina was able to get molasses and sugar. In exchange, Barbados was able to get rice and lumber from South Carolina. 4. Following the French and Indian War, the British gained all the land west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi River. In order to protect this land for Native Americans, the British made it illegal for settlers to move west of the Appalachian Mountains with the Royal Proclamation of Following the Yemassee War of , the people of people of South Carolina began pressuring the Lords Proprietors to give up control. By 1720, the move towards ending proprietary rule was in full swing. Finally, in 1729, North and South Carolina officially became crown colonies.

18 6. Rice was an important crop the colonial South Carolina. Though it was discovered almost by accident, the crop grew very well in the climate. Slaves imported from Africa also had knowledge of rice planting and it was through this knowledge that the crop flourished. 7. Eliza Lucas Pinckney is well known for her work in botany (the study of plants) and specifically for cultivating better strains of indigo. Indigo is a plant which can be used to create a blue dye. In the years only 5,000 pounds of indigo were exported from Charleston, South Carolina. Because of Pinckney's efforts, exports of indigo from South Carolina increased to about 130,000 pounds a year by Trees, specifically pine trees, were found in many parts of South Carolina and were used to make pitch and tar. These items are known as "naval stores" and are used to make ships waterproof. 9. The colony of South Carolina changed from a proprietary colony to a royal colony in Even in the early history of colonial South Carolina, the colonists were unhappy being under the rule of the Lords Proprietors. The Lords Proprietors never lived in the colony, and colonists believed they were too far away to govern effectively. 10. South Carolina was an example of a proprietary colony. In a proprietary colony, authority was generally in hands of one of more private landowners. This differs from colonies which were started by a company charter. Virginia, for example, was started by the Virginia Company of London. 1. Which American colonist was the lawyer who defended the soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre? A. John Adams B. James Madison C. Thomas Jefferson D. James Monroe 2. The Intolerable Acts was an American term for the laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 in response to which of the following events? A. Declaration of Independence B. Thomas Paine's Common Sense C. Boston Tea Party D. Boston Massacre 3. The Proclamation of 1763 was established following which of these wars?

19 A. War of 1812 B. Revolutionary War C. Spanish-American War D. French and Indian War 4. Colonel George Washington led a militia force into the Ohio Valley in What was the name of the fort that Washington built as a stockade and was the site of the first battle of the French and Indian War? A. Fort Washington B. Fort Necessity C. Fort Baltimore D. Fort McHenry 5. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on September 5, In an attempt to get the best representation of a united colony, how did the Congress allocate votes between the colonies? A. Each of the colonies got two votes. B. Each of the 13 colonies got one vote. C. The number of votes for each colony was based on its population. D. The Congress had no authority; therefore, there were no votes necessary. 6. Boston Port Act Administration of Justice Act Massachusetts Government Act Quartering Act What do the above four items have in common? A. The colonists gained trading privileges from them. B. The colonists called them the Intolerable Acts. C. The colonists called them the Bill of Rights. D. The colonists wrote them during the American Revolution.

20 7. Edward Rutledge Arthur Middleton Thomas Lynch, Jr. Thomas Heyward, Jr. Which of the following best describes the role that the four South Carolinians in the box above played in the American Revolution? A. They organized boycotts of British goods. B. They were all Loyalists who supported the British. C. They all signed the Declaration of Independence. D. They were generals in the Continental Army. 8. Which of the following was the main reason that American colonists opposed the Stamp Act of 1765? A. The tax was not imposed on the wealthy. B. The act was passed by the king, not Parliament. C. The tax was a large amount of money. D. The act was taxation without representation. 9. Following the Treaty of Paris in 1763, what event left the vast interior of the continent open for Americans to colonize? A. France being removed from North America B. King George III allowing settlers to move west of the Appalachian Mountains C. The Proclamation of 1763 D. The Townshend Acts 10. The Proclamation of 1763 was established to prevent any settlers from moving of the Appalachian Mountains. A. west B. south

21 C. east D. north Answers 1. A 2. C 3. D 4. B 5. B 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. A Explanations 1. John Adams defended the soldiers at their trials (Oct and Nov. 27-Dec. 5, 1770). Four of the men were acquitted, while two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and released after being branded on the hand. 2. The Intolerable Acts was the name given to four laws passed by the British Parliament in March 1774 to punish the colony of Massachusetts for defying British policies. Resentment of these acts led to the outbreak of the American Revolution ( ). 3. The goal of the proclamation was to establish Britain's North American empire following the war and to stabilize relations with the Native Americans. 4. In the summer of 1754 the governor of Virginia sent a militia force (under Colonel George Washington) into the Ohio valley to challenge French expansion. Washington built a crude stockade, called Fort Necessity, and staged an unsuccessful attack on a French detachment. This clash marked the beginning of the French and Indian War, which lasted nearly nine years. 5. To provide unity, delegates gave one vote to each state regardless of its size. They met in secret because they did not want the British to know that the colonies were uniting. 6. The Intolerable Acts was an American label for the laws sponsored by Lord North's ministry and enacted by the British Parliament in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party. 7. Edward Rutledge, Arthur Middleton, Thomas Lynch, Jr., and Thomas Heyward, Jr. were the four delegates from South Carolina to the Second Continental Congress who signed the Declaration of Independence. They, along with delegates from the other colonies, voted to be independent of Great Britain on July 2, Parliament passed the Stamp Act as a way of raising money in the American colonies. One of the reasons the colonists protested this act was because America did not have any way of voting in British Parliament.

22 9. The British sent 10,000 troops to America to enforce the proclamation. This proclamation further angered the colonists against the British, and many colonists ignored the proclamation and continued to move west. 10. The British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prevented any more white settlers moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. Stamp Act as a way of raising money in the American colonies. One of the reasons the colonists protested this act was because America did not have any way of voting in British Parliament. 9. The British sent 10,000 troops to America to enforce the proclamation. This proclamation further angered the colonists against the British, and many colonists ignored the proclamation and continued to move west. 10. The British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prevented any more white settlers moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. 1. Someone who fought for independence in the American Revolution is known as a A. Nationalist. B. Patriot. C. Loyalist. D. Tory. 2. The Battle of Cowpens was an important battle during the Revolutionary War because A. it forced Lord Cornwallis to flee South Carolina. B. it gave the British control of the southern colonies. C. it was the worst loss of the war for the Americans. D. it caused the British to abandon Boston Harbor. 3. Which of the following groups supported the British during the American Revolution because they thought the British would protect their lands? A. Immigrants B. African Americans C. Native Americans D. the French

23 4. Which of the following individuals was a founding member of the Sons of Liberty and helped organize the Boston Tea Party? A. Marquis de Lafayette B. John Adams C. Samuel Adams D. Thomas Jefferson 5. Why didn't the Loyalists join the American Revolution? A. They lived too far away to fight. B. They were opposed to violence. C. They wanted their own government. D. They were satisfied with British rule. 6. Which of the following was the final major battle of the Revolutionary War? A. Battle of Baltimore B. Battle of Lexington C. Battle of Bunker Hill D. Battle of Yorktown 7. Who is credited with drafting the Declaration of Independence? A. Thomas Jefferson B. John Adams C. Benjamin Franklin D. John Hancock 8. Who drove Washington and his troops out of New Jersey, and was the British commander of the south? A. Sir Henry Clinton B. Benedict Arnold C. Lord Cornwallis D. Joseph Brant

24 9. Thomas Sumter Andrew Pickens Francis Marion These three Revolutionary leaders have what in common? A. They helped the Americans win the Battle of Charleston. B. They were killed by British Colonel Banastre Tarleton. C. They led small, surprise attacks on British troops. D. They helped write the Declaration of Independence. 10. What was the name of the militia captain who led the revolutionary forces in the Battle of Lexington? A. John Parker B. George Washington C. John Smith D. Paul Revere Answers 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. D 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. A Explanations 1. Someone who fought for independence in the Revolution was known as a Patriot. People who stayed loyal to the British were known as Loyalists or Tories.

25 2. The American victory at the Battle of Cowpens caused Lord Cornwallis to abandon South Carolina. This battle led directly to the victory at Yorktown where the fleeing Cornwallis was cornered by American troops. Cowpens has been called one of the turning points of the American Revolution. 3. Native Americans approached the Revolution with mixed feelings. Many were not sure which side to support. The British had, in the past, tried to protect Native American lands. For this reason, the British seemed to some Native Americans the lesser of the two evils. Other Native Americans supported the Patriots, while still others supported neither side. 4. Samuel Adams was a leader of the fight against British colonial rule, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and cousin of future president John Adams. He was one of the founders of the Sons of Liberty, he helped organize the Boston Tea Party, and he later served in the First Continental Congress. 5. Loyalists were people living in the colonies who were loyal to the British crown. They were opposed to declaring independence from Britain. They were mostly satisfied with living under the rule of King George III. 6. The Battle of Yorktown was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. American and French troops surrounded the British troops, and British General Charles Cornwallis surrendered his army on October 17, After the Battle of Yorktown, the British considered the American war lost, and they recognized American independence in The Second Continental Congress selected a committee of five to draft the Declaration of Independence: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman. The committee decided, however, that it would be best if Jefferson wrote the draft alone. The other four members made some small corrections to the draft before it was presented to Congress, but Jefferson wrote the majority of the document. 8. General Charles Cornwallis had experience from fighting in the Seven Years' War, the European conflict that took place during the French and Indian War. During the American Revolution, Cornwallis commanded British armies in several major operations, including the campaign to drive George Washington out of New Jersey. Cornwallis became commander of Britain's armies in the south, where he was unable to completely defeat General Nathanael Greene's American forces. The unsuccessful southern campaign resulted in Cornwallis moving his army to Yorktown, where it was surrounded and forced to surrender. 9. Thomas Sumter, Francis Marion, and Andrew Pickens were all known for leading small, surprise attacks on British troops. This type of warfare is also known as partisan or guerrilla warfare. These leaders knew that their forces could never win against the British Army in a direct attack. Instead, they would surprise the British in the country, forests, or other rugged terrain. 10. As British troops were on their way to Concord to capture military supplies that the colonists were holding there, fighting broke out at Lexington. About 70 colonial minutemen, led by

26 Captain John Parker, fought against about 700 British soldiers. During the fighting, eight minutemen were killed. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 allowed cotton to be produced more cheaply than it had before. As a result, South Carolina began growing more cotton in both the Lowcountry and the Upcountry during the early 19 th century. 1. As both regions began to grow cotton, how did this affect relations between the Upcountry and the Lowcountry? A. The Lowcountry became more willing to share political power with the Upcountry. B. The Lowcountry blamed the Upcountry for South Carolina's economic problems. C. The Upcountry's economy grew to be stronger than the Lowcountry's economy. D. The Upcountry and Lowcountry became economic enemies as they competed. 2. In 1786, the capital of South Carolina was moved from Charles Town to Columbia. Columbia was built closer to the center of the state, while Charles Town was located along the eastern coast. What was the main reason for South Carolina to move its state capital? A. It was a move to create profit for Lowcountry businesses. B. Charles Town was more likely to be attacked by the British. C. Columbia had more historic importance than Charles Town. D. It was a compromise to benefit the people in Upcountry. 3. Charles Pinckney Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Pierce Butler John Rutledge

27 The above box lists the South Carolinians who A. were delegates to the Philadelphia Convention. B. were authors of the South Carolina Constitution. C. were the first four state governors of South Carolina. D. were representatives sent to negotiate with Britain. 4. During the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention, the delegates from South Carolina argued for a strong national government. However, they wanted to limit the national government's power when that power would hurt South Carolina. For example, South Carolinians believed the government A. should not give many powers to the president. B. should not be able to place taxes on exports. C. should not expand slavery into new territories. D. should not be able to regulate interstate commerce. 5. Charles Pinckney participated in the Philadelphia Convention, which approved the United States Constitution. In which way did he contribute to the convention? A. He developed the Virginia Plan of government. B. He wrote an early draft of the Constitution. C. He openly spoke out against the Constitution. D. He negotiated the Three-fifths Compromise. 6. After the American Revolution, South Carolina's economy suffered in part because the state A. created laws against the use of slave labor. B. owed debts to the U.S. government. C. lost its trade benefits with Great Britain. D. had become dependent on a wartime economy. 7. Which of these is true about South Carolina's first constitution? A. It was meant to be temporary, until peace could be made with Britain.

28 B. It borrowed ideas and phrases from the United States Constitution. C. It was voted into effect by all the citizens of South Carolina. D. It condemned the actions that were taken by other American colonies. The chart below lists some differences between people who lived in the Upcountry and the Lowcountry of South Carolina. Upcountry Mostly Loyalist (loyal to Britain) during the Revolution Opposed a strong national government Had less representation in the General Assembly Lowcountry Mostly Patriot (wanted independence) during the Revolution Supported a strong national government Had more representation in the General Assembly 8. When the United States Constitution was being debated, what level of support did it have in South Carolina? A. It was supported by very few in South Carolina. B. It was supported by most of South Carolina. C. It was supported by the people in Lowcountry. D. It was supported by the people in Upcountry. 9. Despite their political differences, most people in the Lowcountry and the Upcountry agreed that the federal government A. should pass protective tariffs. B. should remain neutral in the war between France and England. C. should assume state debts from the Revolutionary War. D. should not create a national bank. 10. During the Philadelphia Convention, the delegates from South Carolina supported the ideas of the Virginia Plan over those of the New Jersey Plan. What was the reason for this? A. South Carolina had an industrial economy. B. South Carolina did not have many slaves.

29 C. South Carolina did not have much wealth. D. South Carolina had a large population. Answers 1. A 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. D Explanations 1. When the Lowcountry and the Upcountry began growing cotton, the two regions developed similar economies. This brought the people in the two regions closer together. By 1808, the Constitution of South Carolina was amended to share power between the people in Lowcountry and Upcountry. 2. Charles Town, located along the Atlantic coast, was the largest city in South Carolina and the location of the state's Lowcountry upper class. Poor farmers in the Upcountry were far from the capital, and they had a difficult time participating in government. In 1786, as part of a compromise to benefit the Upcountry, Columbia was built in the center of South Carolina. It is still the state's capital today. 3. Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Pierce Butler, and John Rutledge were the four delegates South Carolina sent to the Philadelphia Convention. They all felt that the United States needed a stronger government than the Articles of Confederation had given it, and they supported the new U.S. Constitution. 4. South Carolina's economy depended on exporting goods. Rice and indigo were important trade items grown in South Carolina, and cotton later became a major export. South Carolina was against giving the national government the power to tax these exports. 5. Charles Pinckney wrote an early draft to the U.S. Constitution. It is called the Pinckney Draught (draft). Some of the words and phrases that were used in the Pinckney Draught were also used in the final U.S. Constitution. 6. The economy of South Carolina suffered after the American Revolution, in both the Lowcountry and the Upcountry. One of the reasons for this, especially in the Lowcountry, was that South Carolina lost the trade benefits it had enjoyed as a British colony. Many Lowcountry planters also owed debts to creditors in Great Britain.

30 7. The first Constitution of South Carolina did not declare independence forever; it instead established a temporary government that would last "until an accommodation of the unhappy differences between Great Britain and America." South Carolina's first constitution claimed to "earnestly desire" peace with Britain. 8. South Carolinians in the Lowcountry supported the strong national government that the U.S. Constitution would create. South Carolinians in the Upcountry were often small farmers who did not trust giving too much power to a single government. 9. Most people in the Lowcountry supported the Federalists while most people in the Upcountry supported the Democratic-Republicans. However, the majority of South Carolina agreed that the federal government should assume state debts from the Revolutionary War. They believed this because much of the war had happened in South Carolina, causing the state to have a more debt. 10. At the Philadelphia Convention, the delegates from South Carolina supported the Virginia Plan. The Virginia Plan gave more representation to states that had large populations and paid more in taxes, and South Carolina was a wealthy state with a large population. They did not support the New Jersey Plan, which gave equal representation to large and small states. 1. The Preamble includes the phrase "to form a more perfect union." Why is this reason listed for creating a new Constitution? A. Some states wanted British rule. B. The Articles of Confederation did not work. C. Plans were made to expand to the Pacific Ocean. D. The British had provided economic support. 2. Why was it important that the Constitution gave the federal government the power to "insure domestic tranquility"? A. Invasions from Canada were threatening to take western frontiers. B. Taxes were so high that the economy began to fail. C. Individual states refused to raise militias to keep the peace. D. The Confederation Congress had no power to put down rebellions. 3. Which of the following is a judicial check on the powers of the legislative branch? A. can declare laws unconstitutional B. can refuse to enforce Court decisions

31 C. can propose constitutional amendments D. can issue warrants 4. Which of the following is an example of a legislative check over the judicial branch? A. Congress can impeach and remove federal judges. B. Senators can pardon those convicted in federal court. C. Congress can appoint the judges of the Supreme Court. D. Representatives can overrule federal court rulings. 5. The first ten amendments to the Constitution (also known as the Bill of Rights) A. had to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states before the Constitution could go into effect. B. were promoted and supported by the Federalists as a means to keep the power of government in check. C. limit the power of state governments and reserve those rights for the federal government. D. clearly limit the powers of the federal government and protect the rights of individuals. 6. Hostile Indian tribes threatened the western frontier of the United States. What part of the Preamble best addresses this issue? A. Insure the blessings of liberty B. Provide for the common defense C. Insure domestic tranquility D. Promote the general welfare 7. Which of the following is an executive check on the powers of the judicial branch of government? A. nominates Supreme Court justices and federal judges B. enforces term limits for Supreme Court justices C. presides over Senate during hearing to impeach the president D. casts tie-breaking vote if the Supreme Court cannot reach a verdict 8. In a democracy,

32 A. political power is not equally shared by all people. B. every person has the right and obligation to vote. C. the will of the majority is more important than minority rights. D. the people hold sovereign power over their government. 9. Which of the following best describes the Great Compromise? A. B. C. D. The states' representation in the lower house of the legislature would be divided according to population, and all states would be represented equally in the upper house. Congress would hold the power to levy taxes, but the individual states would determine how the taxes would be collected and paid to the federal government. The president would be indirectly elected by a super-majority (three-fifths) vote of the state legislatures. Only three-fifths of slaves in the southern states would be counted in the population used to assign the number of representatives in Congress. 10. The Anti-Federalists were against adoption of the Constitution. Which of these was the result of the Anti-Federalist movement? A. Many of the ideas from the Articles of Confederation were added to the Constitution. B. The Anti-Federalists were successful in completely rewriting the Constitution. C. D. Political parties gained more power, and the Anti-Federalists became known as the Democratic-Republican Party. Ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were adopted to protect the rights of individuals. Answers 1. B 2. D 3. A 4. A 5. D 6. B 7. A 8. D 9. A 10. D Explanations

33 1. When the United States declared independence from Great Britain, the American founders feared that the new government could become as much a tyrant as the British king. To make sure this did not happen, the founders created a weak national government in the Articles of Confederation. Unfortunately, this government had few real powers. Most critically, it had no ability to force the collection of taxes. The states agreed to a convention that led to the drafting of the United States Constitution, which went into effect in The main purpose of this Constitution was "to form a more perfect union" than the Articles of Confederation had made. 2. Shays' Rebellion in Massachusetts in 1786 showed how weak the Articles of Confederation were. The Confederation Congress had no power to raise an army and put down the rebellion. Even George Washington realized the need for a stronger central government to keep the peace in the states. 3. Legislative actions and laws are "reviewed" by the judiciary. This is the power of the courts to render the final decision when there is a conflict of interpretation of the Constitution or of laws. 4. The legislative branch has the power to impeach and remove federal judges. The other three choices are not valid. 5. The Constitution was amended with the Bill of Rights to secure individual liberties and to limit the powers of federal government. 6. Most important to the states were their claims to the lands of the western frontier. Hostile Indian tribes threatened to stop expansion west, and a strong central government with the power to defend its borders was necessary to expand westward. 7. The executive branch nominates Supreme Court justices and federal judges. It cannot cast a tie-breaking vote in the courts. There are no term limits for Supreme Court justices. Their appointments are for life so as to protect them from popular politics. 8. Democracy is from the Greek and means the common people rule. In a democratic form of government, all power is held by the people who then give government the power to rule. If the people decide that government is too strong or is not governing in their best interests, they can take that power back by changing the government. 9. The Great Compromise proposed apportionment according to population in the House of Representatives and according to equal representation in the Senate. This compromise eased concerns and led to the adoption of the Constitution. Small states were assured their equal voice in the Senate, and large, populous states were assured greater representation in the House. 10. While the Anti-Federalists were not able to prevent the ratification of the Constitution, they were highly influential in getting the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution.

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