#20 in notebook WHAT EVENTS LED TO THE CHEROKEE REMOVAL?

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1 #20 in notebook WHAT EVENTS LED TO THE CHEROKEE REMOVAL?

2 I. BACKGROUND 1733 Georgia was founded. Colonists were welcomed by Tomochichi, a Yamacraw Indian. Most of Georgia was inhabited by Indians Just 105 years later, Georgia s Native Americans were gone. WHAT HAPPENED?

3 I. BACKGROUND (CONT.) Cultural differences esp. about land ownership began to cause problems Native Americans believed land could not be owned. Rather, it was used and managed. Whites had the European view that land could be owned, bought, sold and inherited.

4 BACKGROUND (CONT.) During the American Revolution, most Indians sided with the British. When the Patriots won, this cost many of them their land. During the War of 1812, most Indians sided with the United States. Even though they picked the winning side this time, many still lost land.

5 BACKGROUND (CONT.) The American government decided a civilization policy would be the best for Indians in the eastern U.S. Those 5 tribes were the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole. During the 1800s, most tribal leaders were of mixed ancestry white fathers and Indian mothers. Many had received formal education in northern schools.

6 I. CREEKS Were a confederation of tribes Called themselves Muscogee Lived in northern Alabama, western and southern Georgia During Rev. War, most Creeks had sided with the British. After war, were punished by having to give up parts of their land, including land wanted by Georgia settlers

7 Upper Creeks refused to give up land in Georgia. Led by chief Alexander McGillivray. They fought w/white settlers. Eventually signed the Treaty of New York and gave up land between Oconee and Ogeechee Rivers War of 1812 US vs. Great Britain (again!) Creeks divided themselves. Red Sticks sided with the British; White Sticks sided with the US Gen. Andrew Jackson led US Army and White Sticks in attacks against Red Sticks. The most pivotal battle was the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in AL in 1814.

8 II. WILLIAM MCINTOSH Mother was Creek and father was Scottish Fought with Jackson at Horseshoe Bend in McIntosh signed Treaty of Indian Springs that gave up rest of Creek land in Georgia May 1, 1825 Creek warriors marched to McIntosh s home and set it on fire. When McIntosh ran out of the house, he was shot, stabbed and scalped By 1827, Creeks had been removed from GA

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10 I. REMOVAL 1828 Andrew Jackson was elected president. Even though he had used the Indians to help him fight during the War of 1812, he knew white voters wanted Indians removed from the southeast. In 1830, the Indian Removal Act was passed. This law provided federal funding to move all Indians to the Indian territory west of the Mississippi River.

11 The Choctaw were removed first, then the Chickasaw. The Creeks refused to leave their homeland. The Creek in Georgia were going hungry and suffering from smallpox. Creek leaders gave up 5 million acres in order to keep 2 million. The Creek were eventually removed in The Cherokee were the last group removed in 1838 aka The Trail of Tears.

12 The treaty was ignored by white settlers who burned Creek homes and stole from their farms. After some Creeks attacked white settlers near Tuskegee, Alabama, the U.S. Army captured almost 1,000 and forced them to move to the Indian territory.

13 III. CHEROKEE Lived in parts of 4 states Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and North Carolina During the Revolutionary War, they sided with the British but in the War of 1812, they sided with the Americans.

14 CHEROKEE Seen as the most civilized of five civilized tribes because: Sequoyah had created syllabary for tribe, making Cherokee first tribe to have written language Had permanent captial New Echota in GA Wrote constitution similar to US constitution Accepted Christianity Educated their people in their written language

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16 IV. CONFLICT WITH GA State of GA would not recognize Cherokee s government 1828 declared Cherokee laws null and void 1829 cherokee officials, including Chief John Ross, went to D.C. to present case before Congress Andrew Jackson becomes president and urges Congress to pass Indian Removal Act

17 CONFLICT WITH GA Gold discovered in Dahlonega becoming America s first gold rush 1830 Georgia claimed Cherokee land Whites had to sign oath of allegiance to state Many missionaries refused and were jailed Suit was filed and went to Supreme Court. Worcester vs. Georgia was case. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia laws did NOT apply to the Cherokee nation

18 CONFLICT WITH GA 1832 Georgia began dividing Cherokee land for a land lottery 1835 a small group of Cherokee signed the Treaty of New Echota, giving away their land 1836 Treaty of New Echota ratified in US Senate by 1 vote. Cherokee given 2 years to move

19 V. TRAIL OF TEARS 1838 Gen. Winfield Scott and US Army troops started rounding up Cherokee from their homes They were put in stockades through the summer of 1838 Most walked the 800 miles from Cherokee territory to Oklahoma Around 16,000 left and nearly 4,000 died on the journey

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