Reporting Category 1. Eras: Colonial Period, American Revolution Number of Questions on Test: 7 Facts You must Know

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1 Time Period: Reporting Category 1 Eras: Colonial Period, American Revolution Number of Questions on Test: 7 Facts You must Know 1. The New England Colonies were settled by people seeking religions freedom while the Southern Colonies were settled by those seeking economic opportunities (tobacco, rice, indigo). (VUS.2,3) 2. The French became allies (friends) with the Native Americans (Indians) in the New World while the English killed them through warfare and mainly disease. (VUS.2,3,4) 3. The first elected legislature in the New World was the Virginia House of Burgess in Jamestown in (VUS.3) 4. The French and Indian War created a large debt in Great Britain which made King George III tax (Stamp Act) the colonists to pay off the debt. 5. Benjamin Franklin negotiated a treaty of alliance with France in 1778 which helped the colonists win the Revolutionary War. (VUS.4) 6. The Great Awakening caused the colonists to question the rule of the king and led to the American Revolution ( ). (VUS.4) 7. George Washington was a great military leader because he kept the Colonial Army together despite pay shortages and lack of food and supplies. (VUS.4) 8. Great Britain lost the American Revolution due to lack of support from British citizens and Parliament (VUS.4).

2 WHAT SOLS ARE ON THE TEST? STANDARD VUS.2: The student will describe how early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians. EARLY AMERICA: EARLY CLAIMS, EARLY CONFLICTS The outcomes of early European exploration and colonization: Redistributed the world s population as millions of people from Europe and Africa voluntarily and involuntarily moved to the New World. Initiated world-wide commercial expansion -agricultural products were exchanged between the Americas and Europe Representative government Religious toleration Huguenots & Jews in New York Settled by English, Dutch, and Germanspeaking immigrants Quakers wanted religious freedom in Pennsylvania Presbyterians in New Jersey Catholics in Maryland Settled by Puritans for religious freedom PURITANS VA COMPANY Religious freedom Economic Opportunity 5

3 Formed a covenant community based on the Mayflower Compact and Puritan religious beliefs Intolerant of those who didn t share their beliefs! Practiced a form of a democracy through town meetings similar to Athenian direct democracy nobility Virginia was settled by who were English nobility who received large land grants in eastern Virginia from the King of England. In addition, poor English immigrants or artisans came seeking better lives as who agreed to work for a period of time. HINT: Did you know? was established in 1607 and was the first permanent English settlement in North America. Furthermore, the was established in the 1640s and was the first elected assembly in the New World. Today, it is known as the. Interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians Explorations and settlements of the English in the American colonies and Spanish in the Caribbean, Central America, and South America led to: Violent conflicts with the American Indians American Indians lost their traditional territories and caught diseases from Europeans French exploration of Canada DID NOT lead to large immigration from France. French explorers relationship with the native people was cooperative. 6

4 Growth of the agricultural economy based on large landholdings in the Southern colonies and in the Caribbean led to slavery. The first Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619 to work the tobacco plantations. Middle Passage The large landholdings in the South were known as. The three cash crops of the Southern colonies were,,. HINT: TRI 7

5 STANDARD VUS.3: The student will describe how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas. NEW ENGLAND COLONIES MIDDLE COLONIES SOUTHERN COLONIES Shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-scale farming, eventually manufacturing. Shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and trading, and eventually cities, such as Baltimore, NY, and Philadelphia grew as seaports and commercial centers. Cash crops such as tobacco, rice, indigo, and in the Appalachian foothills, the economy was based on smallscale farming, hunting, and trading. ALL COLONIES: Had a strong belief in private ownership of property and free enterprise Social Characteristics NEW ENGLAND MIDDLE COLONIES SOUTHERN COLONIES -Based on religious standing -Quakers (Pennsylvania) -Jews & Huguenots(New York) -Presbyterians (New Jersey) -Social structure based on family status and land ownership -Large land ownership dominated -Increasingly intolerant of dissenters who challenged the Puritans belief in the connection between government and religion -Rhode Island was founded by dissenters fleeing persecution from the Puritans in Massachusetts. -Flexible social structures -Developed skilled artisans, business owners, and small farmers the government and society -Maintained allegiance to the Church of England -Maryland-Catholics -In the mountains and valleys: small farming, hunting, and trading of English and Scottish- Irish descent 8

6 THE GREAT AWAKENING: A Revival of Religions! Religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies in the mid-1700s Led to rapid growth of Methodists and Baptists which challenged the religious and governmental order One cause of the American Revolution Development of Indentured Servitude and Slavery Growth of a plantationbased agricultural a economy in the Southern colonies led to cheap labor. Indentured Servants Poor people who agreed to work on plantations for a period of time Slavery Large numbers of enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to Southern colonies to work on plantations through the Middle Passage. Slavery led to eventual conflict between the North and South (American Civil War). Although they came to the New World to escape religious persecution, these colonies were very INTOLERANT of other beliefs:. The four (4) colonies founded for Freedom of Religion were,,,. 9

7 STANDARD VUS.4B: The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by b) evaluating how key principles in the Declaration of Independence grew in importance to become unifying ideas of American democracy. John Locke, an Enlightenment philosopher, influenced American belief in self government, and Thomas Jefferson in writing the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Paine urged the Patriots to overthrow Britain s rule in his pamphlet, Common Sense. What was the reason the Declaration of Independence was written? HINT: It was NOT to declare our independence! 1. Increased political participation 2. Free public education 3. Due process of law 4. Abolishment of Slavery 5. More rights for minorities 6. Protection of property rights Ideas of the Declaration caused: STANDARD VUS.4C: The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by c) describing the political differences among the colonists concerning separation from Britain. REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION 1. What led to the American Revolution? Ideas of Enlightenment Colonists realized unfairness of British policies which led to DEBATE AND RESISTANCE 10

8 2. Anglo-French Rivalry French and Indian War (French lost Canada and their territories west of the Appalachian Mountains) 3. We re MAD!!!!! Proclamation of 1763 (British prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains) Stamp Act (New taxes on legal documents, tea, sugar) What was the main reason the King passed the Proclamation of 1763 and many tax acts? The American Revolution The first time all thirteen colonies came together as one was the. : HINT 11

9 BOSTON TEA PARTY was staged BOSTON MASSACRE British troops fired on anti-british demonstrators. Minute Men fought for, the first battle of the American Revolution. PATRIOTS LOYALISTS (TORIES) NEUTRALS -Complete independence from -Loyal to England w/ cultural -Not involved!!! England and economic ties -Provided the troops for the American army led by George -Believed in taxation of the colonists Washington -Inspired by Locke, Paine, and Patrick Henry -Opposed to taxation without representation STANDARD VUS.4D: The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by d) analyzing reasons for colonial victory in the Revolutionary War. + = Victory FACTORS LEADING TO COLONIAL VICTORY 1. Diplomatic Benjamin Franklin + = TREATY ALLIANCE 12

10 2. Military General of the American Army, George Washington, avoided any situation that threatened the destruction of his army, and his leadership kept the army together. Americans benefited from the presence of the French army and navy at the Battle of Yorktown, which ended the war with an American victory. Who negotiated an alliance with the French? England surrendered at the last battle of the Revolution which was? REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION STANDARD VUS.5A: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by a) explaining the origins of the Constitution, including the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation were weak and failed. 13

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21 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 ASSESSMENT PRACTICE Directions: In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question Of the early British, Spanish, and French settlers in the New World, the group that had the best relationship with the Native Americans was the a. British. b. Spanish. c. French. d. None of these groups had any favorable contacts with the Native Americans. In the Atlantic World, the exchange of plants and animals between the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia was called the a. goods exchange. b. Columbian Exchange. c. European Market. d. Common Market. When Europeans made contact with Native Americans in the Americas, the most significant impact upon Native Americans was a. enriching Native American culture. b. death by European diseases. c. conversion to Christianity. d. discovery of new methods of hunting. In the Atlantic World, the leg of Triangular Trade in which Africans were forcibly brought from Africa to the Americas to work as slaves was known as the a. rough seas. b. Middle Passage. c. Amistad. d. Northwest Passage. British colonists settled in New England primarily seeking a. economic opportunity. b. religious freedom. c. new ways to grow tobacco. d. new religious ideas from the Native Americans. British colonists settled in the Southern colonies primarily seeking a. economic opportunity. b. religious freedom. c. to establish a covenant community. d. new religious ideas from Native Americans. Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice

22 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History Examine the map above. The area marked #1 was settled by the a. Spanish. b. British. c. French. d. Portuguese. Examine the map above. The area marked #2 was settled by the a. Spanish. b. British. c. French. d. Portuguese. Examine the map above. The area marked #3 was settled by the a. Spanish. b. British. c. French. d. Portuguese. Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice - 1 -

23 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History British colonists settled in the Middle colonies primarily seeking a. economic opportunity. b. religious freedom. c. a mixture of economic opportunity and religious freedom. d. new ways to grow tobacco. The first permanent British settlement in North America was established in Virginia in 1607, and was known as a. Boston. b. New York. c. Jamestown. d. Plymouth. The British colonial region that was known for religious tolerance was a. the New England colonies. b. the Middle colonies. c. the Southern colonies. d. the Spanish colonies. Which of the following colonial regions was known for having religious dissenters who left the main colony over disagreements with the colonial government? a. the New England colonies b. the Middle colonies c. the Southern colonies d. the Spanish colonies Pennsylvania was considered a a. New England colony. b. Middle colony. c. Southern colony. d. Spanish colony. John Locke, an Enlightenment thinker, believed all people are free, equal, and have natural rights of a. the pursuit of happiness. b. voting and the ownership of property. c. life, liberty, and property. d. freedom of religion and speech. In what British colonial region would there have been a mixture of town meetings and representative assemblies? a. New England colonies b. Middle colonies c. Southern colonies d. Caribbean colonies Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice

24 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History In what British colonial region would there have been many Quakers and a wide variety of ethnicities? a. New England colonies b. Middle colonies c. Southern colonies d. Caribbean colonies The town meeting form of government is associated mostly with which British colonial region? a. the New England colonies b. the Middle colonies c. the Southern colonies d. the Caribbean colonies In which British colonial region would the main religion have been the Church of England (Anglican Church)? a. the New England colonies b. the Middle colonies c. the Southern colonies d. the Caribbean colonies The first elected representative assembly in the British colonies was established in Virginia by the 1640s, and is today known as the Virginia General Assembly. When it was founded, it was known as a. the House of Commons. b. the House of Representatives. c. the House of Burgesses. d. the House of Lords. The Puritans that settled New England formed a covenant community based on the principles of the and Puritan religious beliefs and were often intolerant of those sharing their religion. a. Declaration of Independence b. Virginia Company c. cavaliers d. Mayflower Compact In which colonial region was New Jersey located? a. the New England colonies b. the Middle colonies c. the Southern colonies d. the Spanish colonies Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice - 1 -

25 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History led to the introduction of slavery in the New World. a. The decreasing number of European immigrants arriving in the colonies b. The outlawing of the practice of indentured servitude in the colonies c. The large-scale agricultural economy in the Southern colonies and in the Caribbean d. Industrial growth in the Northern colonies In which British colonial region was New York located? a. the New England colonies b. the Middle colonies c. the Southern colonies d. the Western colonies Which British colonial region was characterized by large plantations along the eastern coastal lowlands, Cavaliers, representative government, and the Church of England? a. the New England colonies b. the Middle colonies c. the Southern colonies d. the Western colonies The Southern colonies developed economies based on large plantations that grew such as tobacco, rice, and indigo for export to Europe. a. import crops b. indentured crops c. mass-produced food d. cash crops Which of the following was true concerning the Great Awakening? a. It was a series of scientific discoveries. b. It made people more dependent on highly trained and highly educated ministers. c. It helped to make the colonists feel more dependent on Britain. d. It led to the growth of evangelical religions, such as the Baptist and Methodist faiths. The French and Indian War was between a. the French (supported by British North American colonies) and a coalition of Native American tribes. b. two Native American tribes. c. the British (supported by British North American colonies) and a coalition of Native American tribes. d. the British (supported by British North American colonies) and the French (supported by Native American allies of the French in North America). Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice - 1 -

26 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History As a result of the outcome of the French and Indian War, Britain began to to pay off its war debt, and to pay for increased British troop presence in North America. a. tax the colonists b. borrow money from other European nations c. increase the prices of its exports d. increase agricultural production Poor English immigrants came to the Americas as who agreed to work on plantations for a period of time to pay for passage to the New World. a. enslaved workers b. indentured servants c. settlers d. new colonists Virginia and the Southern colonies had a social structure based on a. the equality of all people. b. appointment to political office. c. family status and the ownership of land. d. religious standing. wrote Common Sense in 1776, which was written in language that the common person could readily understand. It argued for American independence and against government by Kings and Queens. a. Thomas Jefferson b. Thomas Paine c. Patrick Henry d. Samuel Adams 33. authored the Declaration of Independence in a. Benjamin Franklin b. Thomas Paine c. Patrick Henry d. Thomas Jefferson 34. was a 17 th century Enlightenment thinker who developed the Social Contract Theory, which stated that man was born with the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. a. Benjamin Franklin b. Thomas Paine c. John Locke d. Thomas Jefferson Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice

27 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History The key principles of increased in the American experience over a period of time. a. the Declaration of Independence b. the Mayflower Compact c. the Emancipation Proclamation d. the Proclamation of 1763 After the French and Indian War, the prohibited colonial settlers from moving into the new British territory west of the Appalachian Mountains. a. Sugar Act b. Proclamation of 1763 c. Townshend Duties d. Quartering Act The perceived unfairness of British policies in the American colonies was one of the causes of a. the Stamp Act. b. the Proclamation of c. the Tea Act. d. the American Revolution. In 1770, the occurred when a colonial mob incited British troops to fire on the crowd in Boston, resulting in the death of five colonists. This event generated much colonial anger against the British government. a. Boston Massacre b. Boston Tea Party c. Battle of Lexington and Concord d. Olive Branch Petition In 1773, the colonists responded to the Tea Act with a. the Boston Massacre. b. the Boston Tea Party. c. widespread approval. d. passive resistance. Colonial life in the North American colonies was characterized by a strong belief in a. communal ownership of property. b. free enterprise. c. equal rights for all people. d. the participation in manual labor by all colonists. Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice - 1 -

28 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History The period known as the Enlightenment saw the development of new ideas about the rights of people and a. methods of large-scale farming. b. their relationships to one another. c. their relationship to their rulers. d. religious doctrine. Colonists who supported separation from Britain were known as a. Patriots. b. Tories, or Loyalists. c. Neutrals. d. Lobster-backs. Colonists who opposed separation from Britain were known as a. Patriots. b. Tories, or Loyalists. c. Neutrals. d. Lobster-backs. Colonists who chose to not take sides in the debate over separation from Britain were known as a. Patriots. b. Tories, or Loyalists. c. Neutrals. d. Lobster-backs. The first battle of the American Revolution was at a. Saratoga. b. Lexington and Concord. c. Trenton. d. Yorktown. The commander in chief of the Continental Army played an important role in keeping the army together and in wearing the British forces down. His name was a. Benjamin Franklin. b. Thomas Jefferson. c. George Washington. d. Marquis de Lafayette. The ideas of John Locke influenced the American belief in a. loyalty to Britain. b. the use of slave labor. c. westward expansion. d. self-government. Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice - 1 -

29 Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History As a result of the French and Indian War, a. the British lost all of their territory in Canada. b. the French were driven out of Canada and their territories west of the Appalachian Mountains. c. the French controlled most of the North American territory. d. the British ceded land to Native Americans who supported the French in the war. The Treaty of Alliance of 1778 was a. the treaty that ended the American Revolution. b. the treaty between France and the U.S. that officially brought France into the war on the U.S. side. c. the treaty that brought Germany into the war on Britain s side. d. the treaty that ended the French and Indian War. The American diplomat that negotiated the Treaty of Alliance of 1778 was a. Thomas Jefferson. b. Benjamin Franklin. c. Samuel Adams. d. Roger Sherman. The last battle of the American Revolution took place at a. Yorktown. b. Saratoga. c. Bunker Hill (Breed s Hill). d. Trenton. The treaty that formally ended the American Revolution was the a. Treaty of Paris of b. Treaty of Alliance of c. Treaty of Paris of d. Treaty of Ghent of was one of the factors that led to a colonial victory in the American Revolution. a. A lack of popular support in the colonies b. A lack of funding for supplies for British troops c. The inability of Britain to continue to send troops to the colonies d. A lack of popular support in Great Britain Standards VUS.2, VUS.3, VUS.4 Assessment Practice - 1 -

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