How was our beginning/or first Constitution The Articles of Confederation making our country look weak? Why make it weak?

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1 U.S. History Mr. Boothby 10/6/2015 The Learning Target : CH 10 Launching a New Ship of State pt2 Whiskey Rebellion and the XYZ Affair/ SHIFT IN STRENGTH! Reaction (2 full page minimum): Hint on page(s) ! Silently Read Pages How was our beginning/or first Constitution The Articles of Confederation making our country look weak? Why make it weak? Do you feel weak leadership can cause people or even companies to fall apart? EXPLAIN! Constitution Launching a New Ship of State pt2 Click to remove! HOW-WHY-EXAMPLES-EXPLAIN! Articles! 1) Why did the Whiskey Rebellion take place? What was Washington s response (HINT: SEE 196 EXPLAIN)? 2) What did Hamilton s actions in the text create? Hint: We have them still today! (#2 and 3 may be done together!) 3) What was officially established during Washington s second term (Hint: Relates to Question #2)? 4) Explain how Jeffersonians went against Washingtonian neutrality and what event this ties to? KEY: Know Citizen Genet and Shay s Rebellion= SHOW WEAKNESS XYZ AFFAIR/ Whiskey Rebellion SHOW OUR STRENGTH! if needed FINISH PATRIOT! Discuss # s with a partner and GO OVER 1-4! 5)What did some of the British do according to your text that refused to leave America? 6) Explain in unimpressive things British were doing to American sailors and the 2 treaties Jay s and Pinckney s! KEY KNOW ALL ABOUT THE XYZ AFFAIR! (HINT: Opposite of GW!) ALL DUE+Read Pages ! 1 additional HW Assignment Homework Compare and Contrast the Articles of Confederation and the US Constitution*** ***You won t need to write this one out Just look at it!

2 1)Why did the Whiskey Rebellion take place? What was Washington s response (EXPLAIN)? The Whiskey Rebellion was started due to the anger of pioneer folk towards the excise tax. Washington sent state militias to end the rebellion, although he soon pardoned them, but others were angry at the huge response for such a minuscule rebellion. 2)What did Hamilton s actions in the text create? Hint: We have them still today! All of Hamilton's actions eventually led to the creation of the first American political parties with Jefferson and Madison creating the first opposition to Hamilton's ideas. The two party system has existed ever since. 3)What was officially established during Washington s second term (Hint: Relates to Question #2)? The political parties were officially established by Washington's second term. The French Revolution would have a great impact on America. 4)Explain how the Jefferson s went against Washington s neutrality and what event this ties to! Many Jeffersonians wanted to help the French defeat the British, but Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation because the nation had to steer clear of war. This neutrality actually ended up favoring France more than Britain. 5)What did some of the British do according to your text that refused to leave America? Explain Treaty of Greenville the Battle of Fallen Timbers! Some British refused to leave America and even helped the Miami Confederacy, an alliance of 8 indian nations who terrorized Americans invading their lands. Peace was finally offered at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, and the Treaty of Greenville was established. 6) Explain in unimpressive things British were doing to American sailors and the 2 treaties Jay s and Pinckney s! Angry British started to impress American sailors. John Jay is sent to England to establish Jay's Treaty, and then Pinckney's Treaty is established in America by the Spanish. George Washington decides to step down from his presidency after two terms. KEY KNOW ALL ABOUT THE XYZ AFFAIR! (HINT: Opposite of GW!) After Washington steps down, John Adams becomes president along with Thomas Jefferson as his Vice President. Adams would have big shoes to fill after Washington. The XYZ Affair was named after the French bribed Adam's envoys to merely speak with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister.

3 Federalists were delighted while Jeffersonians hung their heads in shame. The navy department was established, the U.S. Marine Corps was reestablished, and a new army was authorized, and unofficial fighting with French went on for two and a half years. As much as Adams wanted to go to full-fledged war with the French, he knew what was best for America and that was to avoid war while the country was weak. The Convention of 1800 annulled the 22 year old marriage of (in)convenience. This established peace was good because if not, Napoleon would not have sold Louisiana to Jefferson three years later. Alien Laws were established. They extended the residence requirement to 14 years instead of 5, and declared that in a time of peace immigrants could be deported, and in times of war they could be imprisoned as well. The Sedition Act tampered with the freedoms of speech and press, stating that anyone who impeded the government would serve imprisonment. In fear of being crushed by the Federalists, Jefferson and Madison came up with the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, a brilliant formulation of the extreme states' rights view regarding the Union. Overall there were many differences between the Federalists and Republicans that would continue to affect the way America grew. WHISKEY REBELLION In January 1791, President George Washington's Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton proposed a seemingly innocuous excise tax "upon spirits distilled within the United States, and for appropriating the same."1 What Congress failed to predict was the vehement rejection of this tax by Americans living on the frontier of Western Pennsylvania. By 1794, the Whiskey Rebellion threatened the stability of the nascent United States and forced President Washington to personally lead the United States militia westward to stop the rebels. George Washington reviewing the troops being deployed against the Whiskey Rebellion - Washington Reviewing the Western Army, at Fort Cumberland, Maryland, ca [ ]. Courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY. By 1791 the United States suffered from significant debt incurred during the Revolutionary War. Secretary Hamilton, a Federalist supporting increased federal authority, intended to use the excise tax to lessen this financial burden. Despite resistance from Anti-

4 Federalists like Thomas Jefferson, Congress passed the legislation. When news of the tax spread to Western Pennsylvania, individuals immediately voiced their displeasure by refusing to pay the tax. Residents viewed this tax as yet another instance of unfair policies dictated by the eastern elite that negatively affected American citizens on the frontier. Western farmers felt the tax was an abuse of federal authority wrongly targeting a demographic that relied on crops such as corn, rye, and grain to earn a profit. However, shipping this harvest east was dangerous because of poor storage and dangerous roads. As a result, farmers frequently distilled their grain into liquor which was easier to ship and preserve. While large-scale farmers easily incurred the financial strain of an additional tax, indigent farmers were less able to do so without falling into dire financial straits. President Washington sought to resolve this dispute peacefully. In 1792, he issued a national proclamation admonishing westerners for their resistance to the "operation of the laws of the United States for raising revenue upon spirits distilled within the same."2 However, by 1794 the protests became violent. In July, nearly 400 whiskey rebels near Pittsburgh set fire to the home of John Neville, the regional tax collection supervisor. Left with little recourse and at the urgings of Secretary Hamilton, Washington organized a militia force of 12,950 men and led them towards Western Pennsylvania, warning locals "not to abet, aid, or comfort the Insurgents aforesaid, as they will answer the contrary at their peril."3 The calling of the militia had the desired effect of essentially ending the Whiskey Rebellion. By the time the militia reached Pittsburgh, the rebels had dispersed and could not be found. The militia apprehended approximately 150 men and tried them for treason. A paucity of evidence and the inability to obtain witnesses hampered the trials. Two men, John Mitchell and Philip Weigel, were found guilty of treason, though both were pardoned by President Washington. By 1802, then President Thomas Jefferson repealed the excise tax on whiskey. Under the eye of President Washington, the nascent United States survived the first true challenge to federal authority. Shay s Rebellion: Shays' Rebellion is the name given to a series of protests in 1786 and 1787 by American farmers against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt.

5 KEY: Both led to a need for the dismantling of the Articles of Confederation and a NEW STRONGER CONSTITUTION! STRENGTHS: 1 To declare war and make peace. 2 To coin and borrow money 3 To detail with foreign countries and sign treaties 4 To operate post offices WEAKNESSES: 1 The national government could not force the states to obey its laws. 2 It did not have the power to tax 3 It did not have the power to enforce laws 4 Congress lacked strong and steady leadership 5 There was no national army or navy 6 There was no system of national courts 7 Each state could issue its own paper money 8 Each state could put tariffs on trade between states. (A tariff is a tax on goods coming in from another state or country.)

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