# KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS 1. Basic ideas Kinetic theory based on experiments, which proved that a) matter contains particles and quite a lot of space between them b) these particles always move c) if the particles are very close to each other, they repel and if they are further apart, they attract ad a) atoms (10-10 m) observed by electron microscopes, scanning tunnelling microscopes... a) b) ad b) diffusion particles of two or more substances mix because of their random chaotic motion Brownian motion (1827 Robert Brown) pollen grains suspended in a liquid exhibit a jerky motion ad c) stretching and compressing materials (metals...) force-separation graph potential energy-separation graph force E P separation of atoms r 0 separation of atoms r 0 r 0... equilibrium separation KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

2 Questions: I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í 1. Find information about the ways how atoms and molecules can be seen. 2. What did Brownian motion prove? 3. Describe the force-separation graph. What does it represent? 2. Interatomic bonds Use the materials provided to fill in the following table: work out how each of the bonds is formed, which types of atom can it affect, what are the properties of the substances having this bond (mechanical, electrical, melting point etc.) and give some examples. bond covalent ionic metallic van der Waals properties of the substances describe the bond example Questions: 4. Describe the ionic, covalent, metallic and van der Waals bond. Mention its mechanical and electrical properties. Find typical representatives KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

3 3. Models of substances in different states of matter Use different resources to find information about a typical solid liquid and gas. Compare their internal kinetic and potential energies, distance between the particles and their type of motion. solid liquid gas other important data internal potential energy - strength of bonds internal kinetic energy - motion of particles Questions: 5. Describe a typical solid, liquid and gas using the idea of internal kinetic and potential energy KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

4 4. Heat and temperature Thermal equilibrium (Prévost 1792) If the amount of heat absorbed by an object from its surroundings during a certain time interval equals the heat released by the object during the same time, the object is in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings and they have the same temperature. Temperature scales Celsius scale: freezing point 0, boiling point 100 Kelvin scale (thermodynamic scale): no negative values, 0 K = absolute zero { T} = { t}... temperature change in K is the same as in K = 600 K = K = -150 = K 0 = K 20 = K Fahrenheit scale 5 ϑ = t + 32) t = ( ϑ { } 9 { } { } { } 32) ( F = 37 = F 212 F = -150 = F Temperature measurement Temperature change is converted into changes of other quantities a) t V Mercury (ethanol)-in-glass thermometer the substance used must have a big... so that...of the medium rises easily when the temperature... Bimetallic thermometer two metals sealed together bend when heated because the two metals have different... This is used in... choose: rises, thermometers and kettles, linear expansivity, volume expansivity, volume KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

5 b) t R (changes in electric current are measured) Platinum resistance thermometer (metal - t R ) A Thermistor thermometer (semiconductor - t R ) c) t current produced Thermocouple thermometer Cu-Fe-Cu, 2 junctions, one heated very small current flows source of electric current Cu Fe Cu d) comparison of colours non-contact method for extreme temperatures Optical pyrometer (has to be calibrated, for one substance) heat source A Thermovision different colour for each temperature of the object, observed by a special camera - KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

6 Questions: I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í 6. The calculations connected with calorimetric equation you have done in previous years were done in degrees Celsius. Does it mean that the results were wrong? Explain. 7. Describe the methods of temperature measurement. What are they based on? 8. Ethanol can be used instead of mercury in thermometers. What is the property of ethanol that makes it suitable for this use? 9. What are the properties of the two metals used in bimetallic thermometer? 10. Why does the resistance of a metal increase /semiconductor decrease/ with the rising temperature? 11. Why do we need non-contact methods of temperature measurement? 12. What is the advantage of a thermocouple? 5. Isolated system and quantities that describe it The object or substance can be at a different state of matter, its particles can be arranged in different structures for example carbon in graphite and diamond. So the object can be in a different state. Such a system is called a thermodynamic system. Gas in a closed container, water and its vapour in a flask are examples of a system. A thermodynamic system can be determined by physical quantities that describe its state. The basic ones are pressure, volume, temperature, mass, number of moles, number of particles etc. isolated system does not exchange particles or energy (heat, work) with its surroundings closed system does not exchange particles with its surroundings open system can exchange both particles and energy with its surroundings adiabatically isolated system no heat exchange with its surroundings We describe processes, in which the thermodynamic system changes from one initial state into another final state. When outer conditions stay constant, any thermodynamic system will gradually get into equilibrium with its surroundings. Questions: 13. Give the basic macroscopic physical quantities that are used to describe a thermodynamic system. 14. Describe the differences between an isolated, closed and adiabatically isolated system. Give examples from everyday life KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### 2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

### Chapter 3 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 3 Temperature and Heat In Chapter, temperature was described as an intensive property of a system. In common parlance, we understand temperature as a property which is related to the degree of

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### Temperature and Heat

Temperature and Heat Foundation Physics Lecture 2.4 26 Jan 10 Temperature, Internal Energy and Heat What is temperature? What is heat? What is internal energy? Temperature Does a glass of water sitting

### States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS]

OpenStax-CNX module: m38210 1 States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] Free High School Science Texts Project This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.1 Solid, liquid and gas 1 Candidates should be able to : DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion

### Chapter 17 Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 17 Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law Units of Chapter 17 Atomic Theory of Matter Temperature and Thermometers Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Thermal

### CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

### Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature

Thermomey 1. Temperature can be expressed as a derived quantity in terms of 1) Length and Mass 2) Mass and Time 3) Length, Mass and Time 4) None of These 2. A Celsius is a unit of 1) Current 2) Heat 3)

### Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

### Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

### Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

Forms of Energy There are many types of energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy is energy that results from position, such as the energy in water going over a dam. Electrical energy

### The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used.

TEKS 5.5B The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to: (B) identify the boiling

### 5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

### The particulate nature of matter

The particulate nature of matter Solids, liquids and gases The kinetic theory of matter Explaining the states of matter Changes of state An unusual state of matter An unusual change of state Heating and

### Heat and Temperature. Temperature Scales. Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Heat and Temperature Thermometers and Temperature Scales The mercury-based one you see here relies on the fact that mercury expands at a predictable rate with temperature. The scale of the thermometer

### Measuring Temperature

Measuring Temperature The standard metric unit of temperature is the degree Celsius ( C). Water freezes at 0 C. Water boils at 100 C. The Fahrenheit scale is used only in the United States. Why Do We Need

### Temperature, Expansion, Ideal Gas Law

Temperature, Expansion, Ideal Gas Law Physics 1425 Lecture 30 Michael Fowler, UVa Everything s Made of Atoms This idea was only fully accepted about 100 years ago in part because of Einstein s analysis

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat

Chapter 3 Calorimetry - Specific Heat and Latent Heat Name: Lab Partner: Section: 3.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to study the relationship between heat and temperature. Calorimetry will

### Chapter 10 Study Questions

Chapter 10 Study Questions Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following temperatures is the lowest? a. 100ºC c.

### THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS

THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS Thermochemistry is the study of the study of relationships between chemistry and energy. All chemical changes and many physical changes involve exchange of energy with the

### Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

### System. System, Boundary and surroundings: Nature of heat and work: Sign convention of heat: Unit-7 Thermodynamics

Unit-7 Thermodynamics Introduction: The term Thermo means heat and dynamics means flow or movement.. So thermodynamics is concerned with the flow of heat. The different forms of the energy are interconvertible

### The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically

### thermometer Encyclopedic Entry

This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry For the complete encyclopedic

### Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible

### Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

### Latent Heat Calculations

Latent Heat Calculations What heat quantities are needed to change a substance from a liquid to a gas? How much energy is needed to melt a solid to a liquid? Is it the same for each substance? Let s look

### Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

### Kinetic Molecular Theory

Why? The kinetic-molecular theory is a model or a mental image of how particles of matter behave. Knowledge of the kinetic-molecular theory allows us to predict the action of solids, liquids and gases

### Evolution of the Thermometer

Evolution of the Thermometer A thermometer is a device that gauges temperature by measuring a temperature-dependent property, such as the expansion of a liquid in a sealed tube. The Greco-Roman physician

### A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.

I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to

### There is no such thing as heat energy

There is no such thing as heat energy We have used heat only for the energy transferred between the objects at different temperatures, and thermal energy to describe the energy content of the objects.

### Welcome to the World of Chemistry

Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of

### Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

### Absorption of Heat. Internal energy is the appropriate energy variable to use at constant volume

6 Absorption of Heat According to the First Law, E = q + w = q - P V, assuming P-V work is the only kind that can occur. Therefore, E = q V. The subscript means that the process occurs at constant volume.

### Chapter 4 Practice Quiz

Chapter 4 Practice Quiz 1. Label each box with the appropriate state of matter. A) I: Gas II: Liquid III: Solid B) I: Liquid II: Solid III: Gas C) I: Solid II: Liquid III: Gas D) I: Gas II: Solid III:

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

### Thermodynamics is the study of heat. It s what comes into play when you drop an ice cube

Chapter 12 You re Getting Warm: Thermodynamics In This Chapter Converting between temperature scales Working with linear expansion Calculating volume expansion Using heat capacities Understanding latent

### KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

### Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding

Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding Interatomic Bonding Bonding forces and energies Primary interatomic bonds Secondary bonding Molecules Bonding Forces and Energies Considering the interaction

### Copper, Zinc and Brass (an alloy of Cu and Zn) have very similar specific heat capacities. Why should this be so?

Thermal Properties 1. Specific Heat Capacity The heat capacity or thermal capacity of a body is a measure of how much thermal energy is required to raise its temperature by 1K (1 C). This will depend on

### Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction

Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction We have learned that entropy is used to quantify the extent of disorder resulting from the dispersal of matter in a system. Also; entropy, like enthalpy and internal

### Exam 4 -- PHYS 101. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Exam 4 -- PHYS 101 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A steel tape measure is marked such that it gives accurate measurements

### 13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

### Boltzmann Distribution Law

Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce

### Page 1. Set of values that describe the current condition of a system, usually in equilibrium. What is a state?

What is a state? Set of values that describe the current condition of a system, usually in equilibrium Is this physics different than what we have learned? Why do we learn it? How do we make the connection

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

### Final Exam Review Questions PHY Final Chapters

Final Exam Review Questions PHY 2425 - Final Chapters Section: 17 1 Topic: Thermal Equilibrium and Temperature Type: Numerical 12 A temperature of 14ºF is equivalent to A) 10ºC B) 7.77ºC C) 25.5ºC D) 26.7ºC

### Chemical Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson, AZ 85709, USA First Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics was expressed in the study of thermochemistry.

### Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Equilibrium Thermodynamics Instructor: - Clare Yu (e-mail cyu@uci.edu, phone: 824-6216) - office hours: Wed from 2:30 pm to 3:30 pm in Rowland Hall 210E Textbooks: - primary: Herbert Callen Thermodynamics

### Chemistry 51 Chapter 2 ENERGY & HEAT

ENERGY & HEAT Energy is defined as the capacity of matter to do work. There are two types of energy: 1. Potential (stored) 2. Kinetic (moving) Energy possesses many forms (chemical, electrical, thermal,

### AP Chem Lab 2 Quiz #1 Calorimetry. Conceptual Understanding. Write complete sentences to show your understanding.

AP Chem Lab 2 Quiz #1 Calorimetry Name Conceptual Understanding. Write complete sentences to show your understanding. Differentiate between kinetic energy and potential energy. Energy may be transferred

### Temperature and Heat. Chapter 17. PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman

Chapter 17 Temperature and Heat PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Modified by P. Lam 6_17_2012 Topics for Chapter 17

### Science Standard 2 Materials and Their Properties Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 2 Materials and Their Properties Grade Level Expectations Properties and Structure of Materials Enduring Understanding: The structures of materials determine their properties. Essential

### Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

### Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 13 KINETIC THEORY

1 P a g e Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 13 KINETIC THEORY Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases 1. Every gas consists of extremely small particles known as molecules. The molecules of a given gas are

### Current Staff Course Unit/ Length. Basic Outline/ Structure. Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas. Properties of Waves A simple wave has a PH: Sound and Light

Current Staff Course Unit/ Length August August September September October Unit Objectives/ Big Ideas Basic Outline/ Structure PS4- Types of Waves Because light can travel through space, it cannot be

### Thermal Properties of Matter

Chapter 18 Thermal Properties of Matter PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson Goals for Chapter 18 To relate the

### Lecture 4: 09.16.05 Temperature, heat, and entropy

3.012 Fundamentals of Materials Science Fall 2005 Lecture 4: 09.16.05 Temperature, heat, and entropy Today: LAST TIME...2 State functions...2 Path dependent variables: heat and work...2 DEFINING TEMPERATURE...4

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

### Energy. Work. Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Learning Check 2.1. Energy. Energy. makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work.

Chapter 2 Energy and Matter Energy 2.1 Energy Energy makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work. 1 2 Work Potential Energy Work is done when you climb. you lift a bag of groceries. you

### States of matter. The three states of matter

1 By the end of this chapter you should be able to: States of matter explain what is meant by the states of matter ; describe physical differences between solids, liquids and gases; explain what is meant

### The melting temperature of carbon

hemical misconceptions 71 The melting temperature of carbon Target level Topics Rationale This exercise is suitable for either 14 16 year olds who have studied bonding and structure and can calculate relative

### Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. States of Matter Dependent on 2 things: Closeness Motion States of Matter Liquid & solid: atoms/molecules/ ions perpetually touching. condensed

### Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy

Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy 2.1 Forms of Energy How are forms of energy defined? 2.2 Energy Conversions What happens when energy is converted from one form into another form? 2.3 Efficiency of

### Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

### States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

### 3. Of energy, work, enthalpy, and heat, how many are state functions? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 ANS: c) 2 PAGE: 6.1, 6.2

1. A gas absorbs 0.0 J of heat and then performs 15.2 J of work. The change in internal energy of the gas is a) 24.8 J b) 14.8 J c) 55.2 J d) 15.2 J ANS: d) 15.2 J PAGE: 6.1 2. Calculate the work for the

### Heat as Energy Transfer. Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature

Unit of heat: calorie (cal) Heat as Energy Transfer Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature 1 cal is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature

### Chapter 6: Thermochemistry (Chemical Energy) (Ch6 in Chang, Ch6 in Jespersen)

Chapter 6: Thermochemistry (Chemical Energy) (Ch6 in Chang, Ch6 in Jespersen) Energy is defined as the capacity to do work, or transfer heat. Work (w) - force (F) applied through a distance. Force - any

### General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS

PROPERTIES OF GASES or GAS LAWS 1 General Properties of Gases There is a lot of empty space in a gas. Gases can be expanded infinitely. Gases fill containers uniformly and completely. Gases diffuse and

### Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1

Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure

### Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

### Temperature. Temperature

Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

### Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

### Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

### Gas Thermometer and Absolute Zero

Chapter 1 Gas Thermometer and Absolute Zero Name: Lab Partner: Section: 1.1 Purpose Construct a temperature scale and determine absolute zero temperature (the temperature at which molecular motion ceases).

### It can be hypothesized that as the number of Carbon atoms in an alcohol increases; the enthalpy of combustion will also become more negative.

Chemistry Lab Report Aim: The combustion of organic compounds produces large quantities of energy. These compounds range from that of alkanes, to alkenes to even alcohols. Ethanol is a commonly used fuel

### SC 119 PRACTICE Assessment - ANSWERS:

SC 119 PRACTICE Assessment - ANSWERS: 1. Outdoor grilling is a very popular method of cooking. Propane is the gas that is commonly used in grills. Three things are required for a gas grill to ignite: gas,

### Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International)

Unit 3.3 Metric System (System International) How long is a yard? It depends on whom you ask and when you asked the question. Today we have a standard definition of the yard, which you can see marked on

### Experiment 7: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide

Experiment 7: Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide Objective: In this experiment, a simple calorimeter will be constructed and calibrated, and Hess' law of constant heat summation will be used to determine

### Exam 4 Practice Problems false false

Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids

### 3 Thermal physics ESSENTIAL IDEAS. Molecular theory of solids, liquids and gases

3 Thermal physics ESSENTIAL IDEAS Thermal physics deftly demonstrates the links between the macroscopic measurements essential to many scientific models with the microscopic properties that underlie these

### Core Idea PS3. Energy. How is energy transferred and conserved?

Core Idea PS3 Energy How is energy transferred and conserved? interaction explain predict concept: the transfer of energy from one object or system of objects to another total energy defined system changes

### SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

### Problem # 2 Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces present in each element or compound:

Chapter 11 Homework solutions Problem # 2 Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces present in each element or compound: A. Kr B. NCl 3 C. SiH 4 D. HF SOLUTION: Kr is a single atom, hence it can have

### Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids 12-1 Liquids I. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic Molecular Theory A. Fluids 1. Substances that can flow and therefore take the shape of their container B. Relative

### IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES

2/2016 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES PURPOSE: To measure how the pressure of a low-density gas varies with temperature, to determine the absolute zero of temperature by making a linear fit to

### THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER

THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER COURSE CONTENT 1. Define matter and state of matter 2. Properties of solids, liquids and gases 3. Changes in matter Physical and chemical changes Phase changes of

### INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chapter 13 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids do