SUPPLY MARKET ANALYSIS. Guidance Note General 2

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1 SUPPLY MARKET ANALYSIS Guidance Nte General 2 1

2 Effective and efficient prcurement plicies, prcedures and practices in cntracting authrities can have a significant impact n btaining value fr mney in the purchase f gds and services by the State. In 2005 the NPPPU published the Natinal Public Prcurement Plicy Framewrk. The plicy requires that prcurement management refrm shuld be ne f the key strategic pririties f the public sectr in rder t achieve value fr mney utcmes frm prcurement. Prcurement management refrm is t be achieved by encuraging cntracting authrities t analyse their prcurement structures and practices and thrugh this prcess adpt imprved prcurement practices and prcedures. Cntracting authrities are required t achieve this plicy bjective thrugh the develpment f Crprate Prcurement Plans. The plans are expected t be underpinned by analysis f prcurement expenditure and prcurement practices, systems and structures. The plans shuld prvide targeted and strategic directin t prcurement planning in cntracting authrities. As part f the prcess f encuraging prcurement management refrm and the crprate prcurement planning prcess, the NPPPU is cmmitted t putting in place a suite f plicy and guidance dcuments t supprt innvative and imprved prcurement practices. This series shuld help thse wh make strategic decisins n prcurement, thse wh are respnsible fr develping their rganisatin s Crprate Prcurement Plan and thse wh are respnsible fr implementing these decisins and plans. This guidance nte has been develped t help cntracting authrities wh want t understand the cmmercial envirnment in which purchases f gds and services are made. 2

3 Intrductin While understanding f supply markets has imprved, there needs t be better understanding in cntracting authrities f the suppliers and the markets in which they perate and hw these shape the nature and availability f gds r services used by these authrities. Supply market analysis is a technique which enables a cntracting authrity t understand hw a market wrks, the directin in which a market is heading, the cmpetitiveness f a market, the key suppliers and the value that suppliers place n the cntracting authrity as a custmer. This can help infrm, imprve and shape the tendering prcess leading t imprved prcurement utcmes such as better value fr mney r service, reduced prices r achieving whle f gvernment utcmes. When shuld supply market analysis be carried ut? Supply market analysis shuld be carried ut in respect f the purchase f gds and/r services when they are difficult t purchase due t the cmplexity invlved invlve a high level f expenditure are critical t the nging business f the cntracting authrity Gds r services include large capital wrks, large transfrmatinal IT prjects, specialised IT prjects, purchases f specialised items such as chemicals. Less extensive supply market analysis shuld be carried ut n gds r services which may be easy t acquire but where there is a significant cst invlved. Gds r services include persnal cmputers, printers r phtcpiers. It is generally nt necessary t carry ut such analysis fr gds r services where it is easy t secure supply and there is a lw relative expenditure (e.g. statinery) r where gds r services are being acquired as part f an aggregated r framewrk arrangement. A brad framewrk fr analysing supply markets based n the SUPREM (www.suprem.gv.ie) supply psitining mdel is set ut in Appendix 1. 3

4 Reasns fr analysing supply markets There are a number f reasns fr analysing supplier markets: Better knwledge f supplier strategy Manage risk t the cntracting authrity Mre infrmed cntracting authrity Allws fr the identificatin f pprtunities t advance Gvernment pririties Better knwledge f supplier strategy Understanding hw individual suppliers perate, their market psitin, why they want t deal with the cntracting authrity and understanding their lnger term gals helps btain value fr mney. Analysing supply markets may: Prvide valuable infrmatin abut suppliers strengths and weaknesses. Fr example, the cntracting authrity may discver that a particular supplier is keen t win a Gvernment cntract r a supplier may have difficulty fulfilling rders. Identify cmparable substitute gds and services that may be available frm mre cmpetitive and less risky supply markets and culd ffer better value fr mney Understand which suppliers are mre technlgically advanced in particular sectrs Identify pprtunities t better manage the supply chain 1 that will reduce the cst f purchasing gds r services 1 See page f this dcument fr cmment n supply chain analysis 4

5 Allw the cntracting authrity t becme aware f all ptential suppliers (in a market with a limited number f suppliers, it is advantageus fr the cntracting authrity t encurage all suppliers t tender). Prvide a sund understanding f the cntracting authrity s attractiveness as a custmer fr the supplier. The mre imprtant the cntracting authrity is t the supplier in terms f the business generated the mre likely better service and price becmes available frm that supplier. Manage risk fr the cntracting authrity Analysing supply markets assists in determining the risks invlved in purchasing particular gds r services. It can als identify ways t manage these risks. Analysing supply markets may: Assist in the develpment f specificatins t encurage cmpetitive ffers and reduce the pssibility f purchasing gds r services which are nt fit fr purpse. Specificatins are ften set which are t restrictive and reduce the number f ptential suppliers. This is ften the result f a limited knwledge f alternatives. Identify pprtunities t increase the base f suppliers t meet the needs f cntracting authrities. Mre infrmed cntracting authrity One f the aims f the prcurement management refrm prcess is t help create a mre infrmed cntracting authrity. With market analysis, the cntracting authrity understands hw technlgy and ther factrs are driving changes in the market fr the particular gds r services it requires. The cntracting authrity understands hw gds and services are priced and hw service quality and standards are set by suppliers. Cntracting authrities wh understand markets and suppliers are better able t develp tenders which reflect cnditins in that market. Indeed they are able t help develp the market r suppliers s it can prvide the gds r services necessary t the functining f the cntracting authrity. They are als able t deal with suppliers n a mre equal basis when cntracts are in place. Allw fr the identificatin f pprtunities t advance gvernment pririties Gvernment plicy requires value fr mney utcmes frm prcurement and this can include achieving whle f Gvernment bjectives. Prcurement can assist in the develpment f envirnmental r scial initiatives r it can becme a frce fr innvatin and help supprt small and medium enterprises t develp their ptential. 5

6 An infrmed knwledge f the market and the capabilities f suppliers can help bring a better apprach t achieving whle f gvernment bjectives when cntracting authrities are tendering. Thus, an infrmed knwledge f the ICT sectr may allw fr a tender which seeks an innvative respnse frm the small business sftware sectr. A better understanding f changes in envirnmentally friendly technlgy culd help imprve envirnmental utcmes frm prcurement. Shuld cntracting authrities rely nly n advertising tenders r requests fr infrmatin? Develping successful prcurement strategies requires an awareness f current supply market infrmatin. Relying nly n prcesses such as requests fr infrmatin, qutatins and tendering may nt identify all the required infrmatin. A tendering prcess is unlikely t reveal t the cntracting authrity imprtant infrmatin such as the level f cmpetitin in the market, supplier capability and envirnmental factrs that may impact n the purchase. A tender prcess may nt prvide scpe fr identifying substitute r alternative gds and services, nr is it likely t identify the cntracting authrity s attractiveness t the market. Resurces invested in analysing supply markets are usually mre than ffset by the benefits in value fr mney and risk reductin. Cnducting the analysis f supply markets Intrductin Befre cmmencing any market analysis, the relevant individual r grup in the cntracting authrity shuld cnsider the aims and bjectives f this research s that the analysis will prvide the answers required within the time available. Fr example the individual r grup may want t cnsider whether the cntracting authrity is seeking a reductin in cst and requires infrmatin n hw the market prices a particular gd r service t understand the range f suppliers in the market and the gds/services they prvide in rder t develp an apprpriate specificatin t understand the latest trends in technlgy in a particular sectr achieve a specific whle f Gvernment bjective such as develping an innvative prduct r service, achieving a specific envirnmental standard r a particular scial bjective Once the aim f the research is understd, cntracting authrities need t identify ptential infrmatin surces; identify any ptential csts and set a timetable fr cmpleting the research. The level f detail in any 6

7 research will vary with the cmplexity f the purchase and supply market. N tw sets f wrk are likely t be the same and depend n the requirements f the cntracting authrity. The research needs t be flexible as new infrmatin gathered may change the directin f the research. Cntracting authrities shuld cnduct research and analysis at the same time. As infrmatin is researched, it needs t be analysed and initial analysts may lead t a requirement fr mre research and then further analysis based n new infrmatin. Individual cntracting authrities shuld decide as t their wn individual requirements n the level and extent f any analysis carried ut by them. Analytical framewrk fr supply market analysis The infrmatin gathered during the research phase can be analysed using the supply market analysis framewrk which prvides a structure fr the analysis. This framewrk can be used t examine the supply market fr a gd r service and fcuses n five key areas; Market structure Cmpetitin Supply chain Substitute gds and services The cntracting authrity s value as a custmer. This framewrk has been adpted frm Michael Prter s Five Frces Mdel f Cmpetitin. In additin, envirnmental factrs such as legal, plitical, cultural, ecnmic and technlgical elements that affect the supply market r the ability t purchase als need t be analysed. 7

8 The questins prvided under each heading are generic and can serve as a gd starting pint t analyse mst supply markets. These questins shuld be used as a general guide, but remember that every supply market is different, s this list may be expanded r cntracted where necessary. This type f research can ften uncver unexpected infrmatin abut the supply market. Be prepared t fllw leads and review and update yur research bjectives. Researching the market fr a particular gd r service may nt require analysis under all five headings. The decisin n which nes t use and which t mit is a matter fr the cntracting authrity and depends n the cmplexity f the supply market analysis being carried ut. Market Structure Key areas t research: Hw many suppliers are there in the market and what is each supplier s size (in terms f number f emplyees and prductin capabilities) Hw are the suppliers gegraphically distributed Which suppliers are the market leaders and which are the market fllwers What are the type and level f barriers t entry and exit fr ptential suppliers (that is, the ease with which new firms can enter and secure a place in a viable market) What is the size f the ttal market and relative size f each supplier (market share by revenue and/r prfits) What is the level f market cncentratin 2? (D a few large firms make up the bulk f all turnver) Have there been any mergers and/r acquisitins in this industry recently, r are any predicted What is the level f prduct differentiatin 3 between firms What are the rle, prfile and functin f any key industry bdies Which firms appear t lead in price increases r decreases D suppliers have interests in ther markets D any f the suppliers tend twards hrizntal 4 r vertical integratin 5 Supply markets can range frm the extreme situatin where there are many firms each selling an identical r similar prduct r service t a situatin where there is nly ne supplier (mnply). In a develped 2 Market cncentratin is the extent t which a small number f suppliers make up a large percentage f revenue. Fr example, if tw r three large firms represent 90% f the turnver in the industry, the market culd be referred t as highly cncentrated. 3 Prduct differentiatin is the level and types f differences that suppliers have between their prducts. 4 Hrizntal integratin means firms frming alliances r takevers with cmpanies in the same industry (cmpetitrs). 5 Vertical integratin means firms frming alliances r takevers with cmpanies that are in their supply chain (either upstream r dwnstream). 8

9 ecnmy, the majrity f markets fit smewhere between these tw categries. As there is unlikely t be perfect cmpetitin in all markets, ne f the greatest difficulties fr cntracting authrities is dealing with mnply r mnply like situatins. In such situatins, the pwer f the cntracting authrity is likely t be limited and pwer resides with the supplier(s) wh can use their pwers t set higher prices and influence the level f service available. Cntracting authrities need t cnsider hw they can develp innvative slutins t reslve ptential difficulties with mnply r near mnply suppliers. Depending n the reasn fr the mnply relatinship (fr example, due t buyer specificatins r the limited size f the market), different ptins may be available t the cntracting authrity t redress the balance. These include: Increase knwledge abut the supplier t identify pprtunities t leverage advantage Increase mutual dependency with the supplier Prduce the gd/service in-huse Supprt the develpment f alternative suppliers Cnsider substitute gds and services. The type f market structure will be affected by the type and level f barriers t entry and exit in a particular market. High barriers t entry including patent and licensing rights, difficulties in surcing capital r labur and gvernment regulatins. When barriers t entry are high, suppliers are likely t cmpete n prduct type and brand image rather than price. Supply markets with lw barriers are likely t result in a greater number f cmpetitrs and price-based cmpetitin is mre prevalent. Cntracting authrities shuld cnsider classifying their supplier base int the fllwing categries s that they understand where ptential difficulties may emerge with the supply f particular gds r services. Suppliers can be categrised as: Bttleneck where substitutin f existing gds prvided by the supplier is difficult; where there are mnplistic markets; high entry barriers t the market Nn-critical suppliers where there is availability f the particular gds r services and where there is standard specificatins allwing the gds r services t be surced frm a range f suppliers and where substitutin is pssible. Leverage suppliers where there is adequate availability f the gds r services with numbers f alternative suppliers; where there are standard prducts available frm these suppliers and it is pssible t substitute the gds and services and the suppliers. 9

10 Critical strategic suppliers where the suppliers are strategically imprtant; where substitutin r alternative suppliers are difficult t surce and they are f majr imprtance fr achieving the aims f the prcurement strategy. Understanding the structure f a market gives cntracting authrities an insight int the way firms perate and hw they are likely t behave in a cmmercial envirnment when supplying the cntracting authrity. Cmpetitin Key areas t research: D suppliers cmpete n quality, service, price and/r ther factrs What are the trends in the supply market (fr example, has prduct price cnsistently been reducing) Is there any bvius cmpetitive advantage held by a supplier Are there any trade restrictins in the market Is there impact f any trade, cnsumer r envirnmental legislatin What is the psitin f the prduct in its prduct life cycle, early, middle r late? Identifying the way in which suppliers cmpete in the market prvides infrmatin abut supply market dynamics and what t expect frm the market. Sme cmpanies cmpete n the basis f ne f a number f factrs which includes price, service, distributin, prduct types r brand image. Sme will cmpete n price where they have similar prduct, service and distributin. Other cmpanies differentiate n the basis f brand image and quality and level f service and less n price. The value f the additinal csts f branded gds and assciated services t the cntracting authrity needs t be cnsidered when evaluating suppliers. The level f cmpetitin can als be affected by the type and level f barriers t entry and exit in a particular market. As utlined abve barriers t entry include patent and licensing rights; difficulties in surcing capital r labur and gvernment regulatins. It is als wrth carrying ut research n the prduct life cycle f any gd. If a prduct is sld early in the prduct cycle, it is likely t be expensive and it may be subject t teething prblems. As the prduct is develped and becmes mre mainstream, it is likely t becme cheaper and f better quality. Finally a prduct reaches the mature stage where there are a number f manufacturers and retailers and the prduct is relatively cheap and easy t purchase. Purchasing gds in the late stage f the prduct cycle prvided they are fit fr purpse and are nt likely t becme bslescent, can be f significant benefit t cntracting authrities. 10

11 It is useful t attempt t frecast future supply market situatins. Fllwing trends and examining the likelihd f cmpetitrs entering r leaving the market can help cntracting authrities make better purchasing decisins. Fr example, the electricity industry is underging a prcess f deregulatin. Prir t this, ptins fr supply were restricted. Barriers t entry have been sequentially reduced resulting in mre chices fr buyers. This places the cntracting authrity in a ptentially better psitin t seek a better deal. Supply Chain A supply chain cnsists f all members invlved in the prcess f creating a gd r service frm inputs thrugh prductin, distributin and marketing t the end user. Supply chains need t be examined t identify the value added 6 element at each stage and t lk fr areas f pssible supply vulnerability 7. Nrmally each participant in a supply chain intrduces a price mark-up fr the gds r services as they prgress thugh the chain t cmpensate them fr the value they add t develpment, distributin and sales prcess. Key areas t research: What firms make up the supply chain Hw cmplex is the supply chain What des each member f the supply chain cntribute t the end prduct (the level f value-adding) What are the delivery r transprtatin methds in the supply chain Are there any ptential areas f supply vulnerability within the chain Are there any mre efficient surces f supply Fr example, a dmestic distributr f a specialist chemical surced frm utside the State wuld be expected t mark up the price t cver the imprtatin and handling csts. The value adding cmpnent is the supplier managing the risks assciated with imprting and handling the chemical. Althugh it may be cheaper fr a cntracting authrity t seek t purchase the chemical directly frm the riginal supplier, the cntracting authrity wuld need t manage the imprtatin and handling csts as well as the assciated risks. It wuld need t cmpare the trade ff between the tw ptins and decide n the best ptin. 6 Value added - Each participant f the supply chain shuld be expected t add value by cntributing benefits t what will be the final prduct. This may include such things as prduct packaging, prduct refinements, service, distributin, and/r management infrmatin reprts. The value added cmpnent will be the particular cntributin f the supplier t the end prduct. 7 Supply vulnerability - These are the risks that may exist in the mvement f prducts thrugh the supply chain. These risks may include dangers in strage and handling, imprtatin, and/r a supply chain participant s untimely exit frm the market that may result in delays r stckuts. 11

12 It is als pssible that there are unnecessary layers in the supply chain which d nt add value but add cst and delay delivery. The efficiency f the supply chain als needs t be cnsidered as sme suppliers in the chain may be unreliable r prly managed. The cntracting authrity needs t becme aware f such issues and seek t manage them. Better management f the supply chain may include purchasing frm a different level such as whlesale suppliers. Such an apprach t purchasing wuld have t be weighed up against the benefits f purchasing frm a lcal r SME supplier. Substitute gds and services Key areas t research: What gds and services are currently available t meet the needs f the cntracting authrity (Maintain a brad fcus) Are there any viable substitute gds r services that are currently under develpment that may be an alternative in the future? Fcussing n the utcme required frm the purchase and nt the prcess ften pens the market t a wider range f prducts and suppliers. Fr any gds r services, there may be a number f alternatives that are available that will meet the same need. Often prduct substitutes are missed because f a narrw fcus r because specificatins are t rigid. Surcing substitute prducts increases the number f firms that may meet cntracting authrities needs and reduces the pssibility f the cntracting authrity being in a vulnerable psitin in dealing with a mnply supplier. Maintaining a whle market fcus presents an increased number f pprtunities t surce alternative gds and services. This prcess needs t be cnducted in cnjunctin with the end users f the gds r services t ensure their needs will be met by any alternative prducts r services. Fr example, a cntracting authrity may seek t replace existing printers with a new set f similar size and standard f printers withut cnsidering whether there are alternatives t prviding its printing requirements which culd prvide better value fr mney. It culd fr example replace the existing printers with printing pds with fewer but higher specificatin printers replace the printers with a cmbinatin f netwrked phtcpiers and fewer printers purchase multi-functinal devices fr specific units which culd replace bth printers and phtcpiers purchase a cmbinatin f netwrked phtcpiers, high specificatin printers fr printing pds and sme multi-functinal devices 12

13 The ttal cst f wnership f these cmbinatins wuld have t be weighed against replacing the existing printers. Pssible csts and efficiency issues assciated with cultural and rganisatinal ppsitin t a change frm a printer envirnment wuld als have t be cnsidered. Hwever if the cntracting authrity des nt cnsider alternatives t replacing existing equipment an pprtunity t deliver better value fr mney wuld be missed. The cntracting authrity s value as a custmer Key areas f research: What is the ttal turnver in the market What is the turnver f individual suppliers that supply the prduct (This infrmatin will need t be cmpared t the cntracting authrity s current and predicted annual spend (if available) t prvide its relative value as a custmer.) What is the cntracting authrity s market share as a custmer Des the way the cntracting authrity cnducts its business make it attractive (r unattractive) as a custmer? It is imprtant t cnsider the cntracting authrity s value t the supply market and individual suppliers within the market. Suppliers can segment their custmers based n their relative imprtance based n amng ther issues the revenue yield and the attractiveness f the custmers. They tend t cncentrate n mre valuable custmers and wish t retain them by being mre cmpetitive. They may be less interested in gaining r retaining new business, if it is nt f sufficient interest r there is insufficient margin in the business fr them. The relative value f a cntracting authrity t a supplier is based n their expenditure and attractiveness. Expenditure cnsideratins include: The percentage f a supplier s business that the cntracting authrity represents (if the cntracting authrity is an existing custmer) the percentage f a supplier s business that the cntracting authrity culd represent (if the cntracting authrity was lking fr a supplier and the cntracting authrity s business was t be wn) the cntracting authrity s spending relative t ttal market turnver (a cntracting authrity is generally cnsidered significant if its business is 0.5 percent r greater f turnver in the market). Attractiveness includes: the prfitability f selling t the cntracting authrity (sales revenue less any csts f selling the prduct) the reputatin f the cntracting authrity the ease f managing the cntracting authrity s accunts guaranteed/certainty f payment and little danger f inslvency 13

14 the ptential t use the cntracting authrity as a marketing platfrm fr the supplier (that is, the level f n-sell ptential) Envirnmental factrs Understanding the cmpetitiveness and reliability f the relevant supply market may als invlve gathering infrmatin n external envirnmental factrs affecting that supply market. Envirnmental factrs include any legal, plitical, cultural, ecnmic, r technlgical elements that affect the supply market. Generally the tw factrs that are mst likely t affect purchasing decisins are legal factrs (legislatin; natinal and EU) and plitical factrs (plicies). Full and careful cnsideratin als needs t be given t factrs such as currency exchange rates if entering int large verseas transactins utside the Eur zne. It is imprtant t cnduct an evaluatin f all ptential envirnmental factrs fr all purchases which are f sufficiently high value r where there is sme risk t the cntracting authrity arising frm the purchase. Mst factrs are likely t be identified by cnsulting users f the prduct and assessing recrds f previus transactins with a view t identifying key issues r prblems. Retaining relevant infrmatin Dcumented infrmatin gained thrugh analysing supply markets is a key surce f market, industry and supplier intelligence. Such infrmatin shuld be updated n an nging basis, in particular where a cntracting authrity purchases high risk expensive gds r services n a regular basis. The supply base is cnstantly evlving and changing ver time and suppliers are cnstantly updating their marketing and management strategies. Surces f infrmatin Market and industry infrmatin is available frm a variety f surces. Mst f thse invlved in purchasing have access t n-line databases r research resurces f their rganisatin. It is recmmended that any research carried ut uses secndary surces, which are already published befre cnducting any primary research (infrmatin fund fr the first time, such as cnducting interviews r surveys). Secndary research usually prvides gd backgrund infrmatin abut the market and specific issues and/r suppliers. In terms f general market infrmatin this may include verall market size and ther statistics, key suppliers in the market and the like. Specific supplier infrmatin may include gds and services supplied by particular firms, cmpany reprts and infrmatin abut future plans. Once yu have an initial understanding f the gds r services and the supply market arising frm the secndary research, talking t suppliers 14

15 and prduct users (primary research) can help generate a clearer, mre detailed understanding. These culd be existing suppliers r suppliers surced thrugh secndary research. Primary research includes interviewing thse in the best psitin t understand any issues abut the gds r services required t meet their needs. This type f research shuld invlve a range f ptential suppliers bth current and nncurrent. A well prepared interview with suppliers can prvide useful infrmatin n prducts and market develpments cmpared t significant secndary research. It is als likely t prvide infrmatin n cst and pricing pressures and what is apprach is being adpted t reduce r minimise these csts. There is need fr cautin in any research wrk with suppliers as they are likely t be biased twards prmting their wn prducts and services. It is imprtant that a range f suppliers are interviewed since this gives a wider picture f prducts and markets and reduces ptential cmplaints abut bias r favuritism. If yu decide t talk t ptential suppliers be careful nt t make any representatins r prmises n behalf f the cntracting authrity r give away any infrmatin that is cmmercially valuable t the cntracting authrity. It is wrth interviewing internal users f gds r services, including technical peple and managers t btain a gd understanding f the issues. Targeting the apprpriate persn is imprtant in getting the best infrmatin. Such individuals may als have a gd understanding f the supply base and f the supply issues in that particular market and culd prvide a reality check n infrmatin btained frm primary r secndary surces. The infrmatin each persn may supply is likely t be different but useful in building a cmplete picture f the range f suppliers and the nature f the supply market. The list f rganisatins and ptential surces f infrmatin listed here is nt exhaustive. Individuals invlved in such a market analysis shuld use the surces listed here but als seek ut their wn surces f infrmatin. Pssible secndary infrmatin surces On line databases The natinal public prcurement prtal is It has links t the EU public prcurement prtal and ther useful sites. Many cntracting authrities will have access t sme research databases, fr example Lexis Nexis Gvernment services These bdies may have access t infrmatin abut suppliers r particular markets. 15

16 Central Statistics Office Cunty Enterprise Bards (see relevant lcal nes) Shannn Develpment (Clare, Limerick, Nrth Tipperary, West and Suth Offaly and Nrth Kerry) Udaras Na Gaeltachta cvers Dnegal, May, Galway, Kerry, Crk, Meath and Waterfrd Enterprise Ireland IDA Ireland Ecnmic and Scial Research Institute Media surces Media mnitring is a useful mechanism fr btaining infrmatin abut newswrthy activities ccurring in the supply market. Sme useful surces and their websites include the fllwing. There are many thers wrth cnsulting. There may als be specialist media surces fr particular gds r services which culd als be cnsulted. RTÉ News The Irish Times The Irish Independent The Irish Examiner The Ecnmist The Financial Times Business and Finance magazine Harvard Business Review nline x.jhtm Industry representative bdies There are a number f natinal bdies wh may be able t prvide infrmatin n suppliers and n supply markets. These are Cnstructin Industry Federatin Chambers Ireland Irish Business and Emplyers Cnfederatin Irish Small and Medium Enterprises Assciatin (ISME) Small Firms Assciatin Trade Assciatins can prvide a useful surce f infrmatin fr specific categries f prducts r services. The IPA annual yearbk r the business sectins f the telephne directry can prvide useful ways f surcing such infrmatin. Specialist cmmercial rganisatins Many cmmercial rganisatins have data that may be useful when gathering supply market infrmatin. It is als pssible t purchase 16

17 secndary research frm specialist research rganisatins. It is a matter f persnal judgement t determine whether the value f such material justifies the purchase csts. These include Other surces f infrmatin Individuals researching a base f suppliers may als want t cnsider using lcal libraries r libraries in third level institutins t surce relevant material. Internet search engines Internet search engines can be used t pint yu in the directin f a great wealth f infrmatin. Sme examples include: Alta Vista Ggle Yah Ask Cmpany specific infrmatin If an individual is researching ne supplier infrmatin in accunts and annual reprts can ften be fund n the internet. If mre detailed financial infrmatin is required (in Ireland) it can be acquired frm the Cmpanies Registratin Office (CRO) fr a fee. 17

18 Appendix 1 Market analysis fr easy t secure supply and lw relative expenditure Supply Psitining Chart Expenditure Risk Cleaning Security Newspapers Curier expenses Pstage Gds easier t acquire and are cmmnly available and any significant market analysis is nt necessary Where market analysis is carried ut it shuld fcus n services (e.g. curiers, cleaning) What suppliers are in the market Wh are the main suppliers Hw effective is their service prvisin Is there any difference in the services being supplied Hw imprtant is yur cntract t the supplier 18

19 Market analysis fr easy t secure supply and high relative expenditure Supply Psitining Chart Expenditure Risk Energy (Fuel) Training Office Supplies Telecmmunicatins Printing Better understanding f markets needed here fr bth gds and services Markets fr gds and services are mre cmplex Hw many suppliers What is the differences in prducts r services prvided D suppliers cmpete n quality, price r bth ther factrs What are the price trends in the market Hw imprtant is yur cntract t the supplier What alternative gds r services exist t meet yur needs 19

20 Market analysis fr difficult t secure supply and lw relative expenditure Supply Psitining Chart Specialised chemicals Specialised equipment (e.g. x-ray machines) Expenditure Risk Better understanding f markets needed here fr bth gds and services Usually limited number f specialised suppliers Wh are market leaders What is the level f prduct differentiatin D supplier cmpete n price, service r bth Are there barriers t entry t the market What alternative gds r services are available t meet the needs f the department Hw imprtant is the department/agency as a custmer 20

21 Market analysis fr difficult t secure supply and high relative expenditure Supply Psitining Chart Expenditure Risk ICT Pharmaceuticals Cnstructin Buying defence equipment Better understanding f markets needed here fr bth gds and services Hw many suppliers are in the market What is the size f the ttal market and what is the relative size f each supplier Which suppliers are market leaders Is the market dminated by small r large suppliers r a mixture What is the level f prduct r service differences between different firms D suppliers cmpete n price, service r bth factrs What are the barriers t entry and exit (ease with which suppliers can enter and exit the market) What are the price trends (increasing r decreasing) Is there any impact n trade, cnsumer r envirnmental legislatin What firms make up the chain f suppliers Hw cmplex is the supply chain and what des each cmpany cntribute t it Are there alternative gds r services available What is the value f the department/agency as a custmer 21

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