Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue"

Transcription

1 Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets or assesses information. D) maintains homeostasis. E) all of the above 2. Which of the following is responsible for problem-solving skills? A) central nervous system B) peripheral nervous system C) somatic nervous system D) autonomic nervous system E) none of the above 3. The central nervous system includes the A) ganglia. B) spinal cord. C) spinal nerves. D) cranial nerves. E) sensory receptors. 4. The peripheral nervous system includes the A) brain. B) spinal cord. C) cranial nerves. D) blood-brain barrier. E) cerebellum. 5. There are pairs of cranial nerves and pairs of spinal nerves. A) 10; 30 B) 31; 12 C) 12; 31

2 D) 30; 10 E) 12; Cell bodies of the peripheral nervous system are located in A) ganglia. B) Schwann cells. C) the motor division. D) the sensory division. E) nerves. 7. The sensory (afferent) division of the peripheral nervous system A) transmits action potentials to sensory organs. B) conveys action potentials to the CNS. C) stimulates glands to release hormones. D) stimulates muscle contractions. E) does not involve sensory receptors. 8. The motor (efferent) division of the peripheral nervous system A) is a division of the CNS. B) regulates the digestion of food. C) transmits impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle. D) has nerve cell bodies located in ganglia near the spinal cord and brain. E) detects a stimulus. 9. The autonomic nervous system A) stimulates skeletal muscle contractions. B) has two sets of neurons in a series. C) is involved in problem solving. D) is under voluntary control. E) does not include the central nervous system. 10. Digestion of food is regulated by the A) sensory division. B) sympathetic division of the ANS. C) parasympathetic division of the ANS. D) somatic nervous system.

3 E) none of the above. 11. The central nervous system A) is the site for processing information. B) initiates visual and auditory stimuli. C) consists of 43 pairs of nerves. D) is totally involuntary. E) does not interact with the peripheral nervous system. 12. Which of the following is mismatched? A) central nervous system - brain B) autonomic nervous system - sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions C) peripheral nervous system - spinal nerves D) somatic nervous system - sensory division of PNS E) peripheral nervous system sensory and motor divisions 13. Protein synthesis in neurons occurs in A) axons. B) dendrites. C) cell bodies or soma. D) terminal boutons. E) node of Ranvier. 14. Nissl bodies are A) part of a dendrite. B) also called gemmules. C) lipid droplets. D) areas of rough endoplasmic reticulum. E) part of the Golgi apparatus. 15. Dendrites A) are the input part of the neuron. B) conduct action potentials away from the cell body. C) are generally long and unbranched. D) form synapses with the microglia. E) contain the trigger zone.

4 16. Axons A) contain the nucleus. B) are numerous extensions from each neuron. C) do not have a trigger zone. D) have a distal portion that branches to form the presynaptic terminals or terminal boutons. E) do not have a resting membrane potential. 17. Axons contain A) the trigger zone. B) foot processes. C) Nissl bodies. D) the soma. E) the rough endoplasmic reticulum. 18. Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitter are present in the A) dendrites. B) cell body. C) axolemma. D) presynaptic terminals or terminal boutons. E) trigger zone. 19. A neuron that carries action potentials from one neuron to another is called a(n). A) motor neuron B) sensory neuron C) afferent neuron D) efferent neuron E) interneuron 20. A neuron that conducts pain sensations to the central nervous system would be classified as a(n) A) motor neuron. B) sensory or afferent neuron. C) efferent neuron. D) association neuron.

5 E) interneuron. 21. The motor neurons responsible for making a fist are A) unipolar. B) bipolar. C) multipolar. D) pseudopolar. E) none of the above 22. Neurons that have a single axon and a single dendrite are A) unipolar. B) bipolar. C) multipolar. D) pseudopolar. E) monopolar. 23. Neurons in the skin that are responsible for detecting pain are A) apolar. B) unipolar. C) bipolar. D) multipolar. E) pseudopolar. 24. Which of the following statements regarding neuroglia is false? A) Neuroglia serve as the major supporting tissue in the CNS. B) Neuroglia form part of the blood-brain barrier. C) Neuroglia produce action potentials for skeletal muscles. D) Neuroglia form myelin sheaths around some axons. E) Neuroglia produce cerebrospinal fluid. 25. The blood-brain barrier A) permits passage of foreign substances from the blood to neurons. B) prohibits the transport of amino acids and glucose to the neurons. C) prohibits the removal of waste materials from the neurons. D) protects neurons from toxic substances in the blood. E) does not prevent fluctuations in the composition of the blood from affecting the functions

6 of the brain. 26. A neuroglial cell that is a major component of the blood-brain barrier is the A) astrocyte. B) microglial cell. C) oligodendrocyte. D) ependymal cell. E) macrophage. 27. Which of the following substances must pass through the blood-brain barrier in order for neurons to survive? A) nicotine B) collagen C) glucose D) dopamine E) insulin 28. Overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid could be the result of overactivity of the A) astrocytes. B) microglial cells. C) oligodendrocytes. D) macrophages. E) ependymal cells. 29. Microglia A) are part of the blood-brain barrier. B) are phagocytic cells in the CNS. C) produce cerebrospinal fluid. D) form myelin sheaths. E) are part of the choroids plexus. 30. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder in which myelin sheaths in the CNS are destroyed. Which of the following neuroglial cells is being damaged in multiple sclerosis? A) astrocyte B) microglial cell C) oligodendrocyte

7 D) ependymal cell E) Schwann cells 31. Schwann cells differ from oligodendrocytes in which of the following ways? A) Schwann cells form myelin; oligodendrocytes do not. B) Oligodendrocytes are only found in the PNS; Schwann cells are only found in the CNS. C) Schwann cells form sheaths around several axons, while oligodendrocytes form sheaths around only one axon. D) Schwann cells form a myelin sheath around a portion of only one axon, while oligodendrocytes can surround portions of several axons. E) None of the above are true differences. 32. Which of the following is mismatched? A) microglia - provide support for the neuron cell body B) astrocytes - blood-brain barrier C) oligodendrocytes - form myelin sheaths D) ependymal cells - produce cerebral spinal fluid E) ependymal cells choroid plexus 33. Which of the following is true? A) In saltatory conduction, electrical charges flow from node to node. B) Myelination will not influence the speed of conduction of action potentials. C) The myelin sheath inhibits the flow of electrical charges at nodes. D) The myelin sheath is a protein wrapping. E) The myelin sheath does not electrically insulate the axons from one another. 34. Gaps or interruptions in the myelin sheath are called A) internodes. B) tight junctions. C) neurofilaments. D) nodes of Ranvier. E) gap junctions. 35. Action potentials are conducted more rapidly when transmission is A) from node to node on a myelinated axon. B) on a small diameter axon.

8 C) on an unmyelinated axon. D) from internode to internode. E) from internode to node on a myelinated axon. 36. White matter is composed of A) ganglial sheaths. B) bundles of myelinated axons. C) collections of nerve cell bodies. D) bundles containing both myelinated axons and nerve cell bodies. E) collections of unmyelinated axons. 37. If you cut bundles of axons and their myelin sheaths in the PNS, you cut A) ganglia. B) nuclei. C) nerves. D) gray matter. E) nerve tracts. 38. The plasma membrane of a neuron is more permeable to potassium ions because A) of its positive electrical charge. B) there are more non-gated channels for K+ than Na+. C) protein molecules cannot exit through the cell membrane. D) calcium ions block Na+ and Cl- channels. E) there are more non-gated channels for Na+ than K Which of the following is true? A) The resting plasma membrane is more permeable to Na+ than K+. B) The resting membrane potential never reaches an equilibrium point. C) The resting membrane potential is proportional to the tendency for K+ to diffuse out of the cell. D) Negatively charged Cl- ions are attracted by negative charges in the cell. E) The purpose of the sodium-potassium exchange pump is to create the resting membrane potential. 40. Mr. Miller has been hospitalized for the flu. The flu virus increases membrane permeability to potassium. You would expect his cells to

9 A) depolarize. B) repolarize. C) isopolarize. D) hyperpolarize. E) hypopolarize. 41. For the resting membrane potential, increasing the sodium ion concentration in the ECF results in A) hyperpolarization B) depolarization C) hypopolarization D) little change in membrane potential E) not enough information to tell 42. A change in the resting membrane potential has the following characteristics (nonpropagated, graded, can summate). This type of change can A) be a local potential B) be an action potential C) be a consequence of an increase in the permeability to Na+ D) result in repolarization E) A and C 43. Which of the following statements accurately describe events that occur as a result of a local potential reaching threshold? A) activation gates of Na+ ion channels begin to close B) inactivation gates of Na+ ion channels begin to open C) A positive feedback cycle develops in which depolarization causes activation gates of Na+ ion channels to open. D) K+ ion channels begin to close E) B and C 44. Which of the following events will lead to depolarization? A) an increase in K+ ions in the extracellular fluid B) a decrease in K+ ions in the extracellular fluid C) an increase in the rate of diffusion of K+ ions from cells D) an increase in Na+ ions in the extracellular fluid E) none of these cause depolarization

10 45. In hyperpolarization A) K+ ions tend to diffuse out of the cell. B) the plasma membrane's permeability to K+ decreases. C) the resting membrane potential moves closer to zero. D) Na+ ions enter the cell in large numbers. E) the resting membrane potential becomes more positive. 46. If the charge difference across the plasma membrane is decreased, A) the potential difference across the plasma membrane does not change. B) the membrane potential is more positive. C) the change is called hyperpolarization. D) negative proteins can leave the cell. E) the membrane potential is more negative. 47. Which of the following situations occurs in electrically excitable cells? A) When Na+ ion channels open, K+ ion channels close. B) The sodium-potassium exchange pump moves sodium into the cell. C) Depolarization causes voltage-gated sodium ion channels to open. D) Ligand-gated sodium ion channels are opened by high extracellular calcium levels. E) Proteins tend to diffuse out of the cell. 48. Voltage-gated sodium channels are sensitive to changes in the extracellular concentration of A) potassium ions. B) proteins. C) sodium ions. D) chloride ions. E) calcium ions. 49. A local potential A) does not occur until threshold. B) transmits information from one cell to another. C) might be a depolarization event but cannot be a hyperpolarization event. D) increases or decreases in direct proportion to the stimulus strength E) does not alter resting membrane potential.

11 50. A change in resting membrane potential confined to a small area is called a(n) A) local potential. B) action potential. C) summated potential. D) after potential. E) resting membrane potential. 51. Which of the following situations will lead to hyperpolarization? A) increase the permeability of the plasma membrane to Na+ ions B) decrease the permeability of the plasma membrane to K+ ions C) decrease the permeability of the plasma membrane to chloride ions D) any positive ion entering the cell E) none of these will lead to hyperpolarization 52. Depolarization of the nerve cell membrane occurs when there is a rapid influx (inflow) of A) potassium ions. B) chloride ions. C) calcium ions. D) sodium ions. E) proteins. 53. An action potential A) occurs when the local potential reaches threshold level. B) propagates across the plasma membrane in a decremental fashion. C) has no repolarization phase. D) is an example of negative feedback. E) cannot transmit information. 54. Which of the following events is not a characteristic of an action potential? A) The plasma membrane becomes highly permeable to sodium ions and depolarization results. B) As sodium ions enter, the inside of the plasma membrane becomes more negative. C) At the peak of depolarization, sodium channels begin to close and potassium channels open. D) In repolarization, potassium ions flow out of the cell. E) Action potentials occur according to the all-or-none principle.

12 55. A stimulus either causes an action potential or it doesn't. This is called A) an all-or-none response. B) a graded response. C) a latent period response. D) a relative refractory response. E) a local response. 56. In some cells, an afterpotential occurs because A) the sodium ions continue to enter the cell after depolarization is finished. B) there is prolonged, elevated permeability to potassium during repolarization. C) the sodium-potassium pump is actively exchanging ions across the membrane. D) the extracellular Na+ ion concentration is reduced. E) the permeability to sodium continues longer than necessary. 57. When repolarization of a neuron is complete, the A) neuron dies. B) neuron regenerates. C) cell no longer has a potential difference across its membrane. D) original polarity of the neuron is restored. E) neuron is no longer excitable. 58. The opening of more and more Na+ ion channels during depolarization A) is the result of the sodium-potassium exchange pump. B) is an example of a positive feedback cycle. C) is possible only if K+ channels remain closed. D) is the cause of the afterpotential. E) is an example of a negative feedback cycle. 59. Which of the following statements regarding voltage-gated K+ channels is true? A) These channels have only one gate. B) These channels open more slowly than Na+ channels. C) Once open, these channels remain open until repolarization is complete. D) These channels are specific for potassium. E) All of these are true.

13 60. During depolarization of the plasma membrane, A) sodium ions move rapidly into the cell. B) potassium ions move rapidly out of the cell. C) membrane permeability to sodium ions decreases. D) the outside of the cell becomes positively charged relative to the inside. E) sodium ions move rapidly out of the cell. 61. Each voltage-gated Na+ ion channel has two voltage sensitive gates: an activation gate and an inactivation gate. Which of the following would occur during depolarization? A) Activation gates are open; inactivation gates are closed. B) Activation gates are closed; inactivation gates are open. C) Both activation and inactivation gates are open. D) Both activation and inactivation gates are closed. E) None of the above occurs during depolarization. 62. Burn patients experience the destruction of cells and the release of cellular contents into the ECF. Burn patients are more likely to suffer from which of the following conditions? A) action potentials with exaggerated amplitudes B) tachycardia (a rapid heart rate) C) hyperpolarization of nerves and muscle fibers D) inability of neurons to stimulate muscle fibers E) A and B Level: If the ECF around a nerve cell is replaced with an isotonic saline solution that contains potassium ions and other solutes at concentrations very close to the ECF concentrations of a normal cell, the result is A) no resting membrane potential B) hyperpolarized membrane C) depolarized membrane D) a resting membrane potential close to its normal value E) none of the above Level: During the absolute refractory period, the cell A) generates many local potentials. B) is insensitive to further stimulation. C) responds to even weak stimuli.

14 D) reverses the direction of the action potential. E) is very sensitive. 65. The absolute refractory period assures A) prolonged depolarization during the action potential. B) completion of repolarization before another action potential. C) that no after-potential occurs. D) reversal of the direction of propagation of the action potential. E) that the stimulus is strong enough to elicit a response. 66. The absolute refractory period ends when A) inactivation gates of voltage-gated Na+ ion channels reopen. B) activation gates of voltage-gates Na+ ion channels reopen. C) the sodium-potassium exchange pump stops. D) voltage-gated K+ channels open. E) none of the above occurs. 67. Chemical synapses are characterized by A) the release of neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal. B) protein channels that connect the pre- and postsynaptic cells. C) the presence of receptors for neurotransmitters on the presynaptic terminal. D) the absence of gap junctions. E) receptors located only on the presynaptic terminal. 68. Gap junctions are functional synapses. A) chemical B) electrical C) potential D) intracellular E) neuromuscular 69. Local hyperpolarization in a synapse is called a(an) A) excitatory postsynaptic potential. B) resting membrane potential. C) inhibitory postsynaptic potential. D) gap junction potential.

15 E) action potential. 70. Arrange the events of synaptic transmission in correct sequence. 1. sodium ions diffuse into the cell and cause a local potential 2. neurotransmitter binds with receptor on postsynaptic cell 3. neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft 4. membrane permeability to sodium ions on postsynaptic cell increases 5. action potential causes release of neurotransmitter A) 5, 2, 3, 4, 1 B) 5, 2, 3, 1, 4 C) 5, 3, 4, 1, 2 D) 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 E) 5, 3, 2, 4, A stimulus that results in a local potential that does not reach threshold is called a A) threshold stimulus. B) maximal stimulus. C) subthreshold stimulus. D) supramaximal stimulus. E) local stimulus. 72. As the strength of a stimulus is increased, the A) amplitude of the action potential increases. B) duration of the action potential increases. C) frequency of occurrence of action potentials increases. D) resonance of action potentials increases. E) height of the action potentials increases. 73. When the local potential returns quickly to resting membrane potential even though the stimulus continues, is occurring. A) an afterpotential B) ligand gating C) accommodation D) a sodium influx E) acclimation.

16 74. The junction between two neurons is a A) ganglia. B) synapse. C) fascicle. D) node of Ranvier. E) neuromuscular junction. 75. Neurotransmitters are released from the A) epineurium. B) synaptic cleft. C) presynaptic terminal. D) postsynaptic membrane. E) calcium channels. 76. Damage to a postsynaptic membrane would A) increase neurotransmitter release. B) decrease the release of neurotransmitter. C) increase neurotransmitter production. D) interfere with the ability to respond to neurotransmitter. E) destroy vesicles containing neurotransmitter. 77. Why isn't an action potential transmitted from a postsynaptic membrane to a presynaptic terminal? A) Presynaptic terminals have no acetylcholine receptors. B) Presynaptic neurons do not have a resting membrane potential. C) Acetylcholine can only diffuse in one direction across the synaptic cleft. D) Synaptic vesicles in the postsynaptic membrane are inactive. E) Acetylcholine is destroyed too fast. 78. Neurotransmitters A) stimulate presynaptic terminals. B) remain in the synaptic cleft for long periods of time. C) bind irreversibly to the receptor molecules of the postsynaptic membrane. D) cause the production of action potentials in the postsynaptic membrane. E) do not affect membrane channels in the postsynaptic membrane.

17 79. Neurotransmitter is being released at a synapse. Which of the following occurs last? A) Calcium ions enter the presynaptic terminal. B) Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter by exocytosis. C) An action potential is produced in the postsynaptic membrane. D) Neurotransmitter flows rapidly across the synaptic cleft. E) Neurotransmitter binds with the receptor on the postsynaptic membrane. 80. Rapid removal or destruction of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft A) may affect the ability of the postsynaptic membrane to generate action potentials. B) generates local potentials in the presynaptic terminal. C) is necessary for synaptic transmission. D) may lead to action potentials. E) may stop exocytosis. 81. Monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) A) prevent synaptic transmission. B) enhance the breakdown of norepinephrine. C) enhance the binding of norepinephrine to its receptors. D) prevent the release of norepinephrine by the presynaptic terminal. E) have no effect on the action of norepinephrine. 82. Receptor molecules in synapses A) tend to concentrate on presynaptic terminals. B) bind irreversibly with neurotransmitter. C) have a high degree of specificity. D) serve as channel proteins. E) can bind to any molecule in the synapse. 83. Receptor molecules A) are nonspecific. B) are always lipids. C) attach to the synaptic cleft. D) determine whether a neurotransmitter will be excitatory or inhibitory. E) are not attached to ligand-gated channels. 84. A neuromodulator

18 A) acts as a neurotransmitter. B) inactivates neurotransmitters. C) is a receptor site for a neurotransmitter. D) has no influence on the amount of neurotransmitter released. E) is a substance released from neurons that influences the sensitivity of neurons to neurotransmitters. 85. When a neurotransmitter binds to its receptor and increases the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to sodium ions, A) the membrane will be hyperpolarized. B) more chloride ions will also diffuse into the cell. C) an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) will result. D) the membrane will become impermeable to potassium ions. E) the sodium ions diffuse out of the cell. 86. The same neurotransmitter may produce different effects on neurons because of differences in the A) type of receptors on the postsynaptic membranes of neurons. B) strength of the action potential. C) amount of neurotransmitter. D) size of the neurons. E) potassium channels. 87. Action potentials at a chemical synapse travel A) from presynaptic terminal to postsynaptic membrane. B) from postsynaptic membrane to presynaptic terminal. C) back and forth from presynaptic terminal to postsynaptic membrane. D) from presynaptic terminal to presynaptic membrane. E) from postsynaptic terminal to postsynaptic membrane. 88. A decrease in the number of voltage-gated Ca++ ion channels in the presynaptic terminal would A) enhance transmission across the synapse. B) reduce or inhibit transmission across the synapse. C) have no effect on transmission across the synapse. D) alter receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. E) increase exocytosis.

19 89. A person who has seizures might have a deficit of which of the following? A) GABA B) dopamine C) glutamate D) serotoninp E) histamine 90. In an EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential), there is a A) net movement of sodium ions out of the cells. B) net movement of chloride ions into the cells. C) decrease in action potential amplitude. D) local hyperpolarization. E) local depolarization. 91. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) can result from the influx of A) calcium ions. B) sodium ions. C) chloride D) potassium ions. E) C or D 92. Enkephalins produce presynaptic inhibition in neurons transmitting pain signals. Increased levels of enkephalins will A) increase awareness of pain. B) decrease awareness of pain. C) increase amount of pain. D) decrease amount of pain. E) have no effect on awareness or amount of pain. 93. A local anesthetic such as Novocaine decreases membrane permeability to Na+ ions. The use of this anesthetic will A) block sensory input into the CNS. B) enhance the development of EPSPs. C) cause RMP to move closer to threshold. D) cause Cl- ions to enter cells instead of Na+ ions. E) depolarize the cell.

20 Level: An IPSP is inhibitory because it A) changes the threshold of the neuron. B) hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic membrane. C) prevents Ca++ entry into the presynaptic terminal. D) reduces the amount of neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic terminal. E) depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane. 95. When two action potentials arrive simultaneously at two different presynaptic terminals that synapse with the same postsynaptic neuron, A) the direction of the action potential is reversed. B) temporal summation occurs. C) spatial summation occurs. D) hyperpolarization occurs. E) threshold is never reached. 96. If five action potentials arrive at the same synapse in very close succession, which of the following would occur? A) The direction of the action potential is reversed. B) Temporal summation occurs. C) Spatial summation occurs. D) Hyperpolarization occurs. E) Depolarization always occurs. 97. Suppose both excitatory and inhibitory neurons synapse with a single postsynaptic neuron. What determines if an action potential is initiated in the postsynaptic neuron? A) the kind of neuron involved B) the size of the neuron involved C) whether the neuron is myelinated or non-myelinated D) the number of EPSPs in relation to the number of IPSPs E) This situation is not possible in humans. 98. When two or more presynaptic neurons synapse with a single postsynaptic neuron in the CNS, a(n) pathway is formed. A) convergent B) divergent

21 C) oscillatory D) somatic E) sensory 99. Sensory neurons carrying action potentials from pain receptors synapse within the spinal cord with interneurons. These interneurons synapse with motor neurons leading back to an effector and ascending neurons that carry action potentials toward the brain. This is an example of a(n) pathway. A) convergent B) divergent C) oscillatory D) sensory E) bifurcated Level: Neurons arranged in a circular pathway form A) neuromotor junctions. B) oscillatory circuits. C) spatial pathways. D) temporal circuits. E) circulating pathways. Refer to the following figure for questions Identify structure A on the neuron. A) Schwann cell B) Node of Ranvier C) neuron cell body (soma) D) dendrites E) axon

22 102. Identify structure B on the neuron. A) Schwann cell B) Node of Ranvier C) neuron cell body (soma) D) dendrites E) axon 103. Identify structure C on the neuron. A) Schwann cell B) Node of Ranvier C) neuron cell body (soma) D) dendrites E) axon 104. Identify structure D on the neuron. A) Schwann cell B) Node of Ranvier C) neuron cell body (soma) D) dendrites E) axon 105. Identify structure E on the neuron. A) Schwann cell B) Node of Ranvier C) neuron cell body (soma) D) dendrites E) axon Fill in the Blank 106. The nervous system has two subdivisions - the central nervous system and the nervous system. Answer: peripheral 107. are collections of neuron cell bodies located outside of the central nervous

23 system. Answer: ganglia 108. Nerve fibers are also called. xons 109. are processes that conduct electric signals toward the cell body. endrites 110. A neuron with several dendrites and a single axon would be called a neuron. Answer: multipolar 111. Most unipolar neurons are neurons. Answer: sensory 112. are neuroglia cells that are macrophages. Answer: microglia 113. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by cells. pendymal 114. Action potentials are conducted rapidly from one node of Ranvier to the next in a process called conduction. Answer: saltatory Essay Questions 115. Why are mature neurons unable to give rise to brain tumors? What cells do give rise to the tumors of the nervous system? Answer: Mature neurons do not multiply and are unable to give rise to brain tumors. The great majority of tumors of the nervous system arise from glial cells or the proliferation of other tissue cells found in conjunction with the brain, such as the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland. Very rarely, immature neurons will give rise to tumors knows as neuroblastomas. Level: Distinguish between a neuron, a neurofilament, and a nerve.

24 Answer: A neuron is a nerve cell. Neurofilaments are intermediate filaments found inside the cell body of a neuron. Bundles of axons and their sheaths are known as nerves. Level: A virus causes damage to the sodium channels of the postsynaptic neuron such that they open very slowly in response to a neurotransmitter. How does this modify the generation of an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron? Answer: Because the sodium channels are opening slowly, depolarization of the cell membrane of the post-synaptic neuron takes longer. The overall speed of action potential conduction is slowed, as transmission takes longer at the synapse. In fact, the channels could open so slowly that depolarization does not occur at all and the action potential would not be transmitted across the synapse. Level: What is the survival advantage of the blood-brain barrier? Answer: The blood-brain barrier protects the delicate neurons from toxic substances in the blood, while allowing the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the blood and neurons Multiple sclerosis is a disease characterized by degeneration of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. Why is the ability to control skeletal muscles affected in this disease? Answer: The motor neurons that carry information from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles are myelinated. Loss of myelin will adversely affect rate of nerve impulse conduction on these neurons. Nerve impulse conduction slows or may be stopped, resulting in difficulties controlling or moving these muscles. Level: Valium is a drug that triggers the opening of chloride ion channels. Will treatment with Valium depolarize or hyperpolarize a cell? Explain. Answer: Valium will hyperpolarize. Chloride ions are negatively charged and as the number of negative ions inside the cell increases, the cells resting membrane potential moves further from zero. Level: Predict the effect of a drug that reduces the permeability of the plasma membranes to sodium ions. Would such a drug have any medical applications? Explain. Answer: This drug would cause the rate of sodium movement into cells to decrease. Therefore a greater stimulus would be required to develop depolarization. This drug could have a use in treatment of conditions where there is a need to reduce euphoria, hyperactivity, and other manic symptoms. Level: The sciatic nerve of a pithed frog was carefully removed and placed in a nerve chamber with recording electrodes. When both recording electrodes were placed on the surface of the nerve (both were extracellular), a resting membrane potential was not recorded. However, when

25 one electrode was extracellular and the other electrode was intracellular, a resting membrane potential was recorded. Explain these two sets of results. Answer: When both electrodes are placed on the surface of the nerve, no RMP is recorded, as there is no difference in electrical charge between the two electrodes. However, when one electrode is placed inside the cell and the other is left outside the cell, then there will be an RMP recorded, because there is an unequal concentration of ions separated by the cell membrane. Level: A virus causes damage to the sodium channels of the postsynaptic neuron such that they open very slowly in response to a neurotransmitter. How would this modify the generation of an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron? Answer: The action potential would be more difficult to generate (or would take longer) because the sodium influx necessary for depolarization will occur more slowly. Level: 3

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making)

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making) The Nervous System Nervous system links sensory receptors and motor effectors Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from receptors Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses to effectors - muscles and

More information

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue 12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment

More information

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind The nervous system: Controls, integrates and coordinates the body s activities Provides rapid and brief responses to stimuli Has 2 major divisions: 1. The central

More information

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 8 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Overview: Lines of Communication The cone snail kills prey with venom that disables neurons Neurons are nerve cells that transfer information within the body

More information

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY C H A P T E R 1 11 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM & NERVOUS TISSUE C H A P T E R 1 PART I HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Integration An animal needs to function like a coherent organism, not like a loose collection of cells. Integration = refers to processes such as summation

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet 1. Name the two major subdivisions of the nervous system Nervous System Nervous System 2. Name the two parts (organs) of the CNS 3. What are the three functions

More information

Major Structures of the Nervous System

Major Structures of the Nervous System Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-1 Nervous System Divisions

More information

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A Functions of the Nervous System 1.Sensory input Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes 2.Integration

More information

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY Multiple Choice: Read the entire question and all answers before choosing (circle the letter ) the one best answer. Each question is worth 2 point 1. Which of the following

More information

Essay Question for exam 3

Essay Question for exam 3 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling

More information

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for K+. b. Is much closer to the equilibrium for K+ than to the equilibrium potential for

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Part 1: The Nervous System Please watch the following video. - Click the link below. - Adjust volume on speaker (far right on teacher desk). - Increase picture size by clicking bottom

More information

Neuron Structure and Function

Neuron Structure and Function C H A P T E R 4 Neuron Structure and Function PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Stephen Gehnrich, Salisbury University Neurons Vary in structure and properties Use same basic mechanisms to send signals

More information

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each.

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. 2. Fully discuss the three general functions of the nervous system, and draw a figure that summarizes

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4 ANATOMY I; CHAPTER 11, NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous system is the master control, 2 communication and coordinating system between the different body structures and systems Every activity, thought and emotion

More information

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system.

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system. Nervous system Components The nervous system is the central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - nerves connecting to the CNS and serving the body.

More information

Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

More information

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow 13.01.2015 Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow Introduction Property of irritability and conductivity Respond to various types of stimuli Distributed

More information

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System Neuron Structure 2.2 Neuron Classification Schemes Neurons can be classified according to Number of axon processes: Unipolar:

More information

The Nervous System CH 28

The Nervous System CH 28 The Nervous System CH 28 Nervous system Structure and function Nerve signals and their transmission Nervous systems The human brain Giant Squid! Artituthus can be 30 ft+ The Giant Squid Nervous System

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 38

Biology Slide 1 of 38 Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body

More information

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Introduction The nervous system and the endocrine system are the body s major control and integrating centers. Neurology is the study of the normal functioning and disorders of

More information

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential 2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

More information

Nerve Cell Physiology

Nerve Cell Physiology Nerve Cell Physiology body is electrically neutral there are small differences in electrical charge between inside and outside of cell membranes due to differences in + and ions on inside and outside of

More information

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Nerve tissue Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Development neuroectoderm neural plate neural tube: brain vesicles spinal cord neural crest

More information

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS 5.1. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS One of the main functions of neurons is to communicate with other neurons. An individual neuron may receive information from many different sources.

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular The Nervous System Overview The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action and emotion reflects its activity. Its cells communicate by electrical

More information

Structural Classification of the Nervous System

Structural Classification of the Nervous System Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Activates nerve responses Interprets sensations Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Composed of all the nerves

More information

Chapter 11 Nervous Tissue and Membrane Potentials

Chapter 11 Nervous Tissue and Membrane Potentials Chapter 11 Nervous Tissue and Membrane Potentials There are two types of nervous tissue cells o Neuroglia (glia or glial cells) support the functioning of neurons. o Neurons (nerve cells) transmit electrical

More information

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Overview of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System Electrophysiology of Neurons Synapses Subdivisions of the Nervous System Two major anatomical subdivisions: Central

More information

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus

More information

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg UNIT 4: Homeostasis Chapter 11: The Nervous System pg. 514 11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg 516-521 Organisms need to senses heir environments to make appropriate adjustments and survive. The nervous

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells! Class Outline" 5 minutes" "Attendance, Breath of Arrival, and Reminders "

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,

More information

Bi 360: Midterm Review

Bi 360: Midterm Review Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential

More information

Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction. by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D

Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction. by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D Clarification: Types of Neuron There may be none, one, or many dendrites composing part of a neuron.

More information

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Neurophysiology Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Levels of organization of the nervous system From Shepherd Neurobiology,

More information

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON Nervous Tissue (NT) - highly specialized tissue - forms, receives and sorts signals (irritability) - transmits electrical impulses (conductivity) Functions of Nerve Tissue Nervous tissue allows an organism

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center NERVOUS SYSTEM Academic Resource Center Overview of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system-pns cranial nerves spinal nerves ganglia peripheral nerves enteric plexuses sensory receptors Overview of

More information

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons:

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons: Neuron cell structure s: Contain neuroreceptors that respond when exposed to neurotransmitters. : Body of neuron cell. DNA in the nucleus in the soma code for all the proteins of the neuron. Axon hillock:

More information

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1 page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Excitable Tissue: able to generate Action Potentials (APs) (e.g. neurons, muscle cells) B. Neurons (nerve cells) a. components 1) soma (cell body): metabolic center (vital, always

More information

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System v Name the parts of a generalised neuron & indicate the input, output and integration areas of the neuron. Ø Neurons are the functional cell of the nervous system

More information

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information. Chapter and Topic of this Review Guide: Chapter 2 the Brain pages 52-62 and the Psychology in Action Vocab Term Definition of Term Example Neuron An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

More information

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date ACTIVITY 1 The Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain why increasing extracellular K + reduces the net diffusion of K + out of

More information

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place Nervous Regulation A. Functions of the nervous system Maintain Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place 3. Coordinate responses - B. Mechanisms for Nervous Regulation

More information

Neurons Fox Chapter 7 pt 1

Neurons Fox Chapter 7 pt 1 Vert Phys PCB3743 Neurons Fox Chapter 7 pt 1 T. Houpt, Ph.D. Structure of Vertebrates Two major compartments of the body Peripheral Compartment Everything outside of the brain and spinal cord (heart, lungs,

More information

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No.

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No. 3: Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses (Part 2) Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Interval between stimuli Stimulus voltage (mv) Second action potential?

More information

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Name * = correct answer Multiple Choice: 1. Axons and dendrites are two types of a) Neurites * b) Organelles c) Synapses d) Receptors e) Golgi cell components 2. The

More information

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl. The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) ** If this is not printed in color, it is suggested you

More information

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages )

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages ) Name Period Chap 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, and 38.3 A look at cells, tissues, organs, organ systems of humans as well as the role of passive and active transport in nerve and muscle conduction

More information

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory

More information

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0. IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.5 to 395 meters/sec [1to280 miles/hour] How do Neurons communicate? Neurons

More information

M555 Medical Neuroscience Neurocytology: Cells of the Nervous System

M555 Medical Neuroscience Neurocytology: Cells of the Nervous System M555 Medical Neuroscience Neurocytology: Cells of the Nervous System Central Nervous System brain spinal cord bundles of s in Peripheral Nervous System nerves ganglia figure 1-1 Harriet Cole Dr. R.B. Weaver

More information

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B.

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue

More information

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 * = correct answer. 1. The Greek philosopher Aristotle hypothesized that the brain was a) A radiator for cooling the blood.* b) The seat of the soul. c) The organ

More information

Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out

Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out Graded Potentials Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out Length constant ( ) is defined as the distance over which

More information

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS)

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS) UNIT 7 NOTES NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous System (NS) has 3 functions: 1. Sensory Input Conduction of electrical signals from sensory receptors 2. Integration Information is interpreted and response generated

More information

Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron

Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Basic parts of neuron (nerve cell) Cell body Dendrites Axon Axon hillock Axon terminals Action potentials are initiated at the axon hillock, and conducted throughout a nerve

More information

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture Review basic nervous system anatomy before you begin this lecture. The lecture touches on a few of the major characteristics, but you are expected to have already been

More information

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Forces and Membranes Now that we've considered the structure of the cells of the nervous system it is important to address their principal function, communication.

More information

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System I. Organization of the Nervous System Objectives: List the general functions of the nervous system Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system

More information

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Background Neurons (Fig 6.1) are cells in the nervous system that are used conduct signals at high speed from one part of the body to another. This enables rapid, precise

More information

NERVOUS TISSUE CNS (PNC) neurons glia Neurons perikaryo Nissl bodies Neuronal Processes: dendrites axons - Dendrites

NERVOUS TISSUE CNS (PNC) neurons glia Neurons perikaryo Nissl bodies Neuronal Processes: dendrites axons - Dendrites NERVOUS TISSUE The nervous system consists of all nervous tissue in the body. It is divided anatomically into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNC). The CNS consists

More information

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS.

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS. 1 THE NERVOUS TISSUE Definition: The nervous tissue is an assemblage of cells and supportive elements (materials) in which there is a predominance of cells which are highly specialized in the property

More information

Chapter 15. The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS

Chapter 15. The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic

More information

2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal cord as well as the cranial nerves.

2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal cord as well as the cranial nerves. Nervous System The nervous system is divided into two parts: 1. Central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that

More information

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems How is the Nervous System Organized? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems 1 Class Objectives: Understand the function and purpose of the nervous system Identify and define the

More information

Nerves mp3

Nerves mp3 Nerves mp3 http://www.cptproton.com/ Test Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment These muscles are primarily flexors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis Flexor retinaculum Flexor digitorum

More information

Chapter 9. The Nervous System. Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006, 2002, 1997, 1992 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Chapter 9. The Nervous System. Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006, 2002, 1997, 1992 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 9 The Nervous System Objectives List the organs and divisions of the nervous system and describe the generalized functions of the system as a whole Identify the major types of cells in the nervous

More information

The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses. Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli

The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses. Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli The Bottom Line For any external or internal signal to be recognized by the brain it must

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue, Medulla Spinalis and Brain Stem

Histology of Nervous Tissue, Medulla Spinalis and Brain Stem Histology of Nervous Tissue, Medulla Spinalis and Brain Stem Nervous Tissue 2 cell types: Nerve cells (neurons) receive or transmit impulses interconnections (at least 1000 each) Neuroglial cells more

More information

1. For normal neurons, understand structure and function of axons, dendrites and cell bodies.

1. For normal neurons, understand structure and function of axons, dendrites and cell bodies. Objectives: 1. For normal neurons, understand structure and function of axons, dendrites and cell bodies. 2. Understand the basic events of synaptic transmission and characteristics of the major neurotransmitters.

More information

Structure and Function Relationship in Nerve Cells & Membrane Potential Asist. Prof. Aslı AYKAÇ

Structure and Function Relationship in Nerve Cells & Membrane Potential Asist. Prof. Aslı AYKAÇ Structure and Function Relationship in Nerve Cells & Membrane Potential Asist. Prof. Aslı AYKAÇ NEU Faculty of Medicine Biophysics Nervous System Cells Glia Not specialized for information transfer Support

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C.

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food

More information

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).

More information

Nervous System. Brain Teaser. IntroducGon. Which number comes next in the sequence? 4,7,10 or 12? Dr. Dinithi Peiris Dept.

Nervous System. Brain Teaser. IntroducGon. Which number comes next in the sequence? 4,7,10 or 12? Dr. Dinithi Peiris Dept. Nervous System Dr. Dinithi Peiris Dept. of Zoology 8 15 14 9 1 6 3 Brain Teaser Which number comes next in the sequence? 4,7,10 or 12? 3 IntroducGon For survival, animal must respond to the outside environment

More information

The connection between adjacent neurons.

The connection between adjacent neurons. 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell or neuron. i. Add the following labels to the diagram. Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse

More information

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron:

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron: The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized

More information

Nervous System. Chapter Outline and Objectives

Nervous System. Chapter Outline and Objectives This image of the brain shows that the nervous system is very active. In fact, the nervous system is the control center of the body. It is through the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that we are able to

More information

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d.

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d. Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer: A difficulty: 1 factual

More information

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM NEURONS AND GLIA CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Glia Insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons Neurons Process information Sense environmental changes Communicate changes to other neurons Command body response

More information

Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus!

Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus! Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus! Neural Tissue! -3% of body mass! -cellular, ~20% extracellular

More information

Chapter 9 - Nervous System

Chapter 9 - Nervous System Chapter 9 - Nervous System 9.1 Introduction (p. 215; Fig. 9.1) A. The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. 1. Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons. 2. Nerves

More information

The Action Potential

The Action Potential OpenStax-CNX module: m46526 1 The Action Potential OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you

More information

Nervous System Histology

Nervous System Histology Nervous System Histology Week 9 Expanded Studies OBJECTIVES Identify the portions of a multipolar neuron using models & slides Differentiate between pseudounipolar, bipolar & multipolar neurons from slides

More information

The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function

The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function C H A P T E R 3 The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function Cynthia J. Forehand, Ph.D. CHAPTER OUTLINE PASSIVE MEMBRANE PROPERTIES, THE ACTION POTENTIAL, AND ELECTRICAL

More information

Homework #1: Multiple choice:

Homework #1: Multiple choice: Homework #1: Multiple choice: 1. Which of the following statements about the expression of genes in the nervous system is true? a. Every gene in the human genome is expressed in the CNS. b. There are tens

More information

NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION

NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM VIKASANA - VIGNANA PATHADEDEGE NIMMA NADIGE Bridge Course Program for SSLC Students who want to take up Science in I PUC in 2012 CONTENTS Introduction

More information