GG102 Unit 2. Energy Lecture 4. Hydropower and Biofuels

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1 GG102 Unit 2. Energy Lecture 4 Hydropower and Biofuels

2 Fuel Sources used in the USA Renewables = 8 % of fuel used in the USA Petroleum Fuel Type Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Power Renewable Energy (solar, wind, hydropower, biofuel) % of total fuel used 37 % 25 % 21 % 9 % 8 %

3

4 Five Biggest Hydroelectricity Dams Facility Loca3on Capacity (MW) Three Gorges China 20,300 Itaipu Brazil 14,000 Guri Venezuela 10,200 Tucurui Brazil 8,370 Grand Coulee USA 6,809

5 Hydroelectric Facili[es Large Facili[es (dams at major rivers) 0.3 to 10 GW, includes the larges power producing facili[es in the world (> than nuclear plants!) Small Facili[es (dams at streams/falls) 0.01 to 0.03 GW, serve local community or valley, common in China, Japan, India, Canada and the USA Micro Facili[es (dams at creeks) Up to 100,000 Wads, serve isolated home/few homes, power light bulbs, radio, television.

6 Global Hydropower Use Hydropower accounts for: 16.1 % of global electricity use 3.4 % of global energy use

7 Hydropower is: Globally Distributed: N & S America, Europe and Asia all have extensive hydropower resources With Important Excep[ons: The Middle East = 0.4 % of global produc[on of hydropower (no resource) Africa = 3.0 % of global produc[on of hydropower (underdeveloped)

8 Global Capacity = 1,010 Gigawads Nuclear Energy = 417 Gigawads Wind power = 197 Gigawads Solar power = 40 Gigawads

9 Hydropower Rate of Doubling The global capacity for hydropower has doubled in the last 20 years It con[nues to steadily rise.

10 Global Use of Hydropower,

11 Regional Share of Global Hydropower Produc[on, 2010

12 Na[ons with Greatest Total Hydroelectricity Produc[on, 2010

13 Countries with at least 90% of total electricity produc[on from Hydropower in 2008

14 Hydropower Pros: Electricity with no CO 2 emissions Flood control Water for recrea[on/irriga[on/drinking Rela[vely Flexible (large, small, micro) Globally distributed

15 Hydropower Cons: Large construc[on project ($$$) Sediment buildup requires maintenance Nega[ve effects on fish/wildlife Long- term effects on water table

16 Video ~5 minutes: Machines! Season 1, Episode 4 (2010) Hoover Dam

17 Biofuels Biofuels are fuels produced by living organisms Examples: processing/fermenta[on of corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses, vegetable oil, food waste, fruit, potato, wheat Directly and Indirectly linked to Food Produc[on Are almost exclusively used for transporta[on.

18 Global Use of Biofuels Global produc[on is at an all- [me high 105 billion liters in 2010 Note: 13.9 billion liters of Petroleum are used per DAY The amount of biofuels produced in 1 year is equal to the amount of petroleum used in 1 week

19 Biofuels: 2 main types Ethanol (80 % of all biofuel) Fermented from corn or sugar Leaders: USA (corn) and Brazil (cane) Biodiesel (20 % of all biofuel) Fats and vegetable oils (food waste)

20 Ethanol: 2 main producers USA (ethanol based on corn) Corn- derived ethanol supplies 4 % of transporta[on fuel in the USA Up to a 15 % Ethanol Blend is possible to use in American cars. Brazil (ethanol based on sugar cane) Cane- derived ethanol supplies 41.5 % of transporta[on fuel in Brazil Brazil ac[vely chooses between producing sugar for export/import and ethanol for domes[c fuel

21 Ethanol: 2 main producers USA (ethanol supplies 4 % of transporta[on fuel) 318 million people Per capita income = $49,000 per year Brazil (ethanol supplies 41.5 % of transporta[on fuel) 200 million people Per capita income = $ 11,000 per year 6 % of popula[on lives on < $1 per day 7 % of popula[on is undernourished (= 15 million people)

22 Biodiesel produc[on Main Produc[on from Soy, Rapeseed and Palm Oil Main producers: EU (especially Germany, France & Spain), Brazil, Argen[na, USA and Indonesia

23 Biofuel Mandates EU has a 5.75 % blending mandate! Europe is impor[ng biofuels Argen[na and Brazil also have mandates

24 Corn The USA is the world s largest producer and exporter of corn Most of the corn grown in the USA is used for fuel! This cuts into the surplus available as food for the world.

25 Biofuel Rate of Doubling The recent rate of biofuel produc[on has doubled in the last <2 years

26 World Ethanol and Biodiesel Produc[on,

27 Biodiesel Produc[on in Million Liters, 2010

28 US Corn Use,

29 Video ~10 minutes: QUEST: Science and Nature Tuesday, April 8 (2008) Biofuels: Beyond Ethanol Video ~10 minutes: QUEST: Science and Nature Tuesday, July 10 (2007) From Waste To Wads: Biofuel Bonanza

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