Institut für Energietechnik Department of Energy Systems. Hydroelectric power. Elias Bartos 2/7 2010

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1 Institut für Energietechnik Department of Energy Systems Hydroelectric power Elias Bartos 2/

2 Contents Different types of power plants Potential Economics Conclusion 2

3 Impoundment A dam is built across a river impounding a head of water behind it in a reservoir which can then be released through a turbine to generate electricity. 3

4 A Diversion Sometimes called runof river, facility channels a portion of a river through a canal. It may not require the use of a dam and thus has a lower environmental impact. 4

5 Pumped Storage When the demand for electricity is low, a pumped storage facility stores energy by pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high electrical demand, the water is released back through a turbine to the lower reservoir to generate electricity. 5

6 A modern small scale water turbine Capacity 50kW Small scale hydroelectric: 6

7 Water turbine runners Various types of water turbine runners. From left to right: Pelton Wheel Specific Speed 5.0 rpm Francis Turbine Specific Speed 30 rpm Francis Turbine Specific Speed 70 rpm Kaplan Turbine Specific Speed 113 rpm 7

8 Francis turbine 8

9 Why hydroelectric power? Pros, Renewably energy source Fast to adapt to electricity demand Low operations cost Long lifetime Flood control (in combination with a dam) Improve transport condition on the river 9

10 Why hydroelectric power? Cons, High investment costs Big local environment impact River flows and natural flooding cycles sedimentation/silting are changed Damage fish migration ways Loss of land under the reservoir 10

11 Hydroelectric today Hydroelectricity stands for 20% of the worlds electricity demand About 88% of the worlds renewably electricity comes from hydroelectric power plants 11

12 Source: U.S: Energy Information Administration 12

13 Future potential Estimated hydropower development by region Key (TWh/year) Technical feasibility Current production Realistic development Source: Energy Council, 2007 Survey of Energy Resources World s

14 Europe Hydropower potential, gross hypothetical capability (TWh/year ) Source: European Environment Agency 14

15 Economy High investment costs Long operative lifetime Improves transport abilities on the river Flood preventing 15

16 Three Gorges Dam Construction cost 8 billion ( up to2008) Relocation of people 8 billion ( up to2008) Capital cost 2 billion ( up to2008) Finishing (estimated) 3 billion ( after 2008) Total 21 billion To recover the investment of the project, it has to generate 1000TWh, which probably occurs between 2015 and Source: 16

17 Average actual flow rate Maximum plant intake whit 32 main generators Maximum plant intake whit 26 main generators Months of the year 17

18 Type Installed Capacity [ MW ] Income [ ] Standardized income No dam Dam Dam Sources: European Energy Exchange 18

19 Energy costs for different generation technologies (Emission taxes and capital cost not included) Source: California Energy Commission 19

20 Typical capacity factors Wind farms 20 40% Photovoltaic solar in Arizona 19% Hydroelectricity 44% Nuclear 91% Coal 72% Source: U.S: Energy Information Administration 20

21 Conclusion As the pressure to reduce greenhouse gases increases, a bigger part of the electricity will come from renewable sources. The problem with many of the existing ones is that the electricity production is hard to foresee the electricity production in the next time period. Therefore, we need a power source that can easily and rapidly adapt to the electricity demand. As a result the role of hydroelectric power will increase. 21

22 Thank you for your attention 22

23 List of references Wikipedia.org. [Online] [Cited: 06 10, 2010.] U.S. Energy Information Administration. [Online] [Cited: 05 25, 2010.] World Energy Council. [Online] [Cited: 06 01, 2010.] California Energy Commission. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES CEC SD. International Water Power. [Online] [Cited: 06 02, 2010.] Beyond Tree Gorges in China. World Energy Council Surver of Energy Resources. EEA. The pan European environment: glimpses into an uncertain future. U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation. 23

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