Introducción. Diseño de sistemas digitales.1

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1 Introducción Adapted from: Mary Jane Irwin ( ) [Original from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, 2005, UCB] Diseño de sistemas digitales.1

2 The Evolution of Computer Hardware When was the first transistor invented? Diseño de sistemas digitales.2

3 The Evolution of Computer Hardware When was the first transistor invented? Modern day electronics began with the invention in 1947 of the transfer resistor the bi polar transistor by Bardeen et.al at Bell Laboratories Diseño de sistemas digitales.3

4 The Evolution of Computer Hardware When was the first IC (integrated circuit) invented? Diseño de sistemas digitales.4

5 The Evolution of Computer Hardware When was the first IC (integrated circuit) invented? In 1958 the IC was born when Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments successfully interconnected, by hand, several transistors, resistors and capacitors on a single substrate Diseño de sistemas digitales.5

6 The Underlying Technologies Year Technology Vacuum Tube Transistor Integrated Circuit (IC) Very Large Scale IC (VLSI) Ultra VLSI Relative Pref/Unit Cost ,400,000 6,200,000,000 What if technology in the transportation industry advanced at the same rate? Diseño de sistemas digitales.6

7 The PowerPC 750 Introduced in M transistors 366 MHz clock rate 40 mm 2 die size 250nm technology Diseño de sistemas digitales.7

8 Impacts of Advancing Technology Processor logic capacity: performance: increases about 30% per year 2x every 1.5 years Memory DRAM capacity: 4x every 3 years, about 60% per year memory speed: 1.5x every 10 years cost per bit: decreases about 25% per year Disk capacity: increases about 60% per year Diseño de sistemas digitales.8

9 Growth Capacity of DRAM Chips K = 1024 (2 10 ) In recent years growth rate has slowed to 2x every 2 year Diseño de sistemas digitales.9

10 Computer Organization and Design This course is all about how computers work But what do we mean by a computer? Different types: embedded, laptop, desktop, server Different uses: automobiles, graphics, finance, genomics Different manufacturers: Intel, Apple, IBM, Sony, Sun Different underlying technologies and different costs! Analogy: Consider a course on automotive vehicles Many similarities from vehicle to vehicle (e.g., wheels) Huge differences from vehicle to vehicle (e.g., gas vs. electric) Best way to learn: Focus on a specific instance and learn how it works While learning general principles and historical perspectives Diseño de sistemas digitales.10

11 Embedded Computers in You Car Diseño de sistemas digitales.11

12 Growth of Sales of Embedded Computers Diseño de sistemas digitales.12

13 Why Learn This Stuff? You want to call yourself a computer scientist/engineer You want to build HW/SW people use (so need performance) You need to make a purchasing decision or offer expert advice Both hardware and software affect performance Algorithm determines number of source level statements Language/compiler/architecture determine the number of machine level instructions Diseño de sistemas digitales.13 (Chapter 2 and 3) Processor/memory determine how fast machine level instructions are executed (Chapter 5, 6, and 7)

14 What is a Computer? Components: processor (datapath, control) input (mouse, keyboard) output (display, printer) memory (cache (SRAM), main memory (DRAM), disk drive, CD/DVD) network Our primary focus: the processor (datapath and control) Implemented using millions of transistors Impossible to understand by looking at each transistor We need abstraction! Diseño de sistemas digitales.14

15 Major Components of a Computer Diseño de sistemas digitales.15

16 Below the Program High level language program (in C) swap (int v[], int k) (int temp; temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; ) Assembly language program (for MIPS) swap: sll $2, $5, 2 add $2, $4, $2 lw $15, 0($2) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2) sw $15, 4($2) jr $31 Machine (object) code (for MIPS) Diseño de sistemas digitales.16

17 Below the Program High level language program (in C) swap (int v[], int k) (int temp; temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; ) Assembly language program (for MIPS) swap: sll $2, $5, 2 add $2, $4, $2 lw $15, 0($2) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2) sw $15, 4($2) jr $31 Machine (object) code (for MIPS) one to many C compiler one to one assembler Diseño de sistemas digitales.17

18 Advantages of Higher Level Languages? Diseño de sistemas digitales.18

19 Advantages of Higher Level Languages? Higher level languages Allow the programmer to think in a more natural language and for their intended use (Fortran for scientific computation, Cobol for business programming, Lisp for symbol manipulation, Java for web programming, ) Improve programmer productivity more understandable code that is easier to debug and validate Improve program maintainability Allow programs to be independent of the computer on which they are developed (compilers and assemblers can translate high level language programs to the binary instructions of any machine) Emergence of optimizing compilers that produce very efficient assembly code optimized for the target machine As a result, very little programming is done today at the assembler level Diseño de sistemas digitales.19

20 Machine Organization Capabilities and performance characteristics of the principal Functional Units (FUs) e.g., register file, ALU, multiplexors, memories,... The ways those FUs are interconnected e.g., buses Logic and means by which information flow between FUs is controlled The machine s Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Register Transfer Level (RTL) machine description Diseño de sistemas digitales.20

21 ISA Sales Diseño de sistemas digitales.21

22 Major Components of a Computer Processor Control Memory Devices Network Input Datapath Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.22

23 Below the Program High level language program (in C) swap (int v[], int k)... Assembly language program (for MIPS) swap: sll $2, $5, 2 add $2, $4, $2 lw $15, 0($2) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2) sw $15, 4($2) jr $31 Machine (object) code (for MIPS) Diseño de sistemas digitales C compiler assembler

24 Below the Program High level language program (in C) swap (int v[], int k)... Assembly language program (for MIPS) swap: sll $2, $5, 2 add $2, $4, $2 lw $15, 0($2) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2) sw $15, 4($2) jr $31 Machine (object) code (for MIPS) Diseño de sistemas digitales C compiler assembler

25 Input Device Inputs Object Code Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.25

26 Object Code Stored in Memory Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.26

27 Processor Fetches an Instruction Processor fetches an instruction from memory Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.27

28 Control Decodes the Instruction Control decodes the instruction to determine what to execute Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.28

29 Datapath Executes the Instruction Datapath executes the instruction as directed by control Processor Control Datapath contents Reg #4 ADD contents Reg #2 results put in Reg #2 Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.29

30 What Happens Next? Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.30

31 What Happens Next? Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Fetch Exec Decode Diseño de sistemas digitales.31

32 Processor Fetches the Next Instruction Processor fetches the next instruction from memory Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output How does it know which location in memory to fetch from next? Diseño de sistemas digitales.32

33 Processor Organization Control needs to have circuitry to Datapath needs to have circuitry to Diseño de sistemas digitales.33

34 Processor Organization Control needs to have circuitry to Diseño de sistemas digitales.34 Decide which is the next instruction and input it from memory Decode the instruction Issue signals that control the way information flows between datapath components Control what operations the datapath s functional units perform Datapath needs to have circuitry to Execute instructions functional units (e.g., adder) and storage locations (e.g., register file) Interconnect the functional units so that the instructions can be executed as required Load data from and store data to memory What location does it load from and store to?

35 Output Data Stored in Memory At program completion the data to be output resides in memory Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.35

36 Output Device Outputs Data Processor Control Datapath Memory Devices Network Input Output Diseño de sistemas digitales.36

37 The Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) software instruction set architecture hardware The interface description separating the software and hardware Diseño de sistemas digitales.37

38 The MIPS ISA Instruction Categories Registers Load/Store Computational Jump and Branch Floating Point coprocessor Memory Management Special R0 R31 PC HI LO 3 Instruction Formats: all 32 bits wide OP OP OP rs rt rd sa funct rs rt immediate jump target Diseño de sistemas digitales.38 Q: How many already familiar with MIPS ISA?

39 How Do the Pieces Fit Together? Applications Operating System Instruction Set Architecture Memory system Compiler Processor Firmware I/O system network Datapath & Control Digital Design Circuit Design Coordination of many levels of abstraction Under a rapidly changing set of forces Design, measurement, and evaluation Diseño de sistemas digitales.39

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