ADVANCED PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES AND MEMORY ORGANISATION Lesson-12: ARM

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1 ADVANCED PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES AND MEMORY ORGANISATION Lesson-12: ARM 1

2 The ARM architecture processors popular in Mobile phone systems 2

3 ARM Features ARM has 32-bit architecture but supports 16 bit or 8 bit data types also. ARM is programmable as little endian or big endian data alignment in memory. ARM provides the advantage of using a CISC in terms of functionality, along with the advantage of an RISC in terms of faster program implementation as well as reduced code lengths. 3

4 ARM7, ARM9 and ARM 11 microprocessors ARM processor has an RISC core for processing Combination of RISC and CISC features ARM supports to a complex addressing modes based instruction set 4

5 In-built compilation unit Compiles the CISC instructions into RISC formats, which are then implemented by the RISC core of the processor. Internally the implementation for many instructions is like in an RISC (without the micro-programmed unit) 5

6 Jazelle technology Faster Java codes execution 6

7 ARM Thumb 16-bit instructions Thumb Set designed for 16-bit word lengths and instructions, which internally executes by same 32-bit core. Instruction fetch of 2 bytes in Thumb mode in place of 4 bytes in ARM mode. Data alignment at steps of 2 bytes in Thumb mode in place of 4 bytes in ARM mode Memory savings of up to 35%, over the equivalent 32-bit code, while retaining all the benefits of a 32-bit system (such as access to a full 32-bit address space). Enables 32-bit performance at the 8/16-bit system cost in terms of memory needs. 7

8 Thumb and 32-bit ARM modes Switch from one mode to another No overheads (in terms of time and memory) in moving between Thumb and the normal ARM state of the codes. Two states are compatible on a normal basis. Gives code designer complete control over performance and code-size optimisation 8

9 ARM7 versions ARM7TDMI (Integer Core) ARM7TDMI-S, (Synthesisable version of ARM7TDMI) ARM7EJ-S (Synthesisable core with DSP and Jazelle technology) ARM720T (cached processor macrocell, 8K Cached Core with Memory Management Unit (MMU) supporting operating systems1 including Windows CE, Palm OS, Symbian OS and Linux) 130 MIPS using Dhrystone 2.1 benchmark in typical 0.13µm process 9

10 ARM9 versions ARM920T (Dual 16k caches with MMU support multiple OSs. ARM922T (Dual 8k caches for applications support multiple OSs1. ARM940T (Dual 4k caches for embedded control applications running a RTOS) 32-bit RISC processor core Super scaling 5-stage integer pipeline. 8-entry write buffers to avoid blocking the processor on external memory writes Achieves 1.1 MIPS/MHz, 300 MIPS (Dhrystone 2.1) in a typical 0.13µm process 10

11 ARM11 versions Families with ARMv6 instruction set architecture that includes the Thumb extensions for code density, Jazelle technology for Java acceleration, ARM DSP extensions, and SIMD media processing extensions. MMU) supporting operating systems1 and palm OS 32-bit RISC processor core with 8-stage integer pipeline, static and dynamic branch prediction, and separate load-store and arithmetic pipelines to maximize instruction throughput Targets a performance range of Dhrystone MIPS 400 to

12 Memory Architecture ARM7 has Princeton memory architecture. ARM9 processor has Harvard architecture 12

13 Faster implementation and Reduced code lengths Due to the instant availability of the register word to the execution-unit. Reduced code lengths Most instructions use registers as operands. Few bits in the instruction specify a register as operand. 8, 16 or 32 bits specify a memory address as operand and the displacement bits in the instruction. 13

14 R0 to R15. ARM registers R15 also function as program counter. R14 function as link register. R13 may be used as stack pointer CPSR (current program status register) SPSR (saved program status register). 14

15 32-bit bus ARM Architecture r0 to r15 CPSR SPSR 32-bit r15 functions as PC IR ID Barrel Shifter ALU, Execution unit Hardwired circuits for each instruction 15

16 ARM Codes ARM Codes Forward compatible with higher versions. ARM7 codes Forward compatible with ARM9, ARM9E and ARM10 processors as well as Intel XScale micro-architecture. ARM9E and ARM 10 families use a Vector Floating Point (VFP) ARM coprocessor, which adds full floating point operands. VFP also provides fast development in SoC design when using tools like MatLab. Applications are in image processing (scaling), 2D and 3D transformations, font generation and digital filters. 16

17 ARM Intelligent Energy Manager (IEM) technology Advanced algorithms to optimally balance processor workload and energy consumption. Maximizes system responsiveness. IEM works with the operating system and mobile OS. Application running on a mobile phone dynamically adjusts the required CPU performance level. 17

18 ARM processors AHB (AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus) interface AMBA an established open source specification for on-chip interconnects. AMBA serves as a framework for SoC designs and development of the IP library. AHB support in all new ARM cores. 18

19 AHB Provides a high-performance and fully synchronous back plane. (Back plane means additional set of controllers, which can access another common bus, which is distinct from system bus in a multilevel buses in the system.) Multi-layer AHB in version ARM926EJ-S and all members of the ARM10 family represents a significant advancement. It reduces access latencies and increases the bandwidth available to multi-master systems 19

20 Stages Fetch 3- stage pipeline in ARM7 Successive Clock Intervals I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 Decode Read Operands Execute Write back I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I1 I2 I3 I4 20

21 Pipeline and Latch Fetched an instruction I n Latch Decode I n and read operands Latch Execute In, and mem-ory inputs I n and address and Write Result I n 21

22 Stages Fetch 5- stage pipeline in ARM 9 Successive Clock Intervals I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 Decode Read Operands Execute I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I1 I2 I3 I4 I1 I2 I3 Write back I1 I2 22

23 Super scaling in ARM Stages Pipeline1 Pipeline 2 Fetch Decode Read Operands Execute Write back I3 I2 I1 I 3 I 2 I 1 23

24 We learnt Summary ARM Architecture 32- address bus and 64-bit data bus Programmability as Little endian or Big endian Princeton Memory in ARM7 and Harvard in ARM9 16 Registers with R15 as Program counter 24

25 Summary We learnt 16-bit Thumb set for 16-bit instructions to reduce external memory requirement AHB 3 stage pipeline in ARM7 and 5 in ARM9 25

26 End of Lesson 12 of Chapter 2 26

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