# Number Theory: A Mathemythical Approach. Student Resources. Printed Version

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1 Number Theory: A Mathemythical Approach Student Resources Printed Version

2 ii

3 Contents 1 Appendix 1 2 Hints to Problems 3 Chapter 1 Hints Chapter 2 Hints Chapter 3 Hints Chapter 4 Hints Chapter 5 Hints Chapter 6 Hints Chapter 7 Hints Chapter 8 Hints Chapter 9 Hints Chapter 10 Hints Chapter 11 Hints Chapter 12 Hints Chapter 13 Hints Chapter 14 Hints Chapter 15 Hints Appendix Hints iii

4 iv CONTENTS

5 Chapter 1 Appendix TO BE INCLUDED 1

6 2 CHAPTER 1. APPENDIX

7 Chapter 2 Hints to Problems 3

8 4 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Section 1.1 1a. Try a few different options. 1b. Try a few different options. 1c. Use the Pythagorean theorem and substitute a in place of b. 3. Use the relationship between m and n given in section a. Use the Pythagorean Theorem. 5b. Use the Pythagorean theorem along with the diagram of the tiles in the section. 5c. Use the Pythagorean theorem along with the diagram of the tiles in the section. 7. The dean s decree can be carried out if and only if (1 + 2)N = 2M = M N where N is the number of octagonal tiles and M is the number of triangular tiles. Show that the left hand side of the equation is not rational. 9a. Look at the geometric figures in this section to see how tirangular and square numbers are determined. 9b. Decompose two to three different square numbers into triangles to come up with a general answer. 11a. d is the hypotenuse of a right triangle. The edge of the box with length l, and the diagonal of the h x w rectangle form the other two sides of the triangle. 11ci. Let α be the factor by which you must increase the side length. Using your equation from part a, write an expression for the diagonal in terms of α and x. Set this equal to twice the diagonal length. Now solve for alpha. 11cii. Let α be the factor by which you must increase the side length. Find the volume of the cube in terms of α and x. Set this equal to twice the volume. Now solve for alpha.

9 5 Section 1.2 1a. Use the definition of i along with rules of multiplication of positive and negative numbers. 1b. Consider the general form of a complex number, a + bi. Square this number and equate to -4. Expand the square into its full form using FOIL and compare the real and imaginary parts. 1c. Use the general form of a complex number, a+bi. Square this number and equate to -4. Expand the square into its full form using FOIL and compare the real and imaginary parts. 3. use the definitions of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, real numbers and complex numbers given earlier in the section. 5. Since 7 cannot be divided by 1, multiply by the dividend by 10 and incorporate a decimal point into the quotient. This will enable you to proceed with long division. 7. use the fact that every integer is divisible by Rewrite as ( 9 10 )( 1 10 ) + ( 9 10 )( 1 10 ) Section Consider the definition of hypothesis and conclusion given in the beginning of this section to solve each part of this question. 3. Consider the definition of hypothesis and conclusion given in the beginning of this section. 5. Use the definition of an odd integer. 7. Use the definition of an odd integer and an even integer. 9. Use the fact that n is an integer, coupled with the hint given in the question. 11a. Use the definition of a rational number. 11b. Use the definition of a rational number. 13. Use the definition of a rational number and an indirect proof. 15. Use an indirect proof. 17a. Start with x 1 = x 2. Then subsitute these into the algebraic relation given in the question and proceed.

10 6 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 17b. Start with y 1 = y 2. Then subsitute these into the equation given in the question and use your knowledge of algebra to proceed. 19. Consider (x y) + (x + y). 21. What is the least number of friends a guest can have? What is the greatest number of friends a guest can have? Use an indirect proof. 23. Let x be an arbitrary real number. Then the reciprocal of x is 1/x. Assume that x + 1/x < 2 and find a contradiction. (This is an indirect proof). Section Try dividing both numbers by some simple fractions until you get an integer answer for both sets of quotients. 3a. Remember that 2 is irrational from Section b. Remember that 2 is irrational from Section Follow the proof of Theorem Follow the proof of Theorem As you go along you must also prove that if n 3 is even then n is even. 9. Rearrange the terms in the equation so that a and c are on one side and both terms with 2 are on the other. Use a proof by contradiction. 11. Use the definition of commensurable. 13. Use an indirect proof and the answer to exercise 7. Section 1.5 1a. Try this formula on the first few integers. 1b. Try this formula on the first few integers. 1c. Try this formula on the first few integers. 3a. Provide a counterexample. 3b. Use the properties of even numbers to determine the answer.

11 7 3c. Provide a counterexample. 3d. Provide a counterexample. 3e. Provide a counterexample. 3f. Use the properties of even numbers to determine the answer. 5. Use the technique of negation from this section. 7a. Use the definition of a positive integer. 7b. Use the definition of a negative integer. 7c. Work with n = Construct p and q using the given equations. 11. Use a proof by contradiction. 13. Provide a counterexample.

12 8 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Section 2.1 7a. Let P (n) = n(n+1) 2. Rewrite P (k + 1) in terms of P (k). 7b. Let P (n) = n(n+1)(n+2) 6. Rewrite P (k + 1) in terms of P (k). 9. Use induction. Don t forget to use the inductive hypothesis when looking into P (k + 1). Then use algebra to get it into the form of (k + 1) (2(k + 1) + 1). 11. Use induction. Don t forget to use the inductive hypothesis when looking into P (k + 1). Then use algebra to get it into the proper form. 13. If using induction to prove, let your hypothesis be that k! k k. 15. Utilizing the result from exercise 14 along with some simple algebra, the result is easily obtained. Alternatively, induction can be used as before. 17. Play the game for the given values of n. A formula will arise fairly easily. 19. Use the formula you obtained in 17 and proved in Let P (n) = n3 n 6. Rewrite P (k + 1) in terms of P (k) and notice that k or k + 1 must be even. 23. Consider the case when k + 1 = When looking at P (k + 1), try ignoring one of the lines and then applying the inductive hypothesis. Then put the line back in, and see what you can do next. 27. Notice that a 2 k+1 2 k+1 checkerboard can be divided into four 2 k 2 k boards. Try re-orienting some of the boards after using the inductive hypothesis. Section 2.2 7c. Use strong induction and the fact that the Base Case (n = 1, 2) is given by the definition of G 1 and G Similar to Exercise 7c, it just requires more algebraic simplification after substitution. 15. By the way the game works, there will always be two heaps at the beginning of someone s turn. So you can always eat a heap. What does this imply about possible loss methods? 17. Use the fact that the sum of two odd numbers must be even. If you begin with at least 1 even heap, split this heap into two heaps both with an odd number of peanuts. If your opponent can still win, she is forced to split a heap that has an odd number of peanuts.

13 9 Section Notice that the ratio does not depend on the scale of the diagram, so you can set any part of it to any value you wish. 5. Use induction. Remember: odd + odd = even, etc. 7. Use induction. Remember: a x a y = a x+y. 11. Use induction. 13. Use induction and consider F 2 k+2 F k+1f k+3. 15a. For any real number x, if x < 1 then x n < x for n 1. 15b. Use the result from part a. Section Since ϕ is between 1 and 2, its fractional part is ϕ 1. Similarly, since ϕ is between 1 and 0, its fractional part is ϕ. 9. Use the expressions you have obtained for ϕ n and ϕ n in exercises 6d and 8a. [You will have to prove 6d is true in exercise 10. 8a can be proven in a similar manner.] 11. What happens if you square the expression?

14 10 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Section a. False b. True c. False d. True e. True f. False g. True h. True i. False j. True k. False l. True 3. ±1, ±2, ±4, ±5, ±10, ± ±1, ±2, ±4 7. ±1, ±2, ±4 9. If c = 0, then a and b can be anything and we still have ac bc. For example, let a = 5 and b = 3. Then a b but ac = bc = 0 so ac bc. 11. If a 1, then there exists some k Z such that ak = 1. Now try looking at this with absolute values. 13. a b implies some k Z such that ak = b. What about b c? Can we put these things together? 15. If a b and b a, then there exist j, k Z such that a = bj and b = ak. Thus, a = bj = akj a = akj. This gives us two possible cases, one of which says something about the value of a and the other tells us the value of kj. 17. (a) If d x, then there exists some k Z such that dk = x. Where can we substitute this new expression for x? What will that tell us? (b) If d x and d y, then there exist j, k Z such that dj = x and dk = y. Where can we substitute these new expression? What will we be able to show from that? 19. How would you get rid of the b from (b + c)? Look at what you did; can you use the linear combination lemma along those lines? 21. Who said brute force doesn t solve things? 23. (a) What numbers above have an odd number of positive divisors? They are 1, 4, 9, 16, 25. Look familiar? (b) Divisors of positive integers tend to come in pairs. Why is this? Well, if j n, then there is some k Z such that jk = n. But that means k n as well. So how can we have an odd number of divisors if our divisors come in pairs? 25. By the problem statement, we have that 1 a + 1 b = k for some k N. What can we multiply both sides by to get rid of the fractions? By using algebra, will we be able to say anything about what a divides? what b divides? What will these facts imply? 27. (a) How can you factor x 2 + 3x + 2?

15 11 (b) Remember that you can factor out negative numbers as well. (c) Find a counter-example. (d) Every integer is even or odd. Which one is (x 2 + x)? Can we look at x? What does x 2 + x factor to? Remember that multiplying any number by an even number will make the product even. Section Look just underneath Definition (3, 5), (5, 7), (11, 13), (17, 19), and many, many more. 5. (a) 2, 3, and 47. (b) You know that b N, b = 0, or b N by trichotomy. Furthermore, b 0 since it s prime. Try tackling each case on its own and look at the relations between the old definition and the new one. Finally, note that if b is prime by the new definition, b must be as well. 7. Use the Linear Combination Lemma. 9. Think in terms of the factors that make up a and b. 11. Clearly you can make all the composite numbers since they re all already in your basket. But what would it mean if you could make a prime out of composite numbers? 13. By Goldbach s conjecture, you can make any even number. Now what are some relations between the evens and the odds. How do you make odds out of evens? 15. Factor n into the product of two polynomials. Then show that it does not meet the definition of a prime number. 17. Use prime factorization: n = p a 1 1 pam m where each p i < n. Now look at the two cases of where m 2 and m = 1 and think about how a factorial works. 19. Consider the case when n is even and when n is odd separately. In each case, find a composite integer a such that n can be written as (n a) + a. 21. (a) Factor a n 1 into the product of two polynomials. Then use the fact that a n 1 is prime. (b) Use a proof by contradiction.

16 12 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 23. Use brute force linear combinations at first to get a feel for the problem in (a), (b), and (c). Once you get to (d) and (e) though, you ll need something more elegant. For (d), begin by writing out all the numbers that you can sum to using just 6 and 9. Then all the numbers you can sum to using exactly one 20 along with 6 s and 9 s. Continue to move your number of 20 s up until you have covered all of the numbers past a certain point. Figure out how to adapt this method for part (e). Section Follow the method given earlier in the section, and remember you only have to cross out primes below Once finished, you can check your answer by using the internet. 3. To solve this problem, you ll need to find the number of primes between and You can do this by using the approximation π(n) n log n and then looking at the difference between the two results. 5. Try looking at and Can you factor these in such a way to illustrate compositeness? 7. The first composite number is h(80). 9. For (a) and (b), it s probably easiest to choose small numbers. For part (c), use the Linear Combination Lemma. 11. (a) Let k = p 1 p n + 1. From the proof of Theorem 3.3.1, k cannot contain any prime factor p i such that i n. (b) Recall that n = 2 n+1 1. (c) Let x be an element of N. Define r = log 2 (log 2 (x)). Now consider p r. (Note that r may not be a natural number. Consider the case when r is an element of N and when r is not an element of N separately.) 13. (a) Use the fact that if an integer d divides some number n, then d cannot divide n + 1. (b) Use a proof by contradiction. Consider p n! where p n is the greatest prime. 15. Let a N and consider the expression a! + n. Under what conditions will the expression be composite (think in terms of the Linear Combination Lemma). 17. (a) Use the basic properties of exponents to rewrite F (n) 1 in terms of F (m) 1 raised to some power. Then use what you know about binomial expansions to find a contradiction. (b) Every Fermat number can be factored into primes. However, by the above, we know no factor can appear in multiple Fermat numbers. Now use the fact that there are infinitely many Fermat numbers.

17 13 Section (a) 11, (b) 7, (c) 3, (d) 99, (e) 1, (f) 2, (g) 1, (h) 11, (i) 1, (j) 3, (k) Think of the primes as building blocks. 5. Find a counter-example. 7. Use the definition of a prime number. 9. Show that a fulfills the definition of the gcd by showing that any common divisor d is less than or equal to a. 11. Let d = gcd(a, b) = lcm(a, b). Then d a and d b. Also, a d and b d. What does this tell us in terms of absolute values? 13. Use Lemma It suffices to show that S is nonempty. 17. Ah, brute force: is there anything it can t solve? 19. gcd( k, lcm(a, b) ). 21. gcd(a, b, c). 23. Let m = lcm(a, b), then ka km and kb km, so km is a common multiple of ka and kb. Now use contradiction to show that no n < km can be a common multiple. Notice that ka n implies that k n. 25. Prove by induction and use the recurrence relation of the Fibonacci numbers. Section (a) 85 = , (b) 132 = , (c) 573 = , (d) 45 = , (e) 90 = , (f) 0 = , 1, 2, 3, 4, (a) Clearly 3 and 5 are both in S. (b) 1. (c) If 1 is in the set, we can take multiples of the combination used to produce it, and make any natural number we want. (d) See (c). 7. Try a = b = x = If b < 0, then 0 r < b implies 0 < 0!

18 14 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 11. Use transitivity of division. 13. Let x = a. 15. Divide n by 3. There are only three possibilities for the remainder: 0, 1, and 2. Work with these three cases. 17. Use the Division Theorem to divide n by Other than 2, no prime can be even. Thus, any prime must be of the form 4k + 1 or 4k + 3. For (e), compute p 2 1 for each of these two possibilities. 21. Use the result from Exercise 18e. 23. (2345) 8 = (1642) Let n = r k b k r 1 b 1 + r 0 b 0. Then n + 1 = r k b k r 1 b 1 + (r 0 + 1)b 0. There are two cases to consider: r < b and r = b. In the latter case, find the smallest r i such that r i + 1 < b. 27. I. Since a 0, either a or a is greater than 0. II. Since d S, we have d = ax + by for some x, y Z. III. Use the Division Theorem to write b = qd + r and then show that r must equal (a) Let a = 4k + 1 and b = 4j + 1. Multiply a and b, and then use algebraic manipulation. (b) Use a proof by induction. (c) Consider the set of prime factors of n = 4k + 3 and use the result from part (b). Section (a) 11, (b) 7, (c) 5 3. (a) 3, (b) lcm(50,b) 50, (c) (a) 1.3, (b) 3.8, (c) The greatest common measure of three real numbers x, y and z is the largest real number f such that x = n f, y = m f and z = q f where n, m and q are integers, (d) 3 2.

19 15 Section = , 54 = , 42 = , 12 = (a) 5 steps: 19 = = = = = (b) 3 steps: 124 = = = (c) 2 steps: 55, 029 = 4 13, , 753 = (d) 3 steps: 1, 111, 111 = , , 111 = = Any pair such that the remainder will evenly divide the quotient works. 7. The algorithm takes two steps. 7k + 14 = 2(3k + 6) + k + 2 3k + 6 = 3(k + 2) (a) Write r 1 as a linear combination of a and b. (b) Solve for r 2. Now write r 2 as a linear combination of a and b. (c) Think in terms of induction.

20 16 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 11. Think in terms of contradiction and make sure to double-check your hypothesis. 13. Hmmm. Those numbers from the above two exercises sure look like they re being made in the same way that Fibonacci numbers get made Section (a) 1, (b) 3, (c) 2, (d) 36, (e) 17, (f) The algorithm will cycle down through all of the Fibonacci numbers beneath the pair you start with. 5. Hopefully you know how to write computer programs (a) 40, (b) Apply the Euclidean Algorithm to a and b. Now consider the resulting array of equations. What do you see when you multiply all of those equations by k? 11. (a) 4,785 steps, (b) About half a second, (c) Since a has 1,000 digits, a will have First, notice that we have: gcd(f m, F m+n ) = gcd(f m, F m F n+1 + F m 1 F n ) = gcd(f m, F m 1 F n ) since F m F m F n+1. = gcd(f m, F n ) since gcd(f m, F m 1 ) = 1. Now show that for any q, r N, gcd(f qm+r, F m ) = gcd(f r, F m ). Finally, with this piece of information, apply the Euclidean algorithm on the Fibonacci index numbers. Section = = = =

21 3. In general, the gcd the smallest square needed to fill the rectangle of a 10 and b 4 17 is gcd(a,b) Follow the method used for a 2 1 rectangle. Continue to compare sides until you find a pair that are similar. 7. Can you show that this rectangle is similar to one where the sides are integers? 9. Can you show that CEF is an isosceles triangle? 11. By assumption, we know that AB and AC are multiples of δ. Can you show that EF is a linear combination of those two sides? 13. Consider that s 1 = s 2 + d 2.

22 18 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Section (a) Let x be the length of Diophantus life in years. Then from the problem we have x = x 6 + x 12 + x x (b) From (a) we can deduce that Diophantus lived until he was 84, he spent 14 years as a boy, he grew a beard at 21, he married at 33, his son was born when he was 38 and he was 80 when his son died. 3. {..., ( 11, 8), ( 4, 3), (10, 7), (17, 12),...}. In general, (3+7k, 2 5k) is an integral solution for all k Z. 5. Solutions are of the form ( 1 + 3t, 1 2t) for integers t. 7. 7X + 3Y = 1. It passes through all points of the form ( 2 + 3t, 5 + 7t). 9. Use a proof by contradiction. Follow the proof of Theorem Notice: 3 21, 3 51, and If a solution did exist, what would that imply by the Linear Combination Lemma? 13. X = 7, Y = X = 3, Y = Re-arrange to get X 2 = 2 + 5Y. Thus 2 + 5Y 0, so the right side will always end in either a 2 or a 7. Are there any perfect squares that end in a 2 or a 7? 19. Plug ax, ay and az into the Pythagorean Theorem. 21. Just use a value of n that will fail to match your examples. Section (a) ( 1, 3) is a solution, for example. (b) The given solution corresponds to a diagram with a potato and one 11 lb brick on one side of the scale, and three 4 lb bricks on the other. (c) 81 = so 4 = (d) 1 = ( 1) = ( 1)11 + 3( ) = ( 22)11 so (3, 22) is a solution to 81X + 11Y = 1. In terms of the potato problem, three 81 lb bricks balances twenty two 11 lb bricks plus a 1 lb potato.

23 = , 23 = = = Thus, 1 = 3 2 = 3 (5 3) = = 2(23 4 5) 5 = = ( ) = , so (38, 9) is a solution = , 423 = , 77 = Thus, 1 = = 77 2( ) = = 11( ) = , so (11,-13) is a solution. 7. The method gives (-2,-1) as a solution and 49 have a common factor of 7, so there is no solution. 11. Begin with the fact that 47x 0 + 6y 0 = 1, then use the substitution 6 = By Theorem 5.1.2, for the Diophantine equation to have a solution, we know gcd ( a, (a+2) ) = 1. Combine this with using the Euclidean Algorithm. 15. Notice that 0 r < b and gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, r). Section gcd(91, 21) = 7. (a) No solution. (b) Has a solution. (c) No solution. (d) Has a solution. (e) Has a solution. (f) No solution. 3. No solution since gcd(22, 111) = ( 60, 70). 7. No solution since gcd(24, 36) = (22, 11).

24 20 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 11. Use Theorem Use Theorem (a) Use the methods previously outlined in the chapter. (b) Use the solution to the Diophantine equation 7X + 24Y = 2. (c) Use the solution to the Diophantine equation 73X + 55Y = 1. (d) Use the solution to the Diophantine equation 15X + 41Y = From Exercise 16, you can show that gcd(gcd(a, b), c) gcd(a, b, c). To show that gcd(a, b, c) gcd(gcd(a, b), c), think in terms of linear combinations and their relation to the gcd. 19. Given that gcd(63, 28) = 7, we can find the solution ( 26, 13, 1). 21. Use the result from Exercise Use the result from Exercise For the direction, suppose that there exist x, y N such that s + xa = t + yb and figure out a way to apply Theorem For the direction, suppose gcd(a, b) (t s). Apply Theorem 5.3.2, and work with what this gives you. Section a) X, Y = 4, 7 b) ( k, 7 19k) 3. a) X, Y = 964, 481 b) ( k, k) 5. gcd(1155, 29393) = 7 > 1, so there is no solution. 7. gcd(429, 242) = 11 > 1, so there is no solution. 9. a) X, Y = 23, 81 using previous Exercise. b) ( k, k) 11. a) X, Y = 40, 24. b) ( k, 24 39k) 13. a) X, Y = 5000, b) ( k, k)

25 a) X, Y = 650, 300 b) ( k, k) 17. Notice that equation (9) and equation (10) differ by k = (a) Find an answer that is not in S (b) You can t apply a theorem unless you meet its if -requirement. 21. If p is prime and p d, then p a, so p b. Thus gcd(b, d) = Since gcd(a, b) = 1, if p b, then p a. 25. Look at the set of solutions S from Theorem Same as above. 29. A solution is positive if cx bk > 0 and cy + ak > 0. Use these inequalities and the fact that c > abn to find n values of k that give a positive solution. 31. (a) = 34. (b) Use brute force. (c) 23. (d) Let k be the largest number of chicken nuggets you cannot buy. Show that k + 1, k + 2, k + 3, k + 4 and k + 5 can all be written as 5X + 7Y. Now show how any number n > k can be derived from these five consecutive numbers.

26 22 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Section (a) (b) 7 3 (c) 2 10 (d) (e) (f) Use 2 2n 1 = (2 n 1)(2 n + 1). 5. Use p! = p(p 1)! and the definition of a prime number to show that (p 1)! does not contain any factor of p. 7. Use induction on r by setting a = a 1...a r 1, b = a r and applying proposition (a) First show that it is equal to the number of factors of 5 in 100!. Find this number by counting the numbers between 1 and 100 which are divisible by 5 and 25=5 2. (b) Follow (a). 11. Use proposition Use the fundamental theorem of arithmetic to show that b must have a factor of Use lemma For the first part, use the fact that n is not squarefree if and only if there is a prime p such that p 2 n. For the second part, use the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. 19. Use a proof by contradiction. If gcd(a 2, b 2 ) = k 1, then there is a prime p such that p a 2 and p b 2. Use exercise 11 to show gcd(a, b) Write p 2 q 2 = (p q)(p + q). Using this factorization show that p 2 q 2 is divisible by 4 and 3 hence by Show that p = 3k + 2 for some odd number k. Then p + (p + 2) = 6(k + 1) is divisible by 12.

27 23 Section (a) 8. (b) 5. (c) 6. (d) 16. (e) 9. (f) 101. (g) 130. (h) (a) (b) ,3, ,8,10. 9.(a) 91 years. (b) 119 years. (c) 1547 years. (d) 42 more years. 11. Write a = 5a 1 and b = 5b 1. Then deduce that gcd(a 1, b 1 ) = 1 and lcm(a 1, b 1 ) = a 1 b 1 = 108. Apply the FTA to find all possible pairs (a 1, b 1 ). 13. Follow the proof of proposition Follow the proof of theorem Set a = 30, c = 24 and find b. 19. Show that gcd(b, c) = 24, gcd(a, c) = 84 imply that 4 is a factor of gcd(a, b). Hence the answer is no. 21. Follow the proof of lemma

28 24 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 23. Use the FTA and proposition Follow theorem and use exercise If x = a b ( where a, b are integers and satisfy gcd(a, b) = 1) is a solution, then an = b(c n 1 a n 1 + c n 2 a n 2 b + + c 0 b n 1 ). So b a n. Show that x must be an integer. 29. Use the fact that n is a perfect square if and only if the number of prime factors p in n is even. 31. Follow the proof of proposition abc. 35. lcm(a, b, c).

29 25 Section (a) 17 ( 163) = 4 45 (b) = 7 88 (c) 17 ( 71) = 6 9 (d) = (a) 36 = 2(13) + 10 = 10 (modulo 13). (b) 15 = 5(3) + 0 = 0 (modulo 3). (c) 5 12 = 60 = 8(7) + 4 = 4 (modulo 7). 5. The congruence classes are: {..., 4, 0, 4, 8,...}, {..., 3, 1, 5, 9,...}, {..., 2, 2, 6, 10,...}, and {..., 1, 3, 7, 11,...}. 7.(a) It is the congruence class of 15 mod 20: {..., 25, 5, 15, 35, 55, 75,...} (b) It is the congruence class of 0 mod 9: {..., 27, 18, 9, 0, 9, 18,...} (c) It is the congruence class of 37 mod 35, which is the same as the congruent class of 2 mod 35: {..., 68, 33, 2, 37, 72,...} 9.(a) 75 5 = 70, so m 70. The numbers m > 1 that divide 70 are 2, 5, 10, 7, 14, 35, and 70. (b) 100 ( 1) = 101, so m is prime, so m = 101 is the only possible modulus. (c) 15 ( 5) = 20, so m 20. The numbers m > 1 that divide 20 are 2, 4, 5, 10, and 20. (d) 46 3 = 49, so m 49. The numbers m > 1 that divide 49 are 7 and Use definition Use proposition and lemma Use proposition Use the symmetry property of theorem (a) It is an equivalence relation.

30 26 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS (b) It is not symmetric. (c) It is an equivalence relation. (d) It is not symmetric. (e) It is an equivalence relation. (f) It is an equivalence relation. (g) It does not have any properties of equivalence relations. (h) It is an equivalence relation. (i) It is not reflexive and transitive. (j) It is not transitive. (k) It is not reflexive and transitive. (l) It is an equivalence relation. 21.(a) 19 j). (b) 19 d). (c) Consider the following relation on real numbers, x y if xy 0. Show that it is both symmetric and transitive but not reflexive because 0 0 is not valid. 23. Show that if two equivalence classes have a nonempty intersection, then they are equal.

31 27 25.(a) (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 1), (3, 3), (2, 2), (2, 4), (4, 2), (4, 4), (5, 5). (b) For example, P 1 = {1}, P 2 = {2}, P 3 = {3}, P 4 = {4}, P 5 = {5}. The ordered pairs are (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5). 27. R1 = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2)}, R2 = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 2), (2, 1)}, R3 = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (1, 3), (3, 1)}, R4 = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (2, 3), (3, 2)}, R5 = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)}. Section (a) = 7 2 (mod 7). (b) = 6. (c) = 4. (d) = 10 3 (mod 7). 3.(a) = 30 3 (mod 9). (b) = 31 4 (mod 9). (c) = 62 8 (mod 9). (d) = 65 2 (mod 9). (e) = 17 2 (mod 9). 5.(a) 6. (b) 6. (c) 6. (d) 0. (e) 7. 7.(a) 2. (b) 1. (c) 1 and 6. (d) There does not exist such a number.

32 28 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 9. 63! = 61! (mod 71) = ( 9) ( 8) (mod 71) = 1 (mod 71). This means that 63! 61! (mod 71), because they only differ multiplicatively by Use theorem Use theorem Use theorem with r = s = Note that the last two digits of d e are zero hence it is divisible by (a) Note that multiplying a number by 10 change the last digit to zero. (b) Note that multiplying a number by 5 change the last digit to 0 or Use d = d n 1 d n 2... d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 d 2 d 1 d 0 (mod 8). 23. Use the test for divisibility by 9(corollary ). 25. No. Use the test for divisibility by (a) Use F 80 = F 79 + F 78 and theorem (b) 1, 1, 2, 0, 2, 2, 1, 0, 1, 1,... from here it repeats. (c) 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 6, 0, 6, 6, 5, 4, 2, 6, 1, 0, 1, 1,... from here it repeats. (d) 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 2, 1, 3, 4, 1, 5, 0, 5, 5, 4, 3, 1, 4, 5, 3, 2, 5, 1, 0, 1, 1,... from here it repeats. (e) Note that the Fibonacci sequence modulo 6 repeats after 24 terms, and the Fibonacci sequence modulo 4 repeats after 6 terms, so it will also repeat after 24 terms. Conclude that after 24 terms the Fibonacci sequence will be equal modulo 12 as well. (f) Note that if two numbers reduced modulo m repeat right next to each other then the sequence is periodic and there are only m equivalence classes. (g) Use (f) and note that if F k+2 F k+p+2 (mod m) and F k+1 F k+p+1 (mod m) then F k F k+p (mod m). 29.(a) Show that d = d m 1 d m 2... d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 d n 1 d n 2... d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 (mod 2 n ). Note that d d n 1 d n 2... d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 is divisible by 10 n. (b) 2 6. (c) Show that d = d m 1 d m 2... d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 d n 1 d n 2... d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 (mod 5 n ). Note that d d n 1 d n 2... d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 is divisible by 10 n.

33 Reduce 10 n modulo 13 and follow method to obtain d = d n 1... d 7 d 6 d 5 d 4 d 3 d 2 d 1 d 0 = d d d n 1 d n 1 d 0 3d 1 4d 2 d 3 + 3d 4 + 4d 5 + d 6 3d 7... (mod 13). 33. First note that 645 = Using 2 2 = 1 (mod 3), 2 2 = 1 (mod 5) and 2 7 = 1 (mod 43) show that 2 14 = 1 (mod 645). Finally since conclude that = 0 (mod 645). Section (a) 4. (b) 2. (c) 0. 3.(a) 0. (b) 4. (c) 8. 5.(a) 8. (b) 3. (c) 8. 7.(a) , for example. (b) Any transposition within the first 10 digits will produce a valid number, e.g (c) Interchanging the last digit with a different digit among the first ten will produce an invalid number, e.g Show that if the i-th digit is x originally but replaced by y by mistake then i(x y) is divisible by 11 and deduce that x = y. Section Any x 9 (mod 10) is a solution. 3. Any x 159 (mod 175) is a solution. 5. There is no solution.

34 30 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 7.(a) We would have to solve the equation 8x 10y = 1, but 1 is not divisible by 2. (b) We would have to solve the equation 169x 325y = 40, but 40 is not divisible by (a) 8. (b) 6. (c) (a) No. For example take s = 0, t = 140. (b) Yes. Note that lcm(20, 35) = 140. (c) Yes. 13. x 8 (mod 15) is the only solution. 15. x 50 (mod 52) is the only solution. 17. There are two non-congruent solutions: x 7 (mod 30) and x 22 (mod 30). 19. Show that there if x 0 is a solution then y is a solution if and only if y x 0 is divisible by d. 21. Follow the proof of theorem and use theorem Show that among possibilities (1, 3, 4), (1, 3, 9), (1, 8, 4), (1, 8, 9), (7, 3, 4), (7, 3, 9) (7, 8, 4), (7, 8, 9), there are only six different possibilities for the value of x modulo m. 25.(a) Use theorem (b) Take k and l to be the reductions of s modulo a and b, respectively. 27. Any x 5566 (mod 10626) is a solution. 29. Show that there is no solution. 31. Note that in both cases, you need to solve a system of congruences! 33. Write the corresponding system of congruences to obtain that the number of soldiers in the company must be 2101 (mod 2310). 35. Use induction on r.

35 31 Section Monday. 3. Tuesday. 5. Sunday. 7. Tuesday. 9. Follow example Show that they have the same doomsday and are not a leap year. 17.(a) (b) 11,582 (c) Section (a) T = 3, V = 0, H = 145. (b) T = 12, V = 9, H = 109. (c) T = 4, V = 3, H = (a) 11,111. (b) 4,745. (c) Show that we need to solve x 19 (mod 20) and x 10 (mod 365) which has no solution so the date never occurs. 7. Day 6 on wheel 1, day 27 on wheel 2, and day 380 on wheel 3. 9.(a) 249, 271a + 81, 872b + 303, 366c, reduced modulo 317,254. (b) 249, , , , 073 (mod ).

36 32 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Z Z Z a. x = 1 b. x = 2 c. x = 1

37 33 d. x = 0 e. x = 1 or 2 f. no solutions 9. a. x = 2 b. x = 3 c. x = 4 d. x = 1 e. no solutions f. x = 2 or commutativity. 13. Consider the multiplicative table of Z = {x Z x = 11k + 4 where k Z}. So 4 = {... 18, 7, 4, 15, 26,...}. 3. a. 8 = 12. b. 5 = 15. c. 2 = , 1, 3, 4, 9, 10, x = 0, 2, 3, Show that it does not contain the additive identity element. 11. Use the corresponding properties of the ring of integers, Z. 13. Use theorem Expand (a + b) 2 using ring properties of Z n. 17. If it was well-defined then 0 0 = n n which is not correct! 19. This operation is not well-defined. For example in Z 5, 1 = 6, but 3 1 = 3 and 3 6 = 4.

38 34 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS (a) 44 (b) 675 (c) Does not exist. (d) (a) x = 7 (b) x = 9 (c) x = 5 5. (a) x = 16 (b) x = (a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 0 9. Use theorem Use Euclid s Lemma (5.3.2). 13. (a) Multiples of the gcd(a, n). (b) Show that b appears in the row of a if and only if the Diophantine equation ax + ny = b has a solution. (c) n gcd(a,n) distinct elements. 15. The commutativity property. 17. Expand the left-hand side using ring properties of Z n The two-letter blocks I LO VE M AT H are represented by the numbers These encrypt to the ciphertext NUMBER THEORY IS USEFUL FOR ENCIPHERING MESSAGES.

39 35 5. The encrypted message is The encrypted message is The encrypted message is GEOLOGY ROCKS 5. (a) The encrypted message is (b) Use the Euclidean Algorithm to find integers x and y so that 5x y = 1. You ll find that x = 1091, so this is the inverse of 5 modulo (c) THEY KNOW TOO MUCH 7. The end of the message reads...steal AWAY TOGETHER. 9. If it is not one-to-one then two distinct letters or blocks of letters could encrypt to the same code and so there would be no way to decrypt the message.

40 36 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Fermat s Little Theorem tells us that (mod 37) Since 43 6 (mod 37), we get (mod 37) (mod 13), so 8 4 = (2 3 ) 4 1 (mod 13). Since 98 is , (mod 13) (mod 13) (mod 13). So (mod 13) (a) 6, 12, 18. All multiples of 6 will work. (b) 1, 7, 13,.... They are all of the form 6k + 1 for some integer k. (c) 2, 8, 14. They are all of the form 6k + 2 for some integer k. 9. (a) Statement: If a b (mod p), then a m b m (mod p). To prove it use theorem (b) Statement: If m n (mod p 1), then a m a n (mod p). To prove it write m = n + k(p 1) for some integer k. 11. (a) The number 119 is not prime, so we cannot apply Fermat s Little Theorem. (b) (mod 7). (c) (mod 17). (d) Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem. 13. Use Fermat s Little Therem. 15. Consider two different cases namely p a and (p, a) = (a) Use Fermat s Little Theorem. (b) Consider two different cases namely n is odd and n is even. (c) Use Fermat s Little Theorem to reduce n 7 modulo 3. (d) Use (a),(b) and (c). 19. Use theorem Use Fermat s little theorem and exercise (a) 1, 2, 3, 4. (b) 1, 5.

41 37 (c) 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, (a) 656 = , so φ(656) = = 320. (b) 2905 = , so φ(2905) = = (c) = , so φ(27720) = 2 2 (2 3) = (d) = , so φ( ) = (2 99 ) ( ). 5. It seems that φ(d) = m 1. (a) 8 (b) 11 (c) 19 d m,d>0 7. (a) The general formula of φ(p a 1 1 pa k k ) is From this, we get φ(p a ) = (p 1)p a 1. (b) φ(3 4 ) = (3 1)3 4 1 = 54. (p 1 1)p a (p k 1)p a k 1 k. 9. Note that either n = 2 k or there is a prime p > 2 dividing n. Use formula in each case. 11. If φ(m) = 98, then for any prime factor p of m we have p Prove by contradiction. 13. Use definition (a) For p = 2: Reduced resides: 1, 3; φ(2 2 ) = 2 For p = 3: Reduced resides: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8; φ(3 2 ) = 6 For p = 5: Reduced resides: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24; φ(5 2 ) = 20. The formula is p(p 1). (b) Show that the only integers 0 < a < p 2 which (a, p 2 ) 1 are p, 2p, 3p,..., (p 1)p. (c) Show that the only integers 0 < a < p 2 which (a, p 2 ) 1 are p, 2p, 3p,..., (p k 1 1)p. 17. Use lemma (9.2.8) to show φ(2 2k+1 ) is a perfect square for any k. 19. Use formula and proposition (a) Consider the prime factorizations of a, m and n. (b) Show that the numbers a in the range 0,..., mn 1 such that a b (mod m) are {b, b + m,..., b + m(n 1)} which modulo n are {0, 1,..., n 1}. From this conclude that s b = φ(n). (c) Show that for any number a in the range 0,..., mn 1 such that a b (mod m), we have (a, m) 1. Use (a) to show that (a, mn) = 1 hence s b = 0. (d) Show that for any number a in the range 0,..., mn 1 such that (a, mn) = 1 there is a unique b in the range 0,..., m 1 such that a b (mod m) and then use (b). (e) Use (b),(c) and (d).

42 38 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 23. Use Lemma to show that φ ( (p a 1 1 )(pa 2 2 )... (pa k k )) = φ(p a 1 1 ) φ ( (p a 2 2 )... (pa k k )). Then use exercise 15c to derive the formula. 25. (a) p(m φ(m)). (b) m. (c) Count the number of elements counted both in (a) and (b) to show that there are p(m φ(m)) + φ(m) numbers not relatively prime to pm. (d) Use (c) and the definition of φ(pm) φ(33) = 2 10 = (mod 33). 3. φ(13) = (mod 13). 5. φ(108) = (mod 108) φ(30) = 24. So, we need only to find 12 5 (mod 35). Using successive squaring, this is Use theorem Use (mod 10). 17. (a) Multiply the equation by the multiplicative inverse of 13 to obtain a simpler equation. (b) Multiply the equation by the multiplicative inverse of 5 to obtain a simpler equation. (c) Multiply the equation by the multiplicative inverse of 10 to obtain a simpler equation. 19. First reduce 5 64 modulo φ(12) = 4, then raise the 7 to that result. 21. Reduce 3 27 modulo , 01, 16, 28, 06, The exponents should be relatively prime to φ(p). (a) φ(2819) = 2818 = (b) φ(2729) = 2728 =

43 39 5. (a) p 1 = 2896, and gcd(2317, 2896) = 1. So it is a valid encryption scheme. (b) d = 5. (c) The deciphered message is I HAVE PLANS 7. (a) (b) We cannot find a multiplicative inverse of 18 modulo 28. (c) The encryption exponent must be relatively prime to p The encrypted message is , so the encryption scheme must not have been valid (a) n = (b) φ(n) = (c) Only exponents relatively prime to 2640 will work. Of the ones listed, these are: 7, 49, and d = n = 2881, so we encipher by raising to the 5th power modulo The ciphered message is: n = 2867, so we encipher by raising to the 7th power modulo The ciphered message is: (a) d = 11. (b) FOOD 11. (a) We need the multiplicative inverse of 7 modulo φ(pq) = It is (b) AWAY WE GO 13. (a) BROKEN (b) They would have to make it much harder to factor n into primes. Perhaps they could choose p and q to be very large. 15. Yes the algorithm would still work, assuming that all of the prime factors of the modulus are big enough that the message will be relatively prime to the it. The only difference would be the formula for φ(n).

44 40 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS Corollary tells us that any element of Z 29 have an order that divides p 1 = 28. So, the possible orders of any element of Z 29 are 1,2,4,7,14, and (a) ord 15 (4) = 2. (b) ord 15 (7) = 4. (c) ord 20 (7) = Use Euler s Theorem and proposition Use exercise 7 to show that ord(a) = φ(m). 9. (a) ord 7 (2) = 3. (b) ord 15 (2) = Show that ord(a t ) s and ord(a) ord(a t )t and conclude that ord(a t ) = s. 13. First show that ( a j) s gcd(s,j) = 1. Now suppose that k = ord(a j ) and that k < s/ gcd(s, j). Use to derive a contradiction. 15. (a) ord(8) = 12. (b) ord(32) = (a) The number of perfect inside shuffles required to return a deck with 2n cards to its original order is equal to the number of perfect outside shufflesrequired to return a deck with 2(n + 1) cards to its original order. (b) The number of inside shuffles necessary to return a deck with 2n cards to its original order is ord 2n+1 (2). 19. Completely backwards. 21. ord 13 (12) = 2, ord 13 (8) = 4, ord 13 (8 12) = ord 13 (2) = 12, ord 13 (6) = 12, ord 13 (2 6) = Observe that x 2 y 2 = (x + y)(x y) and use Euclid s Lemma (5.4.2). 27. For the first part use Exercise 11. For the second part use the definition of ord n (a). 29. We apply the proposition to get the factors gcd(a r/2 ± 1, n). 31. (a) There is only one prime factor: 3. (b) Use Proposition to show that ord r (2) p and conclude that ord r (2) = p. (c) Show that ord r (2) r 1 and use (b).

45 (a) x = 0, 2, 3, or 5. (b) x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or Note that x = 3 is a solution to all of the equations. (a) x = 3 or 4. (b) x = 3, 5, or 6. (c) x = 3 or 4. (d) x = The modulus was not prime, which is a requirement of Theorem (a) Use Fermat s Little theorem to show that every reduced residue must satisfy at least one of them. Then show that no reduced residue can satisfy both equations. (b) If a 8 = 1, then ord(a) must divide 8. So it is either 1, 2, 4, or 8. (c) Show that ord(a) = 16 using the fact that ord(a) must divide (a) 4. (b) Yes, ±2 = 2, 9. (c) x = ( 8 + 2)(2) 1 = 5 6 = 8, and x = ( 8 2)(2) 1 = 1 6 = (a) 12. (b) Yes, ±5 = 5, 8. (c) x = ( 9 + 5)(2) 1 = 9 7 = 11, and x = ( 9 5)(2) 1 = 12 7 = 6. ( ) Show that we can write the equation in the form x + b 2a = b 2 4ac. Use this to show that 4a 2 there is a solution if and only if there is s such that s 2 = d and if s 2 = d solve the equation. 15. (a) x = 1, 2. (b) x = 0, 3. (c) Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to replace the equation by the following systems of congruences: x 1 (mod 5) and x 0 (mod 7) x 1 (mod 5) and x 3 (mod 7) x 2 (mod 5) and x 0 (mod 7) x 2 (mod 5) and x 3 (mod 7) The solutions are x 7, 17, 21, or 31 (mod 35).

46 42 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS First note that (mod 7), (mod 7), and (mod 7). So we must have that ord(3) = 6 modulo 7, and 3 is a primitive root. We know then that 3 j will be a primitive root for any j such that gcd(j, 6) = 1. This gives 3 1 = 3, (mod 7). Since φ(6) = 2, we expect only two primitive roots, so this is a complete list. 3. First note that (mod 17), (mod 17), (mod 17), and (mod 17). So we must have that ord(3) = 16 modulo 17, and 3 is a primitive root. We know then that 3 j will be a primitive root for any j such that gcd(j, 16) = 1. This gives 3 1 = 3, (mod 17), (mod 17), (mod 17), (mod 17), (mod 17), (mod 17), and (mod 17). Since φ(16) = 8, we expect eight primitive roots, so this is a complete list. 5. No. Use Exercise Note that a must divide p 1, and the only number greater than p 1 2 that divides p 1 is p 1 itself. 9. Try number Show that if ord(a) < p 1 then there are at most ord(a) distinct powers of a. 13. Let a be a primitive root modulo p. Show that all elements of order d are the elements of the form a k(p 1) d where k < d is relatively prime to d which are exactly φ(d) elements. 15. (a) Note that φ(6) = 2. (b) Note that φ(10) = (a) Note that φ(15) = 8. Show that the order of any reduced residue divides 4. (b) Note that φ(8) = 4 and the reduced residues are 1, 3, 5, 7 which have orders different than (a) Note that n p k has at least one prime factor. (b) Use the Euler function and the fact that n has at least two distinct prime factor. (c) This follows from (b) similarly as in Exercise 18(a). (d) Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem. (e) Use (d). 21. (a) Use induction. The base case s = 3 was shown in Exercise 17(b). Assume the result for some arbitrary s 3. Let a Z. Then a 2s 2 1 (mod 2 s ). Hence, a 2s 2 = k2 s + 1. Using Squaring, show that a 2s 1 1 (mod 2 s+1 ). (b) Use (a).

47 (a) Since gcd(m, 2) = 1, we have φ(2m) = (2 1)φ(m) = φ(m). (b) 10 cannot be a primitive root modulo 94 since it is not a reduced residue modulo 94. (c) 57. (d) Let a be a primitive root modulo m. Then either a or a + m is odd. WLOG assume that a is odd. Prove that a is a primitive root modulo 2m (a) 4 (b) 7 3. (a) 13 (b) The key step is to find a prime of the form p = 2q + 1, with q prime. This can be done by searching for 30 digit primes r and then checking if 2r + 1 is prime and checking if (r 1)/2 is prime. One such possible combination is p = , q = Once you have primes of this form, it is easy to check for primitive roots since the order of an element modulo q must be 1, 2, p or 2p. For the primes above, a = 2 is a primitive root. 9. Using x = , the first 10 pseudorandom numbers generated are , 113, 12, 0, 0, 0, 0,... We see this as follows. (326916) 2 = (874071) 2 = (000113) 2 = = (000012) 2 = 144 = (000000) 2 = 0, and this is going to continue producing 0 s. 11. Using x = , the first 10 pseudorandom numbers generated are , ,... The period is one. 13. (a) 5, 0, 1, 3, 7, 4, 9, 8, 6, 2, 5,.... The period is 10. (b) 5, 5,... The period is 1.

48 44 CHAPTER 2. HINTS TO PROBLEMS 15. (a) Note that a r 1 (mod m). (b) Prove by contradiction. If x i x j (mod m) for i < j r, then show that ord m (a) j i < r, a contradiction. 17. Apply geometric series to.d 1 d r = d 1 d r 10 r + d 1 d r 10 2r (a) Use 9 p 1 2 = (3 2 ) p 1 2 = 3 p 1 1 (mod p) to show that 9 is only a primitive root for p = 2. (b) Given any perfect square a = b 2, use a p 1 2 = (b 2 ) p 1 2 = b p 1 1 (mod p) to show that a can only be a primitive root for p = 2. (c) Note that for any prime, p, ( 1) 2 = 1 1 (mod p) and ( 1) 1 = 1 p 1 (mod p). Conclude that 1 is a primitive root for exactly two primes, namely 2 and It is a multiple of m. 23. Letting a k = x 2 k x k 1x k+1 we find a 1 = = 33 and a 2 = 55. Conclude that m = 11 and a = To multiply 5 by 11 modulo 13 using the wheel, do the following: place the 1 of the inner wheel so it lines up with the 5 of the outer wheel. Then look on the inner wheel for the 11. The number that lines up with it will be the product. (In this case, 3.) 27. Begin by finding a primitive root of Z 17. In Example 3 of Section 10.3, we are told that 3 is a primitive root, so we will use that. Now we look at the ordered set { 3 0, 3 1, 3 2,..., 3 15 }. This equals { 1, 3, 9, 10, 13, 5, 15, 11, 16, 14, 8, 7, 4, 12, 2, 6 }. Now arrange these around an inner/outer wheel pattern and you will have a wheel for multiplication modulo 17.

49 Yes. 4 2 = , 2, 4, 8, 9, 13, 15, ( 2 7) = 1 7. ( 27 13) = 1 9. ( 2 17) = ( 11 13) = ( ) 5 13 = 1 ) 15. = 1 for p = 5, 13, 17. ( 1 p ( ) 1 p = 1 for p = 3, 7, 11, (a) ( 4 101) = 1. (b) Since a is a perfect square, ( there exists a b such that b 2 = a and p does not divide b. Then b2 = ā 0 is Z p and hence a p) = 1 by definition of the Legendre symbol. 19. Use definition of the Legendre symbol. 21. Give a proof by contradiction. Suppose that x 2 ab (mod p) and y 2 a (mod p). Let z be some multiplicative inverse of y modulo p. Then show that (zx) 2 b (mod p), a contradiction. 23. To prove it, consider the following different cases. (a) At least one of the two elements is 0. (b) Both elements are quadratic residues. (c) One element is a quadratic residue and the other is a quadratic nonresidue. (d) Both elements are quadratic residues. To prove (a), use the definition of the Legendre symbol. To prove (b) use exercise To prove (c), use exercise Finally to prove (d) use exercise Note that 59 3 (mod 4). Show that if n is a perfect square then 3 is a quadratic residue modulo 4 which is not valid, hence n is not a perfect square. 27. The values of ( p ( 5) read 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1. The values of 5 p) read 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, (a) There is agreement when at least one of the primes is equivalent to 1 modulo 4. Otherwise they disagree. ( ) ( ( ) (b) It turns out that p q = q p) either p 1 (mod 4) or q 1 (mod 4). Otherwise p q = ( ) q p. This will be proven later in the chapter.

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