# SMT 2014 Algebra Test Solutions February 15, 2014

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1 1. Alice and Bob are painting a house. If Alice and Bob do not take any breaks, they will finish painting the house in 20 hours. If, however, Bob stops painting once the house is half-finished, then the house takes 0 hours to finish. Given that Alice and Bob paint at a constant rate, compute how many hours it will take for Bob to paint the entire house if he does it by himself. Answer: 40 Solution: In 10 hours, Alice and Bob paint half the house. Therefore, Alice can paint half the house in 20 hours. This means Alice painted a quarter of the house in 10 hours, which means Bob paints a quarter of the house in 10 hours, so Bob takes 40 hours to paint the entire house. 2. Compute Answer: Solution: From the Binomial Theorem, this is just (9 + 1) 6 1 = Let x 1 and x 2 be the roots of x 2 x 2014, with x 1 < x 2. Let x and x 4 be the roots of x 2 2x 2014, with x < x 4. Compute (x 4 x 2 ) + (x x 1 ). Answer: 1 Solution: Note that x + x 4 = 2 and x 1 + x 2 = 1, giving an answer of For any 4-tuple (a 1, a 2, a, a 4 ) where each entry is either 0 or 1, call it quadratically satisfiable if there exist real numbers x 1,..., x 4 such that x 1 x 2 4 +x 2x 4 +x = 0 and for each i = 1,..., 4, x i is positive if a i = 1 and negative if a i = 0. Find the number of quadratically satisfiable 4-tuples. Answer: 12 Solution: First, we may assume a 1 = 1 without loss of generality and multiply our answer by 2 at the end, since ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ax 2 bx c = 0. We can furthermore assume x 1 = 1, since we can always divide the whole equation by x 1 (since x 1 > 0). Hence, we now consider equations of the form x bx 4 + c = 0 in which b and c are constrained to be either positive or negative. This yields four cases: Case 1: If b and c are both positive, the two roots have positive product but negative sum, so they must both be negative i.e. x 4 < 0. Furthermore, x 4 < 0 is possible, e.g. x x = 0 = x 4 = 1. Case 2: If b is positive and c is negative, x 4 may be positive or negative e.g. x x 4 2 = x 4 { 2, 1}. Case : If b is negative and c is positive, the two roots have positive product and positive sum, so they must both be positive i.e. x 4 > 0. Furthermore, x 4 > 0 is possible e.g. x 2 4 2x = x 4 = 1. Case 4: If b and c are both negative, x 4 may be positive or negative e.g. x 2 4 x 4 2 = x 4 { 1, 2}. Putting these cases together, we conclude that the answer is a and b are nonnegative real numbers such that sin(ax + b) = sin(29x) for all integers x. Find the smallest possible value of a. Answer: 10π 29.

2 Solution: First, since sin(b) = sin(0) = 0, we have b = nπ for some integer n. Since sin has period 2π, we need only consider the cases when b = 0 and b = π. Now let b {0, π} and a be any real number. If for all integers x, sin(ax + b) = sin(29x), then for any integer n, sin((a + 2πn)x + b) = sin(ax + b + 2πnx) = sin(ax + b) = sin(29x) for all integers x as well. Conversely, assume for some a and c that for all integers x, sin(ax+b) = sin(cx + b) = sin(29x). Then, for all integers x, sin(ax) + cos(ax) sin(b) sin(ax) = sin(ax + b) = sin(cx + b) = sin(cx) + cos(cx) sin(b) = = sin(cx), since sin(0) = sin(π) = 0 and cos(0), cos(π) 0. But then, sin(a) = sin(c) and 2 sin(a) cos(a) = sin(2a) = sin(2c) = 2 sin(c) cos(c) implies cos(a) = cos(c) since sin(a) = sin(c) = sin(29) 0. Hence, a and c are the same angle, modulo integer multiples of 2π. Now, we consider the two cases concretely. If b = 0, one valid assignment of a is a = 29, so all possible ones are a = πn for integers n. The smallest positive number we can make this is 29 8π, since 10π 1.4 > 29. Meanwhile, if b = π, one valid assignment of a is a = 29, since sin( 29x+π) = sin( 29x) cos(π) + cos( 29x) sin(π) = sin( 29x) = sin(29x). So, all possible ones are a = πn for integers n. The smallest positive number we can make this is 10π 29. We can easily see that 29 (9π, 10π), so 10π 29 < π < 29 8π. 6. Find the minimum value of 1 x y + 1 y z + 1 x z for reals x > y > z given (x y)(y z)(x z) = 17. Answer: 5 68 Solution: Let x y = a and y z = b. Therefore, x z = a + b. Note that 1 a + 1 b + 1 (a + b) = Applying AM-GM here on these five fractions, a + b 4ab a + b (a + b) this quantity is greater than or equal to a 4. Note that because ab(a + b) = 17, this b4 (a + b) 7 is equivalent to minimizing 5, which means that we want to minimize a + b, which implies that we want a = b because that is when the inequality is tight. (a + b) 4 (a + b)2 4 We therefore have that 17 = ab(a + b) because ab by AM-GM. Note that we have equality if and only if a = b, which implies that a + b = 68 68, so a = b = 2. Plugging 5 this in gives us. 68

3 7. Compute the smallest value p such that, for all q > p, the polynomial x + x 2 + qx + 9 has exactly one real root. Answer: 9 4 Solution: Let f(x) = x + x 2 + px + 9. Then f(x) must have a negative root a and a double root b. By viete s, we have the following equations: ab 2 = 9 a + 2b = 1 This gives the cubic (2b + 1)b 2 = 9 2b + b 2 9 = 0. This equation yields b = 2 as the only real solution, so a = 4 and p = P (x) and Q(x) are two polynomials such that Find the smallest possible degree of Q. Answer: 5 P (P (x)) = P (x) 16 + x 48 + Q(x). Solution: Note: we use the notation O(x n ) to denote an arbitrary polynomial whose degree is at most n. We first try to find a Q with degree < 48. It turns out this is feasible. Let d be the degree of P. P (P (x)) has degree d 2, and P (x) 16 + x 48 + Q(x) has degree max(16d, 48). Since 48 is not a perfect square, the degree must be 16d, which implies d = 16. Now let R(x) = P (x) x 16, so R(P (x)) = x 48 + Q(x). Since R applied to a degree-16 polynomial yields a degree-48 polynomial, the degree of R must be. So, we have P (x) = x 16 + ax + O(x 2 ) for some a 0; we can also show from here that in fact a = 1. Therefore, P (P (x)) = P (x) 16 + P (x) + O(P (x) 2 ) = P (x) 16 + x 48 + x 5 + O(x 4 ). Hence, if the degree of Q is < 48, it must be exactly Let b n be defined by the formula b n = 1 + a a a n a n where a n = n 2 + n +. Find the smallest real number L such that b n < L for all n. Answer: Solution: One way of solving this problem is by noticing the identity

4 n + 2 = (n + 2) = 1 + (n + 2) + 1 = 1 + ((n + 2) 2 (n + 2) + 1)(n + ) = = 1 + (n 2 + n + )(n + ) = 1 + a n (n + ) It is quite easy to see that n + k + 2 = 1 + a n+k (n + k + ), so the formula may be applied recursively to obtain the result = 1 + a a a k a k (k + ) for arbitrary k 1. Then for all n 1, 1 + a a n < 1 + a a n (n + ) = This gives a pretty good candidate for L. Next, it is pretty clear that b n is an increasing (just by checking what happens in the innermost radicals), and the upper bound of implies that b n approaches some number for large n- essentially, this is intuitive justification for the existence of L. This also motivates checking if L = or not by the following way: Define b n (k) as the same formula for b n with n roots, but instead of starting at a 1, it starts at n k. Using computations very similar to those above, we may determine that, more generally, b n (k) < k + 2 and that b n (k) increases as n increases for any fixed k. Next, define c n (k) = k + 2 b n (k). If c n (k) gets arbitrarily close to 0, then L cannot be less than, which would prove that L =. We compute c n (k) = k + 2 b n (k) = k a k b n 1 (k + 1) = (k + 2) + 1 a k b n 1 (k + 1) (k + 2) 2 + (k + 2)b n (k) + b n (k) 2 = (k + )((k + 2)2 (k + 2) + 1) a k b n 1 (k + 1) (k + 2) 2 + (k + 2)b n (k) + b n (k) 2 = a k c n 1 (k + 1) = (k + 2) 2 + (k + 2)b n (k) + b n (k) 2 < a k c n 1 (k + 1) (k + 2) 2 + (k + 2) + 1 = a kc n 1 (k + 1) k 2 + 5k + 7 = a k c n 1 (k + 1). a k+1 a k ((k + ) b n 1 (k + 1)) (k + 2) 2 + (k + 2)b n (k) + b n (k) 2

5 I used the fact that b n (k) > 1 which is true because a k > 2 for k 1, and by replacing all the a i with 2 in the expression for b n (k) you get simply 1. Applying this inequality repeatedly, we get c n (k) < a k a k+1 a k+1 a k+2 an+k 2 a n+k 1 c 1 (n + k 1) = a k a n+k 1 c 1 (n + k 1) = a k (n + k + 1 b 1 (n + k 1)) = (k2 + k + )(n + k an+k 1 ) a n+k 1 (n + k 1) 2 + (n + k 1) + = 1 (k 2 + k + )(1 + k/n + 1/n 1/n + a n+k 1 /n ) n (1 + k/n 1/n) 2 + (1/n + k/n 2 1/n 2 ) + /n 2. From this expression it is clear that, for any fixed k, for very large n c n (k) will get arbitrarily close to 0. The fraction multiplied by the 1 n has denominator approaching 1 and numerator approaching k 2 + k +, as n becomes very large, because k/n 0, 1/n 0 and a n+k 1 /n = ((n + k 1) 2 + (n + k 1) + 1)/n 0. So for large n, we may approximate the expression with 1 n (k2 + k + ) 0. Thus, b n (k) can get arbitrary close to k + 2 but never reach it, and the case k = 1 gives us the result that L =. 10. Let x 0 = 1, x 1 = 0, and x i = x i 1 + x i 2 for i 2. Let y 0 = 0, y 1 = 1, and y i = y i 1 + y i 2 for i 2. Compute 20 (x i y 2014 y i x 2014 ) 2. i=0 y You may give your answer in terms of at most ten values of the x i and/or y i (but must otherwise simplify completely). Answer: y 2014 x 2014 y 2014 = y 2015 y 2014 Solution 1: Let a = x 2014 /y We first show that x i + ay i > 0 for all i. Solving the linear recurrences gives x i = ( 1)i ( + ) 2 ( y i = ( 1)i ( + ) i + + ( ) i, 2 + ) i ( By cross-multiplying and cancelling terms, we conclude that x i y i = + ) i. 2 ( + ) i ( ( 1)i ( + ) i + 1 ( + ). )) i Since + < + 16 = 1 and the denominator is 2 i y i, this number decreases monotonically in magnitude as i increases and alternates in sign. That is, as i increases, x i /y i gets monotonically closer to ( )/2 while alternating between being slightly above and slightly below. This means that x 2i+1 /y 2i+1 < a < x 2i /y 2i for all i 1006, as desired.

6 Hence consider the sequence of rectangles R 0, R 1,..., R 20, where R 2i has height x 2i + ay 2i and width (x 2i +ay 2i ) and R 2i+1 has height (x 2i+1 +ay 2i+1 ) and width x 2i+1 +ay 2i+1. Draw R 2i+1 adjacent to R 2i to the right with bottom edges aligned, and R 2i+2 adjacent to R 2i+1 above with left edges aligned. Then the entire drawing exactly forms a rectangle of height 1 and width +a, hence area + a. On the other hand the area of the rectangle is clearly times the area of the desired sum. Therefore the sum has value +a = y 2014 x 2014 y Solution 2: Solving the linear recurrences, plugging in, and expanding results in a sum of a few geometric series. It should be possible to bash through this to get the same answer.

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