# Basic Problem: Map a 3D object to a 2D display surface. Analogy - Taking a snapshot with a camera

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1 3D Viewing Basic Problem: Map a 3D object to a 2D display surface Analogy - Taking a snapshot with a camera Synthetic camera virtual camera we can move to any location & orient in any way then create a 2D image of a 3D object Page 1 of 22

2 Steps for Viewing in 3D 1. choose a projection type parallel or perspective 2. establish the view specify the viewing parameters position of the viewers eye, location of the view plane two coordinate systems (scene & viewing) 3. clipping in three dimensions Remove portions of the 3D scene that are not candidates for ultimate display clip objects against a 3D view volume 4. project the scene onto the computer display project the view volume onto a 2D projection plane (window) 5. map this image to the viewport (display) Clip against view volume 3D world-coordinate output primitives Clipped world coordinates Project onto projection plane Transform into viewport in 2D device coords. 2D device coordinates Page 2 of 22

3 Projections Projections transform points in a coordinate system of dimension n into points in a coordinate system of dimension less than n (eg. 3D 2D) Straight projection rays (projectors) that start from a center of projection and pass through each point of an object and intersect a projection plane There are two basic types of projections: 1. A 2. A B B A B A B COP Parallel Perspective We will deal only with planar geometric projections: projecting onto a plane rather than a curved surface uses straight projectors rather than curved Page 3 of 22

4 A B A B 1. Parallel projection centre of projection (COP) at infinite distance projectors are all parallel specify the direction of projection (DOP) instead of COP less realistic (no perspective foreshortening) good for exact measurements and parallel lines remain parallel angles remain constant only on faces parallel to the projection plane used in engineering and architecture Page 4 of 22

5 A B A B COP 2. Perspective Projection projectors meet at the center of projection (COP) (eye, camera ) finite distance between COP and projection plane approximation of human visual system or photographic system gives perspective foreshortening size of an object varies inversely with the distance of that object from the center of projection adds realism causes distortion not useful for accurate shapes or measurements Page 5 of 22

6 Parallel Projections - two main types: orthographic and oblique Orthographic Projections Direction of projection (DOP) is perpendicular to the projection plane. most common types involve the projection plane being perpendicular to a principle axis: front-elevation (front-view) (z-axis) top-elevation (top or plan view) (y-axis) side-elevation (side-view) (x-axis) each projection only shows one face of an object, therefore the 3D nature is difficult to comprehend Page 6 of 22

7 Orthographic projection matrixes: xy 0xz 0yz front-elevation top-elevation side elevation *easy, just discard one of the coordinates (e.g. for a front-elevation, discard the z coordinates) Examples: Page 7 of 22

8 Axonometric Orthographic Projection use projection planes that are NOT perpendicular to a principal axis therefore, can show several faces of an object at once Three classes of axonometric proejctions depending on the number of major axes which are forshortened 1. Isometric Projection special case of an axonometric projection direction of the projection is at equal angles to all axes all three major axes are foreshortened equally if projection plane normal is (dx, dy, dz), then: dx = dy = dz or +-dx = +-dy = +-dz there are only eight directions (one in each octant that can satisfy this condition Page 8 of 22

9 2. Dimetric Projections direction of the projection makes equal angles with two of the axes dx = dy or dy = dz or dx = dz only lines drawn along the two equally forshortened axes are scaled to the same factor Page 9 of 22

10 3. Trimetric Projections direction of the projection makes different angles with all three axes can be used to display different orientations by placing different amounts of emphasis on the faces Page 10 of 22

11 Oblique Projection direction of projection is NOT perpendicular to the projection plane the projection plane is perpendicular to a principal axis Page 11 of 22

12 two types: cavalier projection: α = 45 all sides will maintain equal lenghts edges can be measured directly looks elongated cabinet projection: α = 63.4 projection of a line perpendicular to the projection plane are ½ their actual length looks more realistic Page 12 of 22

13 Perspective Projections COP A B A B objects of equal size at different distances from the viewer will be projected at different sizes (nearer objects will appear closer) Page 13 of 22

14 any lines of the object NOT parallel to the projection plane BUT parallel in the object (scene) will converge to a point vanishing point if the set of lines is parallel to one of the three principal axes, the vanishing point is called an axis vanishing point perspective projections are categorized by their number of principal vanishing points (therefore the number of axes the projection plane cuts) Page 14 of 22

15 1-point perspective one vanishing point projection plane cuts 1 axis only (perpendicular), other 2 axes are parallel to the plane. 2-point perspective two vanishing points projection plane cuts 2 axes Page 15 of 22

16 3-point perspective three vanishing points projection plane cuts all 3 axes Vanishing point examples Page 16 of 22

17 Relationships among various types of projections: Page 17 of 22

18 Perspective Planar Geometric Projections For simplicity: projection plane is normal to the z-axis at z=d Page 18 of 22

19 OR projection plane at z=0 Page 19 of 22

20 Specifying a View Volume Projection plane -> View Plane View reference point (VRP) a point on the view plane View plane normal (VPN) normal of the view plane (the viewplane can be in front of, cut through, or be behind objects) Given a view plane, a window which contents are mapped to the viewport (e.g. clipping) specify min & max window coordinates axes part of 3D Viewing Reference Coordinate (VRC) System one axis (n) is VPN one axis (v) is coincident with projection of VUP parallel to VPN Page 20 of 22

21 one axis (u) is defined such that u, v, and n form a right handed coordinate system min & max of u & v define the window PRP projection reference point - center of projection for perspective viewing - direction of projection for parallel viewing (specified DOP from the PRP to the center of the window) Page 21 of 22

22 Page 22 of 22

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