# Renishaw apply innovation TM. Calibrating 5-axis machines to improve part accuracy. 5Align

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1 Calibrating 5-axis machines to improve part accuracy 5Align

2 Productive Process Pyramid TM Understanding and tracking machine behaviour Process verification Thermal compensation In-cycle process control Process set-up & tool path generation Machine geometry calibration Probe calibration Machine performance optimisation Environmental stability & operating disciplines Slide 2 FMEA and robust process design Design for manufacture

3 Machine geometry topics Sources of geometric error and their impact 5Align Calibrator and Check-Up cycles for a multi-tasking mill-turn machine Case study impact of machine geometry on part accuracy The impact of temperature Slide 3

4 Critical geometric relationships To machine accurately, you need to know where the tool is relative to the workpiece in all positions where the spindle is relative to the machine home translation in {X,Y,Z}, and orientation of spindle zero point (only for spindles with orientation control) where the rotary axes are relative to the spindle translation in {X,Y,Z} and centre-line orientation {i,j,k} and orientation of zero points Machine geometry Slide 4 where the workpiece is relative to the spindle offset from machine bed / rotary axis centre-lines - this relationship changes as rotary axes move tool dimensions length of tools relative to spindle gauge-line, and diameter of tools when they are spinning (accounting for run-out and pull-up) Process set-up

5 Sources of geometric errors Error sources... machine geometry is not perfect linear axes not orthogonal spindle taper not aligned with machine Z-axis rotary axes not aligned with linear axes Note: rotary axes are not positioned exactly w.r.t. linear axes rotary axis zero points are not aligned with linear axis directions most CNCs are unable to compensate for inter-axis errors Axis linearity / angularity not considered - covered by calibration thermal distortion constantly changes inter-axis relationships ambient temperature changes self-generated heat in ball-screws and spindle local heating effects due to friction heat soak from major power sources Slide 5

6 Alignment and position errors Alignment errors Driven by precision of machine construction Vary very slowly (wear and tear) under normal circumstances Machine crashes can cause sudden changes in alignment Position errors C-axis coupling Alignment X-Z plane Trunion alignment Z axis C-axis centre X-axis Table alignment X-Z plane A-axis pivot Z-axis Slide 6 Vary more quickly than alignment errors Susceptible to temperature / heat flows Table to A-axis pivot

7 Impact of alignment errors If these errors are not measured and either minimised through maintenance, or accounted for in the program, features will be produced in the wrong position! A machine with poor geometry will make inaccurate parts, resulting in fruitless efforts to adjust tool and work offsets Geometric errors are not constants - mechanical wear and crashes can cause them to change regular assessment of geometry is needed Slide 7

8 Machine geometry topics Sources of geometric error and their impact 5Align Calibrator and Check-Up cycles for a multi-tasking mill-turn machine Case study impact of machine geometry on part accuracy The impact of temperature Slide

9 5Align solutions 5Align Calibrator aimed at the machine builder comprehensive cycles and calibration artefacts that identify individual alignment errors to assist with machine build and installation 5Align Check-Up aimed at the machine user fast check using an artefact to benchmark and monitor machine geometry over time Slide 9 Solutions for 5-axis machining centres 5-axis multi-tasking mill-turn machines Assumes accurate linear systems with no squareness errors

10 5Align test equipment Device developed for ease of use All items threaded simple bung IMPORTANT the device does NOT need to run on centre Pivot point artefact Slide 10 Spindle alignment artefact

11 Probe calibration Measure position of sphere with mill spindle orientated Re-measure sphere with probe rotated through 10 degrees Probe tip runout can be calculated and stylus offset loaded to variables V714-MT-probe-cal.wmv Slide 11

12 Check 1 Main spindle centre line Measure sphere at C0 with probe orientation A0 Measure sphere at C10 Calculate midpoints in X and Y Spindle 1 centreline X-axis Y-axis V715-main-spindle-CL.wmv Slide 12

13 Check 2 Main spindle alignment XZ YZ Measure 1st sphere at C0 Measure 1st sphere at C10 Calculate midpoints in X and Y Measure 2nd sphere / diameter at C0 Measure 2nd sphere / diameter at C10 Calculate midpoints in X and Y Spindle alignment is difference between midpoints 1,2 V716-main-spin-align.wmv Main spindle alignment X-Z plane (also X-Y plane) Slide 13 3,4

14 Check 3 Mill spindle alignment XZ YZ Measure sphere at Spindle 0 Measure sphere at Spindle 0 using point on shaft of probe Measure sphere at Spindle 10 using point on shaft of probe Calculate midpoint in X and Y Mill Spindle alignment is difference between points 2,3 V717-mill-spindle.wmv Mill spindle Alignment X-Z, X-Y planes Slide 14 1 Y-axis X-axis

15 Check 4 B-axis pivot, head length & pivot to spindle error Measure sphere at B0 Measure sphere at B-90 Calculate distance moved in X (radial) & Z (X1,Z1) Swing radius = (X1+Z1)/2 Head length = Swing radius sphere radius probe length Pivot point to mill spindle = Z1 swing radius Swing radius V71-B-pivot.wmv Slide X1 Probe Length Pivot point to Spindle distance Z1

16 Check 5 B-axis translation errors Measure sphere position XYZ Update WCS Using dynamic work offsets or custom macro, generate WCS for new B axis position Move B-axis Measure sphere positional error X,Y,Z Repeat through axis movement V719-B-tracking.wmv Slide 16

17 5Align Check-Up results Slide 17

18 Machine geometry topics Sources of geometric error and their impact 5Align Calibrator and Check-Up cycles for a multi-tasking mill-turn machine Case study impact of machine geometry on part accuracy The impact of temperature Slide 1

19 Mill-turn test-piece design Slide 19

20 Test-piece machining processes The face and diameter were rough and finish turned, these become the datums for the CMM check The face slot is machined with the mill spindle horizontal, the side slots with the mill spindle vertical, all features produced using the end of the cutter The face and side holes are spotted (B-axis horizontal / vertical), then drilled and single point bored Two face holes used to align on the CMM Slide 20

21 Test procedure The Renishaw 5Align Calibrator tests carried out without parameter update The machine tool eye calibrated using a setting tool All cutting tools datumed against the tool eye First test piece machined Machine parameters updated as prescribed by the 5Align Calibrator tests Second test piece machined Both parts inspected on a Mitutoyo DCC CMM Slide 21

22 CMM measurement results Dimension Drawing reference Deviation Before After Influencing parameters turned diameter B Machine centreline X-axis 1.0 deep milled slot front face D Demonstrates relationship to turned face - offset correct Centre Hole X0 B Machine centreline X-axis Centre Hole Y0 B Machine centreline Y-axis Slide milled flat (1) C milled flat (2) C Side bored hole (1) position Z- axis Side bored hole (1) position Y- axis Side bored hole (2) position Z- axis Side bored hole (2) position Y- axis Machine centreline X-axis, Head length, Alpha error Machine centreline X-axis, Head length, Alpha error C Head length. Alpha error C Y-axis Yaw error D Head length. Alpha error D Y-axis Yaw error

23 Slide 23 Conclusions The effects of the correct calibration were significant and improved the accuracy of the machined part to an acceptable level No tool offsets were altered to achieve the change in results Without using 5Align, an operator would try altering tool offsets to achieve nominal dimensions and undoubtedly become frustrated due to the limited effect across all errors Following correct machine calibration however, any residual errors can confidently be attributed to tool wear and deflection, enabling tool offsets to be used to control the machining process

24 Machine geometry topics Sources of geometric error and their impact 5Align Calibrator and Check-Up cycles for a multi-tasking mill-turn machine Case study impact of machine geometry on part accuracy The impact of temperature Slide 24

25 Thermal errors - C frame VMC Spindle motor Internal heat sources Z X Y Slide 25 FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW

26 Thermal errors - C frame VMC HEAT FLOWS Z X Y Slide 26 FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW

27 Thermal errors - C frame VMC C frame opens up and grows, due to Z-axis ball-screw heating and heat soak from spindle motor. Big effect in Z. Also affects the Y-axis. Small drift in X direction due to ballscrew heating Larger drift in Y due to local ballscrew heating and heat soak into casting Slide 27 FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW

28 Thermal errors - ambient temperature Changes in temperature in the machine shop during the day will affect the thermal condition of machines... higher / lower temperatures will cause machines to expand / contract temperature gradients in the shop may create differential expansions, especially on large, unguarded machines rapidly changing ambient temperatures can cause unpredictable changes in machine geometry different materials constrained growth Slide 2

29 Check 6 spindle position tracking An in-process check that quickly identifies how the relative positions of the main and milling spindles has moved since it was last calibrated 1,2 Use for tracking impact of temperature If possible, measure the position of a small, recently turned diameter Either use error in position to update system parameters Or update a primary work co-ordinate to use for subsequent milling operations If it is not possible to measure a diameter Slide 29 Use a datum point on the chuck to track the centre-line (note: this is subject to axis growth errors)

30 Check 7 B-axis error tracking An in-process check that quickly identifies where the pivot point, head length and pivot to spindle error have moved since they were last calibrated Use for tracking impact of temperature Measure a corner on either the part or the chuck at B0 and B-90 Analyse as per check 4 Either update system parameters (if possible) Or establish a work co-ordinate in each spindle orientation to be used 2 1 Slide 30

31 Suggested calibration regime Mill-turn centre with B-axis swivel head YEARLY: Full laser check on linear & rotary axes QC10 Ballbar check to benchmark linear axis performance 5Align Calibrator cycles to optimise & benchmark machine alignments Establish limits of acceptance Slide 31 MONTHLY: DAILY: IN-PROCESS: Ballbar check to monitor linear axis performance 5Align Check-Up cycle to monitor machine alignments Compare with acceptance limits Establish calibration trail between tools and spindle probe Probe calibration In-process reaffirmation of spindle alignment and pivot point Establish position of part relative to spindle

32 Machine geometry summary The alignment of 5-axis machines is critical to machining accuracy Alignments can be affected by wear & tear, crashes and temperature 5Align Calibrator cycles measure each component of machine alignment in an automated, repeatable manner 5Align Check-Up cycles provide a benchmark for machine geometry condition monitoring In-process checks can track the hour-byhour impact of heat flows and temperature Slide 32 Solutions for various 5-axis machine configurations

33 Questions apply innovation Slide 33

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