3D Drawing. Single Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces


 Hillary Pearson
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 3D Drawing Single Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces The following document helps describe the basic process for generating a 3D representation of a simple 2D plan. For this exercise we will be using single point perspective with the VP (Vanishing Point) centred both horizontally and vertically. This will be the eyelevel view point for the drawing. To enable resonably accurate placement of the construction details as well as helping with proportional heights I ve divided the plan into a 1 metre square grid. We ll also use diminished spacing to enable an accurate spacing of the horizontal and vertical lines as they fall away towards the VP. First a few definitons. 2D 2 dimensional geometry. The flat top view of an image. With Garden Design often referred to as the Plan View. 3D  3 dimensional geometry. Drawings with views diplaying life like width, length and height proportions. Vanishing Point  A vanishing point is a point in a perspective drawing to which parallel lines appear to converge. Horizon Line  A horizontal line that divides a scene into top and bottom, earth and sky. Also the line on which one and two point Vanishing Points reside. Perspective Drawing  Views using vanishing points and foreshortening to give a reallife view of a 3D scene on a flat piece of paper. One and Two point perspective retain vertical lines while horizontal lines recede or converge towards the VP (s). Diminishing Spacing  In a perspective drawing, a way to calculate evenly spaced objects as they recede towards the vanishing point To begin, first get your 2D plan. The plan itself does not need specific dimensions as a grid will help place items. For this exercise the boundary is 11 x 13 meters. That s the area from the bottom of the plan to the front of the house.
2 Over this plan draw a grid of equal sized squares. Each square has to represent 1 square meter. This will be used to align our 3D elements on our one point perspective drawing. In the sample above I ve extended the grid with a one meter overlay on the bottom and have extended over to the back of the house as well. This doesn t serve any purpose for this exercise but will in the next. To have your final image nicely centred place your grid evenly
3 over the 2D plan. It s better to have an even overhang on both sides rather that one flush edge and a overhang on the other. If you re doing this by hand drawing, it s easier to do all the first section (up to the point where you start the actual drawing) on normal paper. Once you have the entire grid work done place a piece of tracing paper over the top and fix it down. Then draw the actual 3D view of the garden on this. This way you won t have to erase lots of working lines later. Given we now have a grid we will use a horizontal line marked at 1 meter increments to set our front plane. This should be 11 x 1 meter segments wide (to represent 11 meters). Do the same with a vertical line 3 meters high as in the picture below. It should be 11 segments by 3. The 3 vertical segments will cover the height from the ground to the highest tree in our drawing. This could have been more if the tree heights had been larger. Within this grid draw a horizontal line from left to right through the centre. (Yellow line below) This will be our horizon line. Then a vertical line from top to bottom through the centre: The point where these two lines cross will be our VP (Vanishing point)
4 Next we draw diagonal lines from each intersection point along the bottom of the grid through to the VP in the centre. (Red lines below). Also draw a diagonal line from the top left and the top right to the VP as well. Also draw the top horizontal to complete a frame. So as not to make the following pictures too confusing with colours, I have removed the purple horizontal and vertical lines. It s assumed that you have these drawn at this point. Now we need to create the base horizontal and side lines to gives us the grid going backwards towards the VP. In order to make this drawing accurate we need to ensure these lines diminish at an even rate. Even though we cannot (not here anyway) get an exact measurement for each square by using a measuring tool, we can set a regular diminishing progression between each subsequent vertical and horizontal line as they recede towards the VP. To do this we need to set the first gap. Using this procedure setting the first gap is always a best guess. Draw a vertical line from the first bottom left point to the top of the grid. (Green line)
5 Next draw another vertical line a little way further along the bottom perspective line. If you use a gap just a little shorter than the length of a 1 meter segment across the front this will be closest to get the correct step. Here I have used a little wider gap so I can exaggerate the perspective to make it a little easier to see. It s only this first gap you have to estimate. Now measure the midpoint of the first vertical line and draw a diagonal from this point back to the VP (Vanishing point). In this case the line will be horizontal. (Green horizontal line) Draw a diagonal line (Magenta line) from the top of the first vertical through the point where the second and the horizontal lines cross and down to the bottom. The bottom of this line becomes the point where the next vertical begins. We repeat this process until there are 14 vertical lines.
6 We now have a set of even diminishing verticals. See how they shrink in height and are progressively closer together. Next from the bottom of each vertical we can draw horizontal lines from the left side to the right.
7 We now essentially have a 3D grid to start building our backyard. Before we move on here s just a couple of abstract views of the space we are working in. (This is not part of your drawing) Here s a front grid to represent the front plane. The blocks represent shapes in 3D. See how the faces of these blocks on the front grid are square and how the side plains diminish back towards the VP. Also note that for the shapes below the horizon line you see the tops of the boxes and anything above the horizon you see the bottom. This is the same view without the face grid. The other diagonals are perspective lines that start at the intersection of the grid on the face back to the VP. See how these lines give a sense of how the lines converge no matter where you are in the frame.
8 Even though the diminishing horizontals are not measures as such they are reasonably accurate and we can assume we have a 3D grid of 1 x 1x 1 meter squares. Using your original 2D drawing, place the elements by counting the squares and plotting where to build your drawing. If you have some heights (for the beds etc) you can read them off the side grid. Remember the width and heights on the front horizontal and vertical lines are measurable. For example the front the bed against the side grid is about 600mm and the smaller bed in front is about 100mm high. Knowing this you can draw these heights and then draw diagonal lines back to the VP. Then it s just a matter of estimating were the beds end by measuring the meters (counting the horizontal lines) back from the front. As mentioned earlier it s this point where you place a piece of tracing over the previous grid and do your final drawing on that. You can use a single piece of paper but it does have a lot of confusing working lines. ` `
9 I ve placed the house at the 13 meter mark back and estimated its height as 2 meters to the eves and a further 1.5 for the roof. See how small it is in comparison to the front elements. The construction in front of the door is the water feature. I ve made this a little larger than it would normally be just so you can see the top. Remember that in the original 2D view the feature is a circle. The further you move down from top 2D plan view to the 3D side view that shape becomes and ellipse. Its width stays the same but its depth converges. It s a bit of a guess sometimes when you do this by hand. In the next image I ve put some mass representing trees and shrubs for the left hand side. See how using a perspective line back to the VP helps position and size the foliage. Also see how after doing all your accurate line work the vegetation inevitably hides it. Here s the final picture.
10 Though this drawing was done using GardenCAD there is nothing here that can t be reproduced by using a TSquare, Set Square and a ruler
11 Two Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces In this section we will reproduce the same plan in two point perspective. Two point perspectives are defined by the use of two VP s along the Horizon line. This gives the image a 3 dimensional view with two planes falling away towards their respective vanishing points. Only the vertical lines remain parallel. Given this process essentially uses the same techniques as with single point it s worth doing the single point perspective section first. First we need to grid our 2 plan just we did with single point. Next draw a horizontal line and a vertical line in the centre of your page. Place two marks (Red squares) equal distances from the centre. For this example I have used the same scale as I did in the previous process. So here they are both 5.5 meters left and right from the centre. Then place two more marks (Green squares) to set our vertical top and bottom. In
12 this example where the VP is in the center of the frame this vertical line is the only line we can measure off the plan. All other lines will diminish away to the VP s. Next it s worth drawing a base boundary and a frame. This helps keep the drawing in a boundary. All you need to do then is join the markers as in the next example. Next we draw the diminishing spaces just as we did in the first example, only here we do it towards both VP s First draw two vertical lines equal distances left and right from the center vertical. The distances here are a best guess but given we know what length we are using for a meter, make the gap a meter or a little less. Then draw a diagonal line (Magenta line) from the top down through the crossover point to the bottom line.
13 Then draw a vertical from the bottom of each diagonal up the top perspective line. Continue this pattern along each side. As with the single point example, these gaps are our 1 meter markers. We need eleven along the right boundary and 19 along the left. This will give us 11 x 19. We need to include some extra length down the left plane as this time as we will now see the side of the house. It s worth drawing two diagonal lines back to the left VP from the centre vertical. (Yellow lines) These will give us a 1 meter height marks. Remember as this center line is the only line we can measure, you can mark the start of each of these points with your ruler. Either that or just divide to line into 3. Now we can draw our base grid by joining all the base points back to the two VP s. All the points at the bottoms of the verticals on the left boundary go back to the right VP and visa versa.
14 As you can see this drawing is very busy and is hard to see where you ll fit your drawing. Remember this is just a grid to help find accurate points for your drawing. If you are doing this exercise in CAD it s easier as you can just turn portions on and off by using layers. With hand drawing it s best to draw this part of the exercise on paper then cover it with tracing paper and draw your actual image on that. You ll also find that on large paper this grid is a little easier to read. You may like to use some different colours to help line points up as well. To start your drawing all you need to do now is use the grid points from your 2D grid and replicate them on the 3D plane here. You can use the centre vertical to help get heights. If you mark 600mm (approx) up the center vertical and draw a diagonal back to one of the VP s, that with give you a 600mm gap between line and the base.
15 This is the drawing without the side grid. Next, draw in some plants using a perspective line to help give them the correct proportions and spacing. This is final 2 point perspective drawing. Notice how the side planes fall away to the Vanishing Points. Also from this angle it s difficult to see the curves of the beds and the water feature at the top near the door. Isometric Drawing
16 Unlike perspective drawing which attempts to give a realistic 3 dimensional view on a flat piece of paper, Isometric views give a 3 dimensional view retaining the shape of each plane. There are no vanishing points or lines of convergence in Isometric drawing. In Isometric drawing all vertical lines are drawn vertically and all horizontal lines are offset by 30 degrees. The advantage of this view is that you can easily use the measurements from your 2D view to produce a 3D image that can show accurate measurements or dimensions on the plan. In this document we shall transform the same base 2D plan and produce an Isometric representation of it. Again I have used GardenCAD to produce these drawings as it is easy to rotate the entire plan 30 degrees and use 90 degree tracking to produce the verticals. If you re doing this by hand I ll make a note on any tips you can follow to replicate this approach. First place your drawing on a horizontal plane of 0 degrees. If you are hand drawing don t fix it to the table yet. Next mark the bottom left corner a draw a line 30 degrees up from the horizontal.
17 If you re hand drawing, don t do this directly on your 2D plan. Do it on a piece of paper underneath. All we are doing here is creating a guide to rotate and lineup our plan. Next using the bottom left corner, rotate your plan to the left and line its base along the 30 degree line. If you are doing this on paper you can also find this by using a protractor or your adjustable square. If you re hand drawing fix your plan down at the point and cover with a piece of tracing paper. Complete the next steps on the tracing paper using the 2Plan underneath as a guide. All you will need is a TSquare and a Triangle to complete. Next lift the elements up by drawing 90 degree vertical lines up from the corners of the plan below. Remember that with isometric drawing you can use the actual height measurements.
18 So if you have a bed 600 mm high then draw it that high. I haven t included all the dimensions here so you can make your own. What I used was: Boundary: 19000x (other lengths you can be guided by the 1 meter x 1 meter in the 2 perspective exercises. Bed height (against boundary): 600mm Bed height (smaller one in front): 100mm Water feature height: 1000mm House (from ground to eves): 2000mm Roof (from eves to top): 1500mm Once you have drawn your 90 degree verticals (Magenta lines) you can join the tops to form the sides. (Yellow line) For hand drawings if you set your square to 30 degrees this makes the diagonal drawing quite quick.
19 Next draw your plants. You can use shapes with specific width and height or representations that have the appropriate proportions for the view. If you are using CAD, trim any parts of the original plan that need cleaning up. If you are hand drawing you should be able to lift the tracing paper away and you should have a final Isometric drawing. If you wish you can include measurements or dimensions.
20 Here s the final image without dimensions.
21
3D Drawing. Single Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces
3D Drawing Single Point Perspective with Diminishing Spaces The following document helps describe the basic process for generating a 3D representation of a simple 2D plan. For this exercise we will be
More informationHow to Draw With Perspective. Created exclusively for Craftsy by Paul Heaston
How to Draw With Perspective Created exclusively for Craftsy by Paul Heaston i TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 02 05 09 13 17 Meet the Expert OnePoint Perspective: Drawing a Room TwoPoint Perspective: Understanding
More informationPerspective and Space
Perspective and Space Space: The element of art referring to the emptiness or area between, around, above, below, or within objects. FOREGROUND  Part of the picture plane that appears closest to the viewer
More informationFreehand Sketching. Sections
3 Freehand Sketching Sections 3.1 Why Freehand Sketches? 3.2 Freehand Sketching Fundamentals 3.3 Basic Freehand Sketching 3.4 Advanced Freehand Sketching Key Terms Objectives Explain why freehand sketching
More informationTechnical Drawing Specifications Resource A guide to support VCE Visual Communication Design study design 201317
A guide to support VCE Visual Communication Design study design 201317 1 Contents INTRODUCTION The Australian Standards (AS) Key knowledge and skills THREEDIMENSIONAL DRAWING PARALINE DRAWING Isometric
More informationAn introduction to 3D draughting & solid modelling using AutoCAD
An introduction to 3D draughting & solid modelling using AutoCAD Faculty of Technology University of Plymouth Drake Circus Plymouth PL4 8AA These notes are to be used in conjunction with the AutoCAD software
More informationCreating 2D Isometric Drawings
1(800) 8772745 www.ashlarvellum.com Creating 2D Isometric Drawings Using Graphite TM Copyright 2008 Ashlar Incorporated. All rights reserved. C62DISO0806. AshlarVellum Graphite No matter how many Top,
More informationCS 4204 Computer Graphics
CS 4204 Computer Graphics 3D views and projection Adapted from notes by Yong Cao 1 Overview of 3D rendering Modeling: *Define object in local coordinates *Place object in world coordinates (modeling transformation)
More informationAnamorphic Projection Photographic Techniques for setting up 3D Chalk Paintings
Anamorphic Projection Photographic Techniques for setting up 3D Chalk Paintings By Wayne and Cheryl Renshaw. Although it is centuries old, the art of street painting has been going through a resurgence.
More informationIntroduction to CATIA V5
Introduction to CATIA V5 Release 16 (A HandsOn Tutorial Approach) Kirstie Plantenberg University of Detroit Mercy SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com www.schroffeurope.com
More informationGetting Started in Tinkercad
Getting Started in Tinkercad By Bonnie Roskes, 3DVinci Tinkercad is a fun, easy to use, webbased 3D design application. You don t need any design experience  Tinkercad can be used by anyone. In fact,
More information121 Representations of ThreeDimensional Figures
Connect the dots on the isometric dot paper to represent the edges of the solid. Shade the tops of 121 Representations of ThreeDimensional Figures Use isometric dot paper to sketch each prism. 1. triangular
More informationRoof Tutorial. Chapter 3:
Chapter 3: Roof Tutorial The majority of Roof Tutorial describes some common roof styles that can be created using settings in the Wall Specification dialog and can be completed independent of the other
More informationShaping Space DRAWING GUIDELINES
DRAWING GUIDELINES Types of drawin Freehand drawings, paintings or sketches These are good for recording the general visual effect of a building or for making personal statements about how you feel about
More informationThe GED math test gives you a page of math formulas that
Math Smart 643 The GED Math Formulas The GED math test gives you a page of math formulas that you can use on the test, but just seeing the formulas doesn t do you any good. The important thing is understanding
More informationGAP CLOSING. 2D Measurement. Intermediate / Senior Student Book
GAP CLOSING 2D Measurement Intermediate / Senior Student Book 2D Measurement Diagnostic...3 Areas of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids...6 Areas of Composite Shapes...14 Circumferences and Areas
More informationOptical Illusions Essay Angela Wall EMAT 6690
Optical Illusions Essay Angela Wall EMAT 6690! Optical illusions are images that are visually perceived differently than how they actually appear in reality. These images can be very entertaining, but
More informationOA310 Patterns in Addition Tables
OA310 Patterns in Addition Tables Pages 60 63 Standards: 3.OA.D.9 Goals: Students will identify and describe various patterns in addition tables. Prior Knowledge Required: Can add two numbers within 20
More informationKITCHENS. Tip PAGE 1 FITTING YOUR KITCHEN GUIDE. How to mark out a kitchen. Tools required for installing a kitchen STEP ONE STEP TWO STEP THREE
FITTING YOUR KITCHEN GUIDE How to mark out a kitchen PAGE 1 Before starting on the installation, measure 870mm from the lowest point of the floor and mark a datum line around the room to indicate where
More informationLesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams
Lesson 26: Reflection & Mirror Diagrams The Law of Reflection There is nothing really mysterious about reflection, but some people try to make it more difficult than it really is. All EMR will reflect
More informationBasic AutoSketch Manual
Basic AutoSketch Manual Instruction for students SkfManual.doc of 3 Contents BASIC AUTOSKETCH MANUAL... INSTRUCTION FOR STUDENTS... BASIC AUTOSKETCH INSTRUCTION... 3 SCREEN LAYOUT... 3 MENU BAR... 3 FILE
More informationWE OFTEN BELIEVE artists
Analyzing the Residential Landscape WE OFTEN BELIEVE artists have the liberty to create anything they want. That is sometimes true, but many artists are hired to do particular types of work. Landscape
More informationCALCULATING THE AREA OF A FLOWER BED AND CALCULATING NUMBER OF PLANTS NEEDED
This resource has been produced as a result of a grant awarded by LSIS. The grant was made available through the Skills for Life Support Programme in 2010. The resource has been developed by (managers
More informationTABLE OF CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION... 5 Advance Concrete... 5 Where to find information?... 6 INSTALLATION... 7 STARTING ADVANCE CONCRETE...
Starting Guide TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 5 Advance Concrete... 5 Where to find information?... 6 INSTALLATION... 7 STARTING ADVANCE CONCRETE... 7 ADVANCE CONCRETE USER INTERFACE... 7 Other important
More informationNot for distribution
SHPE, SPE ND MESURES Volume Volume of a cuboid Volume is the amount of space inside a D shape. he common units for volume are: mm, cm or m. Volume = length x width x height height V = l x w x h V = lwh
More informationDrawing a little mechanical part using LibreCAD
TUTORIAL Drawing a little mechanical part using LibreCAD Tutorial by Claudio Guarnieri CLAUDIO GUARNIERI: Drawing a little mechanical part using LibreCAD Page 1 of 17 Introduction Hello everyone! This
More information2013 Getting Started Guide
2013 Getting Started Guide The contents of this guide and accompanying exercises were originally created by Nemetschek Vectorworks, Inc. Vectorworks Fundamentals Getting Started Guide Created using: Vectorworks
More informationWorksheets for Teachers. The Lowry
Worksheets for Teachers The Lowry Worksheets LS Lowry Worksheets for Primary & Secondary Pupils The following pages contain worksheets for you to use with your class. They can be photocopied for each person
More informationUnderstand the Sketcher workbench of CATIA V5.
Chapter 1 Drawing Sketches in Learning Objectives the Sketcher WorkbenchI After completing this chapter you will be able to: Understand the Sketcher workbench of CATIA V5. Start a new file in the Part
More informationArea of Parallelograms (pages 546 549)
A Area of Parallelograms (pages 546 549) A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The base is any one of the sides and the height is the shortest distance (the length of a perpendicular
More informationSolidWorks Tutorial 4 CANDLESTICK
SolidWorks Tutorial 4 CANDLESTICK Candlestick In this tutorial you will make a simple container and a candlestick out of sheetmetal. You will learn about working with sheet metal in SolidWorks. We will
More informationIES <Virtual Environment> Tutorial. ModelIT (Version 6.0)
IES Tutorial ModelIT (Version 6.0) 1 Introduction: ModelIT Tutorial This document shows you how to use ModelIT, IES s 3D building geometry modelling tool. The tutorial is intended
More informationWhat You ll Learn. Why It s Important
These students are setting up a tent. How do the students know how to set up the tent? How is the shape of the tent created? How could students find the amount of material needed to make the tent? Why
More informationEdinburgh COLLEGE of ART ARCHITECTURE 3D Modelling in AutoCAD  tutorial exercise The screen The graphics area This is the part of the screen in which the drawing will be created. The command prompt area
More informationSnap to It with CorelDRAW 12! By Steve Bain
Snap to It with CorelDRAW 12! By Steve Bain If you've ever fumbled around trying to align your cursor to something, you can bid this frustrating task farewell. CorelDRAW 12 object snapping has been redesigned
More informationSketchUp Instructions
SketchUp Instructions Every architect needs to know how to use SketchUp! SketchUp is free from Google just Google it and download to your computer. You can do just about anything with it, but it is especially
More informationAlgebra Geometry Glossary. 90 angle
lgebra Geometry Glossary 1) acute angle an angle less than 90 acute angle 90 angle 2) acute triangle a triangle where all angles are less than 90 3) adjacent angles angles that share a common leg Example:
More informationChapter S3 Spacetime and Gravity
Chapter S3 Spacetime and Gravity What are the major ideas of special relativity? Spacetime Special relativity showed that space and time are not absolute Instead they are inextricably linked in a fourdimensional
More informationDrawing a Bedroom Floorplan
Appendix A Drawing a Bedroom Floorplan In this chapter, you will learn the following to World Class standards: Draw a Bedroom Floorplan Draw the Bedroom Walls Draw and Dimension the Bedroom Door Draw and
More informationHouse Design Tutorial
Chapter 2: House Design Tutorial This House Design Tutorial shows you how to get started on a design project. The tutorials that follow continue with the same plan. When we are finished, we will have created
More informationSketcher. Preface What's New? Getting Started Basic Tasks Customizing Workbench Description Glossary Index
Sketcher Preface What's New? Getting Started Basic Tasks Customizing Workbench Description Glossary Index Dassault Systèmes 199499. All rights reserved. Preface CATIA Version 5 Sketcher application makes
More informationExperiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2005 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and of the Earth OBJECTIVES 1. To examine the magnetic field associated with a
More informationMathematics. Steps to Success. and. Top Tips. Year 5
Pownall Green Primary School Mathematics and Year 5 1 Contents Page 1. Multiplication and Division 3 2. Positive and Negative Numbers 4 3. Decimal Notation 4. Reading Decimals 5 5. Fractions Linked to
More informationLaser Cutter User Manual
Laser Cutter User Manual frequently asked questions... the laser is cutting weird! it s cutting a thick line or not cutting through at all! Table Of Contents Section 1: Materials Guide 1.1 Can I Cut this?
More informationE XPLORING QUADRILATERALS
E XPLORING QUADRILATERALS E 1 Geometry State Goal 9: Use geometric methods to analyze, categorize and draw conclusions about points, lines, planes and space. Statement of Purpose: The activities in this
More informationReflection and Refraction
Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, planeconcaveconvex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,
More informationWallingford Public Schools  HIGH SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE
Wallingford Public Schools  HIGH SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE Course Title: Computer Aided Drafting & Design Course Number: 7163 Department: Career and Technical Education Grade(s): 912 Level(s): Academic Credit:
More informationBe visual all the time, and be verbal when labeling because explanations help clarify ideas.
Great visual thinkers throughout history have kept records of their ideas in one form or another. (Leonardo da Vinci s sketchbooks are world famous.) Idea logs are an integral part of visual thinking and
More informationSpaceClaim Introduction Training Session. A SpaceClaim Support Document
SpaceClaim Introduction Training Session A SpaceClaim Support Document In this class we will walk through the basic tools used to create and modify models in SpaceClaim. Introduction We will focus on:
More informationPardon My Garden Quilt
Pardon My Garden Quilt ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A classic quilt made up of diamonds looks wonderful in any setting and this one will be a favourite for many years to come. The diamonds are framed by narrow
More informationThree daily lessons. Year 5
Unit 6 Perimeter, coordinates Three daily lessons Year 4 Autumn term Unit Objectives Year 4 Measure and calculate the perimeter of rectangles and other Page 96 simple shapes using standard units. Suggest
More informationGeometry Unit 6 Areas and Perimeters
Geometry Unit 6 Areas and Perimeters Name Lesson 8.1: Areas of Rectangle (and Square) and Parallelograms How do we measure areas? Area is measured in square units. The type of the square unit you choose
More informationCreating a Logo in CorelDRAW
Creating a Logo in CorelDRAW In this tutorial, we will look at creating a logo for an electrical contracting firm. Our goal is to create a logo that is clean and easily recognizable. Lighthouse Electric
More informationCATIA Functional Tolerancing & Annotation TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction...1 Functional Tolerancing and Annotation...2 Pulldown Menus...3 Insert...3 Functional Tolerancing and Annotation Workbench...4 Bottom Toolbar Changes...5 3D Grid Toolbar...5
More informationMD526 Stacking Blocks Pages 115 116
MD526 Stacking Blocks Pages 115 116 STANDARDS 5.MD.C.4 Goals Students will find the number of cubes in a rectangular stack and develop the formula length width height for the number of cubes in a stack.
More informationME 111: Engineering Drawing
ME 111: Engineering Drawing Lecture # 14 (10/10/2011) Development of Surfaces http://www.iitg.ernet.in/arindam.dey/me111.htm http://www.iitg.ernet.in/rkbc/me111.htm http://shilloi.iitg.ernet.in/~psr/ Indian
More informationGrade 7/8 Math Circles November 3/4, 2015. M.C. Escher and Tessellations
Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Tiling the Plane Grade 7/8 Math Circles November 3/4, 2015 M.C. Escher and Tessellations Do the following
More informationTraditional Drawing Tools
Engineering Drawing Traditional Drawing Tools DRAWING TOOLS DRAWING TOOLS 1. TSquare 2. Triangles DRAWING TOOLS HB for thick line 2H for thin line 3. Adhesive Tape 4. Pencils DRAWING TOOLS 5. Sandpaper
More informationEtch Drawing Preparation
Etch Drawing Preparation Introduction Most etching companies prefer you to supply the drawing for your design in the form of a computer file. While some will still accept drawn or printed artwork, it is
More informationTakeoff Tools TM Crosswind Calculator Instructions Copyright 2005 by Eric C. King. All rights reserved. Rev. 11Sep05. How to Use
Takeoff Tools TM Crosswind Calculator Instructions Copyright 2005 by Eric C. King. All rights reserved. Rev. 11Sep05 Takeoff Tools TM Suppose you re arriving at, or about to depart from, an airport. You
More informationLesson Four 3D Modeling
Lesson Four 3D Modeling In this lesson you will learn how to: Easily Rotate the UCS to model in different planes Model lines in a method similar to drawing isometrics Create 3D Router Lines Automatically
More informationThe Lighting Effects Filter
Appendix appendix E The Lighting Effects Filter The Lighting Effects filter is like a little program in itself. With this filter, you can create a wealth of different lighting effects, from making a particular
More informationLANDWorksCAD for AutoCAD and Bricscad. Professional Landscape Design Software. Reference and User Manual. CAD International
LANDWorksCAD for AutoCAD and Bricscad Professional Landscape Design Software Reference and User Manual CAD International www.cad.com.au www.cadinternational.com 20062012  All rights reserved This page
More informationGoogle SketchUp Design Exercise 3
Google SketchUp Design Exercise 3 This advanced design project uses many of SketchUp s drawing tools, and involves paying some attention to the exact sizes of what you re drawing. You ll also make good
More informationMap reading made easy
Map reading made easy What is a map? A map is simply a plan of the ground on paper. The plan is usually drawn as the land would be seen from directly above. A map will normally have the following features:
More informationLESSON 7: IMPORTING AND VECTORIZING A BITMAP IMAGE
LESSON 7: IMPORTING AND VECTORIZING A BITMAP IMAGE In this lesson we ll learn how to import a bitmap logo, transform it into a vector and perform some editing on the vector to clean it up. The concepts
More informationOD1641 PRINCIPLES OF DRAFTING AND SHOP DRAWINGS
SUBCOURSE OD1641 EDITION 8 PRINCIPLES OF DRAFTING AND SHOP DRAWINGS US ARMY REPAIR SHOP TECHNICIAN WARRANT OFFICER ADVANCED CORRESPONDENCE COURSE MOS/SKILL LEVEL: 441A PRINCIPLES OF DRAFTING AND SHOP
More informationMap Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface
Map Patterns and Finding the Strike and Dip from a Mapped Outcrop of a Planar Surface Topographic maps represent the complex curves of earth s surface with contour lines that represent the intersection
More informationPoster Composition and Layout
Poster Composition and Layout When you re ready to compose, or layout, your poster, this is the time to pull out a sketchpad and pencil and have your notes about specific elements at hand. While you can
More information1974 Rubik. Rubik and Rubik's are trademarks of Seven Towns ltd., used under license. All rights reserved. Solution Hints booklet
# # R 1974 Rubik. Rubik and Rubik's are trademarks of Seven Towns ltd., used under license. All rights reserved. Solution Hints booklet The Professor s Cube Solution Hints Booklet The Greatest Challenge
More informationGrade 7 & 8 Math Circles Circles, Circles, Circles March 19/20, 2013
Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G Introduction Grade 7 & 8 Math Circles Circles, Circles, Circles March 9/20, 203 The circle is a very important shape. In fact of all shapes, the circle is
More informationIntroduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD
Workshop 8.2 3D Pipe Junction 14.5 Release Introduction to ANSYS ICEM CFD 2012 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2013 1 Release 14.5 3D Pipe Junction 3D Pipe Junction This is a simple 4way pipe intersection with two
More informationTHE DEWALT RAFTER SQUARE
THE DEWALT RAFTER SQUARE The DEWALT Rafter Square is designed to provide a quick, accurate, and repeatable means for laying out and cutting the various cuts on common, hip, valley and jack rafters used
More informationHow to resize, rotate, and crop images
How to resize, rotate, and crop images You will frequently want to resize and crop an image after opening it in Photoshop from a digital camera or scanner. Cropping means cutting some parts of the image
More informationGetting Started With DraftSight A Guide For AEC Users
Getting Started With DraftSight A Guide For AEC Users DraftSight.com Facebook.com/DraftSight Welcome to DraftSight a valuable tool for any AEC professional! DraftSight is more than a free, professionalgrade
More informationChildren s Furniture Projects
This is an excerpt from the book Children s Furniture Projects by Jeff Miller Copyright 2002 by The Taunton Press www.taunton.com CHILD S ROCKER KIDS ARE ALWAYS IN MOTION. It s not easy to get them even
More informationGeometry and Measurement
The student will be able to: Geometry and Measurement 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of geometry and measurement and operations using measurements Use the US system of measurement for
More informationA Beginners Guide to Track Laying.
A Beginners Guide to Track Laying. I should first say that none of the material below is original. I have made use of many sources of information and have often copied directly from them. All I claim to
More informationTechnical handbook Panel Anchoring System
1 Basic principles of sandwich panels 3 Design conditions 4 Basic placement of anchors and pins 9 Large elements (muliple rows) 10 Small elements (two rows) 10 Turned elements 10 Slender elements 10 Cantilevering
More informationKitchen and Bath Design Tutorial
Chapter 5: Kitchen and Bath Design Tutorial This tutorial continues where the Materials Tutorial left off. You should save this tutorial using a new name to archive your previous work. The tools and techniques
More informationCATIA Drafting TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction...1 Drafting...2 Drawing Screen...3 Pulldown Menus...4 File...4 Edit...5 View...6 Insert...7 Tools...8 Drafting Workbench...9 Views and Sheets...9 Dimensions and Annotations...10
More informationdrawings_how_to?? Arch 172: Building Construction 1 Fall 2013
drawings_how_to?? Arch 172: Building Construction 1 Fall 2013 Danger!!! The following images are being used as examples of DRAWING METHOD ONLY. Do NOT copy the details. They have been drawn from everywhere
More informationWhat s New V 11. Preferences: Parameters: Layout/ Modifications: Reverse mouse scroll wheel zoom direction
What s New V 11 Preferences: Reverse mouse scroll wheel zoom direction Assign mouse scroll wheel Middle Button as Fine tune Pricing Method (Manufacturing/Design) Display Display Long Name Parameters:
More informationSolidWorks Implementation Guides. Sketching Concepts
SolidWorks Implementation Guides Sketching Concepts Sketching in SolidWorks is the basis for creating features. Features are the basis for creating parts, which can be put together into assemblies. Sketch
More informationMicrosoft Excel 2010 Charts and Graphs
Microsoft Excel 2010 Charts and Graphs Email: training@health.ufl.edu Web Page: http://training.health.ufl.edu Microsoft Excel 2010: Charts and Graphs 2.0 hours Topics include data groupings; creating
More informationActivity Set 4. Trainer Guide
Geometry and Measurement of Solid Figures Activity Set 4 Trainer Guide Mid_SGe_04_TG Copyright by the McGrawHill Companies McGrawHill Professional Development GEOMETRY AND MEASUREMENT OF SOLID FIGURES
More informationHidden Treasure: A Coordinate Game. Assessment Management. Matching Number Stories to Graphs
Hidden Treasure: A Coordinate Game Objective To reinforce students understanding of coordinate grid structures and vocabulary. www.everydaymathonline.com epresentations etoolkit Algorithms Practice EM
More informationTo draw a line. To create a construction line by specifying two points
Drawing Lines, Polygons and Rectangles The line is the basic object in AutoCAD. You can create a variety of lines: single lines, multiple line segments with and without arcs, multiple parallel lines, and
More information39 Symmetry of Plane Figures
39 Symmetry of Plane Figures In this section, we are interested in the symmetric properties of plane figures. By a symmetry of a plane figure we mean a motion of the plane that moves the figure so that
More informationPole Lathe and Shave Horse Design
Pole Lathe and Shave Horse Design These pictures and accompanying words are Copyright Michael Hughes February 2002. They are not to be reproduced, in part or whole, without permission from the author.
More information2Digital tablets or computer scanners can
Appendix A Measuring Lake Surface Area Lake surface area can be measured with a bathymetric map using any of the following techniques: 1One of the most accurate methods is to use a planimeter to trace
More informationABERLINK 3D MKIII MEASUREMENT SOFTWARE
ABERLINK 3D MKIII MEASUREMENT SOFTWARE PART 1 (MANUAL VERSION) COURSE TRAINING NOTES ABERLINK LTD. EASTCOMBE GLOS. GL6 7DY UK INDEX 1.0 Introduction to CMM measurement...4 2.0 Preparation and general hints
More informationMECHANICAL PRINCIPLES HNC/D MOMENTS OF AREA. Define and calculate 1st. moments of areas. Define and calculate 2nd moments of areas.
MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES HNC/D MOMENTS OF AREA The concepts of first and second moments of area fundamental to several areas of engineering including solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. Students who are
More informationThe tablesaw may be your shop s most valuable cutting. Crosscut Sleds. Foolproof. Innovative approach guarantees perfect results
Foolproof Crosscut Sleds Innovative approach guarantees perfect results B Y A L A N T U R N E R The tablesaw may be your shop s most valuable cutting tool, but for precise, repeatable crosscuts it needs
More informationTessellating with Regular Polygons
Tessellating with Regular Polygons You ve probably seen a floor tiled with square tiles. Squares make good tiles because they can cover a surface without any gaps or overlapping. This kind of tiling is
More informationSOLIDWORKS: SKETCH RELATIONS
Sketch Feature: The shape or topology of the initial sketch or model is important, but exact geometry and dimensions of the initial sketched shapes are NOT. It recommended to work in the following order:
More informationBuild your skills: Perimeter and area Part 1. Working out the perimeter and area of different shapes
Working out the perimeter and area of different shapes This task has two parts. Part 1 In this part, you can brush up your skills and find out about perimeter and area. Part 2 In the second part, you can
More informationCREATING A 3D VISUALISATION OF YOUR PLANS IN PLANSXPRESS AND CORTONA VRML CLIENT
CREATING A 3D VISUALISATION OF YOUR PLANS IN PLANSXPRESS AND CORTONA VRML CLIENT 2025 Minutes This topic is for users of PlansXpress Total Toolkit Edition. To upgrade to PlansXpress Total Toolkit, call
More informationEDEXCEL FUNCTIONAL SKILLS PILOT TEACHER S NOTES. Maths Level 2. Chapter 5. Shape and space
Shape and space 5 EDEXCEL FUNCTIONAL SKILLS PILOT TEACHER S NOTES Maths Level 2 Chapter 5 Shape and space SECTION H 1 Perimeter 2 Area 3 Volume 4 2D Representations of 3D Objects 5 Remember what you
More informationRaising the Roof Creating Roofs in Revit David Cohn
David Cohn AB3221 Roofs are one of the most complex architectural elements to model, but with Revit you can create just about any type of roof. This class will explore the best methods for creating various
More information