8 DRAWING TOOLS 9. Circle Template 10. Tissue paper
9 DRAWING TOOLS 11. Sharpener 12. Clean paper
10 Freehand Sketching
11 Straight Line 1. Hold the pencil naturally. 2. Spot the beginning and end points. 3. Swing the pencil back and forth between the points, barely touching the paper until the direction is clearly established. 4. Draw the line firmly with a free and easy wrist-and-arm motion
12 Horizontal line Vertical line
13 Nearly vertical inclined line Nearly horizontal inclined line
14 Small Circle Method 1 : Starting with a square 1. Lightly sketching the square and marking the mid-points. 2. Draw light diagonals and mark the estimated radius. 3. Draw the circle through the eight points. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
15 Small Circle Method 2 : Starting with center line 1. Lightly draw a center line. 2. Add light radial lines and mark the estimated radius. 3. Sketch the full circle. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
16 Arc Method 1 : Starting with a square Method 2 : Starting with a center line
17 Basic Strokes Straight Slanted Horizontal Curved Examples : Application of basic stroke I letter A letter B letter
18 Suggested Upper-case Strokes letters & Sequence Numerals Straight line letters Curved line letters Curved line letters & Numerals
19 Suggested Lower-case Strokes letters Sequence The text s body height is about 2/3 the height of a capital letter.
20 Example : Good and Poor Lettering GOOD Not uniform in style. Not uniform in height. Not uniformly vertical or inclined. Not uniform in thickness of stroke. Area between letters not uniform. Area between words not uniform.
21 Sentence Composition Leave the space between words equal to the space requires for writing a letter O. Example ALL O DIMENSIONS O ARE O IN MILLIMETERS O UNLESS OTHERWISE O SPECIFIED.
22 GRAPHICS LANGUAGE
23 Effectiveness of Graphics Language 1. Try to write a description of this object. 2. Test your written description by having someone attempt to make a sketch from your description. You can easily understand that The word languages are inadequate for describing the size, shape and features completely as well as concisely.
24 Composition of Graphic Language Graphic language use lines to represent the surfaces, edges and contours of objects. The language is known as drawing or drafting. A drawing can be done using freehand, instruments or computer methods.
25 Freehand drawing The lines are sketched without using instruments other than pencils and erasers. Example
26 Instrument drawing Instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and curves concisely and accurately. Thus, the drawings are usually made to scale. Example
27 Computer drawing The drawings are usually made by commercial software such as AutoCAD, solid works etc. Example
28 Architectural Graphics
29 Elements Drawing comprises of graphics language and word language. Graphics language Describe a shape (mainly). Word language Describe size, location and specification of the object.
30 Basic Knowledge for Drafting Graphics language Word language Line types Projection method Geometric construction Lettering
33 PROJECTION THEORY The projection theory is used to graphically represent 3-D objects on 2-D media (paper, computer screen). The projection theory is based on two variables: 1) Line of sight 2) Plane of projection (image plane or picture plane)
34 Line of sight is an imaginary ray of light between an observer s eye and an object. There are 2 types of LOS : parallel and converge Parallel projection Line of sight Perspective projection Line of sight
35 Plane of projection is an imaginary flat plane which the image is created. The image is produced by connecting the points where the LOS pierce the projection plane. Parallel projection Plane of projection Perspective projection Plane of projection
36 Disadvantage of Perspective Projection 1) It is difficult to create. 2) It does not reveal exact shape and size. Width is distorted
37 Orthographic Projection
38 MEANING Orthographic projection is a parallel projection technique in which the parallel lines of sight are perpendicular to the projection plane 1 Object views from top Projection plane
39 ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW Orthographic view depends on relative position of the object to the line of sight. Two dimensions of an object is shown. More than one view is needed to represent the object. Rotate Tilt Multiview drawing Three dimensions of an object is shown. Axonometric drawing
40 NOTES ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW Orthographic projection technique can produce either 1. Multiview drawing that each view show an object in two dimensions. 2. Axonometric drawing that show all three dimensions of an object in one view. Both drawing types are used in technical drawing for communication.
41 Axonometric (Isometric) Drawing Advantage Disadvantage Easy to understand Shape and angle distortion Example Distortions of shape and size in isometric drawing Circular hole becomes ellipse. Right angle becomes obtuse angle.
42 Types of Axonometrics
43 Multiview Drawing Advantage It represents accurate shape and size. Disadvantage Require practice in writing and reading. Example Multiviews drawing (2-view drawing)
44 The Glass Box Approach
45 Orthographic Projection
46 Opening the Box
47 Final Views
48 Six Orthographic Views
49 Laying Out All Six Views
50 Three Primary Views
51 Construction of Views
52 First and Third Angle Projections Third-angle Projection First-angle Projection First Angle International Third Angle U.S.
53 Basic Line Types Types of Lines Continuous thick line Continuous thin line Dash thick line Chain thin line Appearance Name according to application Visible line Dimension line Extension line Leader line Hidden line Center line
54 Meaning of Lines Visible lines represent features that can be seen in the current view Hidden lines represent features that can not be seen in the current view Center line represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles, axis of axisymmetrical parts Dimension and Extension lines indicate the sizes and location of features on a drawing
55 Example : Line conventions in engineering drawing
56 Good practice
57 Exercise Complete three orthographic views of the object shown on the next slide. Include visible, hidden, and center lines where appropriate. You will be given 7 minutes.
58 Object for exercise
60 Drawing Standard
61 Introduction Standards are set of rules that govern how technical drawings are represented. Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey the same meaning to everyone who reads them.
62 Standard Code Country Code Full name USA Japan UK Australia Germany ANSI JIS BS AS DIN ISO American National Standard Institute Japanese Industrial Standard British Standard Australian Standard Deutsches Institut für Normung International Standards Organization
63 Partial List of Drawing Standards Code number JIS Z 8311 JIS Z 8312 JIS Z 8313 JIS Z 8314 JIS Z 8315 JIS Z 8316 JIS Z 8317 Contents Sizes and Format of Drawings Line Conventions Lettering Scales Projection methods Presentation of Views and Sections Dimensioning
64 Drawing Sheet Trimmed paper of a size A0 ~ A4. Standard sheet size (JIS) A4 210 x 297 A3 297 x 420 A2 420 x 594 A1 594 x 841 A0 841 x 1189 (Dimensions in millimeters) A4 A3 A2 A1 A0
65 c c Orientation of drawing sheet 1. Type X (A0~A4) 2. Type Y (A4 only) d Border lines d Drawing space c Title block Drawing space Title block Sheet size c (min) d (min) A A A A A
66 Drawing Scales Length, size Scale is the ratio of the linear dimension of an element of an object shown in the drawing to the real linear dimension of the same element of the object. Size in drawing Actual size :
67 Drawing Scales Designation of a scale consists of the word SCALE followed by the indication of its ratio, as follow SCALE 1:1 for full size SCALE X:1 for enlargement scales SCALE 1:X for reduction scales
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