# CS 4204 Computer Graphics

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1 CS 4204 Computer Graphics 3D views and projection Adapted from notes by Yong Cao 1

2 Overview of 3D rendering Modeling: *Define object in local coordinates *Place object in world coordinates (modeling transformation) Viewing: Define camera parameters Find object location in camera coordinates (viewing transformation) Projection: project object to the viewplane Clipping: clip object to the view volume *Viewport transformation *Rasterization: rasterize object * Topic we ve already discussed Simple teapot demo

3 3D rendering pipeline Vertices as input Series of operations/transformations to obtain 2D vertices in screen coordinates These can then be rasterized

4 3D rendering pipeline We ve already discussed: Viewport transformation 3D modeling transformations We ll talk about remaining topics in reverse order: 3D clipping (simple extension of 2D clipping) 3D projection 3D viewing

5 Clipping: 3D Cohen-Sutherland Use 6-bit outcodes When needed, clip line segment against planes

6 Viewing and Projection Camera Analogy: 1. Set up your tripod and point the camera at the scene (viewing transformation). 2. Arrange the scene to be photographed into the desired composition (modeling transformation). 3. Choose a camera lens or adjust the zoom (projection transformation). 4. Determine how large you want the final photograph to be - for example, you might want it enlarged (viewport transformation).

7 Projection transformations

8 Introduction to Projection Transformations Mapping: f : R n R m Projection: n > m Planar Projection: Projection on a plane. R 3 R 2 or R 4 R 3 homogeneous coordinates.

9 Introduction to Projection Transformations

10 Classical Viewing Viewing requires three basic elements One or more objects A viewer with a projection surface Projectors that go from the object(s) to the projection surface Classical views are based on the relationship among these elements The viewer picks up the object and orients it how she would like to see it Each object is assumed to constructed from flat principal faces Buildings, polyhedra, manufactured objects

11 Planar Geometric Projections Standard projections project onto a plane Projectors are lines that either converge at a center of projection are parallel Such projections preserve lines but not necessarily angles Non-planar projections are needed for applications such as map construction

12 Classical Projections

13 Perspective vs Parallel Computer graphics treats all projections the same and implements them with a single pipeline Classical viewing developed different techniques for drawing each type of projection Fundamental distinction is between parallel and perspective viewing even though mathematically parallel viewing is the limit of perspective viewing

14 Perspective Projection

15 Parallel Projection

16 Taxonomy of Planar Geometric Projections

17 Examples

18 Orthographic Projection Projectors are orthogonal to projection surface

19 Multiview Orthographic Projection Projection plane parallel to principal face Usually form front, top, side views isometric front in CAD and architecture, we often display three multiviews plus isometric top side

20 Advantages and Disadvantages Preserves both distances and angles Shapes preserved Can be used for measurements Building plans Manuals Cannot see what object really looks like because many surfaces hidden from view Often we add the isometric

21 Axonometric Projections Allow projection plane to move relative to object classify by how many angles of a corner of a projected cube are the same none: trimetric two: dimetric three: isometric θ 2 θ 1 θ 3

22 Types of Axonometric Projections

23 Advantages and Disadvantages Lines are scaled (foreshortened( foreshortened) ) but can find scaling factors Lines preserved but angles are not Projection of a circle in a plane not parallel to the projection plane is an ellipse Can see three principal faces of a box-like object Some optical illusions possible Parallel lines appear to diverge Does not look real because far objects are scaled the same as near objects Used in CAD applications

24 Oblique Projection Arbitrary relationship between projectors and projection plane

25 Advantages and Disadvantages Can pick the angles to emphasize a particular face Architecture: plan oblique, elevation oblique Angles in faces parallel to projection plane are preserved while we can still see around side In physical world, cannot create with simple camera; possible with bellows camera or special lens (architectural)

26 Perspective Projection Projectors converge at center of projection Perspective projection demo

27 Vanishing Points Parallel lines (not parallel to the projection plane) on the object converge at a single point in the projection (the vanishing point) Drawing simple perspectives by hand uses these vanishing point(s) vanishing point

28 Three-Point Perspective No principal face parallel to projection plane Three vanishing points for cube

29 Two-Point Perspective On principal direction parallel to projection plane Two vanishing points for cube

30 One-Point Perspective One principal face parallel to projection plane One vanishing point for cube

31 Advantages and Disadvantages Objects further from viewer are projected smaller than the same sized objects closer to the viewer (diminution) Looks realistic Equal distances along a line are not projected into equal distances (non-uniform foreshortening) Angles preserved only in planes parallel to the projection plane More difficult to construct by hand than parallel projections (but not more difficult by computer)

32 Perspective Projections of 3-D Objects A vertex located at P in eye coordinates is projected to a certain point (x*,( y*) on the near plane, and is then mapped to the viewport on the display.

33 Perspective Projection Properties Straight lines project to straight lines. Consider the line between A and B. A projects to A and B projects to B. In between: consider the plane formed by A, B, and the origin. Since any two planes intersect in a straight line, this plane intersects the near plane in a straight line. Thus line segment AB projects to line segment A B.

34 Example: horizontal grid in perspective

35 Mathematics of a basic perspective projection Similar triangles

36 One-Point Projection in matrix form -Z Center of Projection at the origin with viewplane parallel to the x-y plane a distance d from the origin. x projected = x/(z/d) y projected = y/(z/d) +Z **Points plotted are x/w, y/w where w = z/d

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