in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Masters Degree in Philosophical Foundat in Philosophical Theology

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Masters Degree in Philosophical Foundat in Philosophical Theology"

Transcription

1 DECOMPOSING MODERNITY Im ages o f Human E x is te n c e in th e w r itin g s o f E rn e s t B e c k e r B y S te p h e n W illiam M a rtin A TH ESIS in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Masters Degree in Philosophical Foundat in Philosophical Theology a t T h e I n s t it u t e f o r C h ris tia n S tu d ie s A d v is o r: James H. O lth u is D ecem ber, 1992

2 T h is w o rk is n o t to be c o p ie d w ith o u t th e e x p re s s w r itte n p e rm is s io n o f th e a u th o r a n d th e I n s t it u t e f o r C h ris tia n S tu d ie s.

3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In th e a u tu m n a l c h ill o f 1989, E rn e s t B e c k e r was to me n o th in g m ore th a n a name on a lis t o f s u p p le m e n ta l re a d in g s f o r ray s e m in a r in P h ilo s o p h ic a l T h e o lo g y a t th e I n s t it u t e f o r C h ris tia n S tu d ie s. When I ch a n ce d a c ro s s a co p y o f h is T h e D e n ial o f D e a th. I had no id e a th a t I was e m b a rk in g on an a d v e n tu re th a t w o u ld ta k e a lo n g th r e e y e a r s tr u g g le, a g a in s t m any d a n g e rs a n d te m p ta tio n s, to com p le te. I h a v e been fo r tu n a te in th a t I h ave n o t ta k e n th is jo u r n e y in to th e w o rld o f E rn e s t B e c k e r a lo n e. T h e In s t it u t e f o r C h ris tia n S tu d ie s has been my c o m m u n ity f o r th e s e p a s t y e a rs. I w is h to a c k n o w le d g e it, a n d e s p e c ia lly th e fo llo w in g : m y m e n to r, Jim O lth u is ; m y in te r n a l re a d e r, B ria n W alsh; a n d my f r ie n d s a n d fe llo w ju n io r m em bers R ic h a rd M id d le to n, N ik A n s e ll a n d L o r i Y accato. You h a v e h e lp e d me keep m y re s o lv e a n d p re s s ahead. T h a n k s a re a lso d u e to P ro fe s s o r D o n ald E vans o f V ic to ria C o lle g e, U n iv e r s ity o f T o ro n to, w ho so g ra c io u s ly a g re e d to s e rv e as e x te rn a l re a d e r o f th is w o rk. I a ls o w is h to a c k n o w le d g e th e c o m m u n ity o f C h ris tia n s in Cape Tow n, S o u th A fr ic a e s p e c ia lly m y fr ie n d s D iane D a vis a n d L e s le y F o rd re d. Y o u r s tr u g g le to be f a it h f u l w ith in a d eco m p o sing a p a r th e id has in s p ire d th is w o rk a n d h e lp e d me to t h in k i t c o u ld make a d iffe re n c e. I s h o u ld a c k n o w le d g e th e C h ris tia n C o m m u n ity a t 678 E u c iid A ve., ray home. You h ave p u t u p w ith m y m oodiness as I h a v e liv e d B e c k e r s dream b y p ro x y. L a s tly, I w is h to th a n k th e s u p e rv is o rs a t m y w o rk p la c e, L o c k s le y R o b e rts o n, T am ara Rasm ussen a n d Rebecca L o v e rin g. You h ave been g e n e ro us b e y o n d th e c a ll o f d u ty in g r a n tin g me tim e o f f to c o m p le te th is w o rk.

4 T h is w o rk is d e d ic a te d to th e m em ory o f m y fa th e r W illiam M a rtin ( )

5 DECOMPOSING MODERNITY: CONTENTS INTRODUCTION A. THE "FALL" OF MODERNITY...2 B. ERNEST BECKER AND THE DREAM OF ENLIGHTENMENT MAN B e c k e r s Images o f Man Our T h e s is : F a c in g th e D eath o f M o d e rn ity s S e lf Im ages... **5 3. The P la n o f t h is Work: T ra c in g th e C a re er o f Modern S e lf-im a g e s in th e E rn e st B e c k e r s Two V is io n s o f Man C. APPROACHING ERNEST BECKER B e cke r and th e S o c ia l S c ie n c e s B e cke r and T h e o lo g y The D is tin c tiv e n e s s o f Our A pproach D. THE CULTURE OF MODERNITY From D ark Ages to E n lig h te n m e n t T h re e Modern Them es:...13 a ) S e c u la r ity : The banishm ent o f G o d...14 b) N a tu re as sta g e f o r fa u s tia n c o n q u e s t...15 c ) P ro g re s s : A s e c u la r u to p ia...**16 3. No More U to p ia s : The F a ll o f M o d e rn ity...17

6 CHAPTER ONE: HOMO POET A I. INTRODUCTION: FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS AND THE "SCIENCE OF MAN ' I I. AN ONTOLOGY OF STRIVING A. LIF E AND THE LIFE-WORLD The S t r iv in g C h a ra c te r o f " L i f e " The L ife - W o r ld B. ACTION AND INSTINCT P ro g re s s iv e Freedom o f R e a c t iv it y A b s tr a c tio n C. SUMMARY: THE NEED FOR A NEW STAGE IN EVOLUTION...29 I I I. FIRM MEANING: THE GOAL OF HUMAN STRIVING A. MEANING The A chievem ent o f M eaning Meaning and S e lf-e s te e m M eaning and M a s te ry M eaning and C o n tin g e n c y The A lie n a te d Modem C o n scio u sn e ss...35 B. SELF-ESTEEM A n x i e t y The O e d ip a l T r a n s it io n The Gendered D im ensions o f th e O e d ip a l T r a n s it io n C. STAGING THE SELF S o c ia lit y as P ro b le m L e a rn in g th e L in e s : D e fe re n ce and D e m e a n o u r Power, Language and I d e n t i t y The Econom ics o f S e lf-e s te e m Summary and T r a n s it io n to Hom o P o e t a... 44

7 IV. HOMO POETA AS NORMATIVE MODEL OF HUMAN BECOMING...46 A. GOOD ART Al BAD ART The C a te g o ry o f th e A e s th e tic T w is te d P e rs o n s F e tis h is m B. THE CONVERSION TO AUTHENTICITY The Problem o f S tre n g th C r i t i c a l Reason S o c ia l S e lf and Whole O b je c ts The R e a ssert io n o f Autonom y C. a m CRITICISMS OF HOMO POETA P roblem s w ith th e Autonomous S e lf The N o rm a liz a tio n o f B ro k e n n e s s...* The D ia le c t ic s o f Freedom L e a v in g Open th e Q u e s tio n o f God...59 CHAPTER TWO: HOMO HEROICA I. INTRODUCTION: THE BIRTH OF TRAGEDY A. THE CHANGE IN TONE IN BECKER S LATER WORKS B. HOMO H E R O IC A : THE NEW IMAGE OF MAN C. THE UNDERSIDE OF MAN I I. DEVELOPMENTAL AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF HOMO H ER O IC A...75 A. THE UNDERSIDE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT P rim a ry N a rc is s is m The D e n ia l o f D e a th R e p r e s s io n The Causa S u i P r o je c t

8 B. "IN D IVIDUALITY WITHIN FIN ITU D E ": A SHIFT IN THE STRUCTURE OF BECKER S THEORY The T r a n s itio n fro m Monism to D u a lis m D u a lis m Body and S o u l T w in O n to lo g ic a l M o tiv e s The D ouble B in d o f G u i l t... *...85 C. CONCLUSION: TRAGIC MAN...87 I I I. THE DYNAMICS OF CULTURE...88 A. TRANSFERENCE...89 B. CULTURE AND THE ARMOURED INDIVIDUAL C. THE CULTURAL CAUSA D. PROSPECTS FOR MODERNITY IV. IMPOSSIBLE PARADOX AND THE CLOSURE OF HUMAN PO SSIBILITY A. THE INESCAPABLE NEED FOR ILLUSION C r i t i c i s i n g th e C r i t i c s C re a tiv e I l l u s i o n The L im its o f S c ie n c e D ra w ing th e B a la n ce S h e e t...99 B. COSMIC HEROICS A C re a tio n a l S ta g e A R e lig io u s V is io n (a ) C u ltu re as R e lig io n (b ) R e lig io n as A lt e r n a t iv e to C u ltu r e...104

9 C. PROBLEMS WITH BECKER S VIEW I n d iv i d u a lit y W ith in F in it u d e S cie nce and R e lig io n, o r th e R e lig io n o f S c ie n c e? "R e p re s s io n o f R e a lit y " and " R e la tiv e U n re p re s s io n " B e c k e r s In a c c e s s a b le God CONCLUSION: ERNEST BECKER AND MODERNITY S WORLD WELL LOST A. INSCRIBING THE MODERN CONDITION B. A RESUME N a tu re and th e I r r a t i o n a l Response to E v il: P ro te s t o r A ccepta nce? Abandoned on th e P la n e t C. RETROSPECT: ERNEST ISRAEL BECKER, D. A V IG IL OF ANTICIPATION BIBLIOGRAPHY

10 INTRODUCTION An a u tu m n a l c h ill is in th e a ir ; its s im ila r ity to th e c h ill in o th e r p e rio d s o f c u ltu r a l d e c lin e is u n d e n ia b le. One can p o in t n o t o n ly to v a s t s h ifts in g e o p o litic a l b alan ce s o f p o w e r b u t a lso to th e a p p a re n t d is in te g r a tio n o f o u r re ig n in g id e o lo g ie s (E a st a n d W est a lik e ). I t is e v e n m ore th e se nse... th a t th e in te lle c tu a l a n d s p ir it u a l h e a rt o f th e c u ltu r e, its c o n fid e n c e in scie n ce, te c h n o lo g y a n d an e x p a n d in g in d u s tr ia lis m, has come u pon d if f ic u lt i f n o t s e lf- c o n tr a d ic to r y a nd s e lf d e s tr u c tiv e d a y s, a n d th a t th e c u ltu r e as a w h o le is th u s e n te r in g a "tim e o f tr o u b le s " o f v e r y deep scope. (L a n g d o n G ilk e y )1 T h e h a rv e s t is p a s t, th e sum m er is e n d e d, a n d we a re n o t sa ved. (Je re m ia h 8:20)2

11 A. THE "F A L L " OF MODERNITY I n th e space o f a fe w m o n th s th e w o rld as we w e s te rn e rs kn e w i t came to a n e n d. Those e v e n ts c e n tre d a ro u n d th e a d v e n t season o f 1989 o v e rto o k us w ith a b lin d in g sp e e d. The B e rlin w a il f e ll, th e Ir o n C u rta in lif t e d fro m E a s te rn E u ro p e (e n d in g th e f o r t y y e a r lo n g "c o ld w a r " a n d th e ju s t cause f o r th o s e on th e r ig h t ) a n d Nelson M andela was re le a s e d fro m p ris o n w h ile F.W. de K le rk (w h o se p o w e r em b odie d p e rh a p s th e m ost p o p u la r "c a u s e " on th e le f t ) p ro m is e d re fo rm. The o ld enem ies d is a p p e a re d a n d a "n e w w o rld o r d e r " was in a u g u ra te d. A t le a s t t h a t was th e v ie w fro m W a sh in g to n. I t seem ed f i t t i n g th a t F ra n c is F u k u y a m a had in th e sum m er o f t h a t y e a r p ro c la im e d " th e e n d o f h is t o r y. " The g ra n d d re am o f m o d e rn ity, it s p ro g re s s m y th, seem ed to h a ve b e e n f u lf ille d in th e e v e n ts o f t h a t y e a r. L ik e in th e e n d in g o f a w e s te rn, " th e good g u y s had w o n." B u t th e re was l it t l e o r no c e le b ra tio n. F o r a d e e p e r ma la is e re m a in e d in th e h e a rts, i f n o t th e h eads, o f w e s te rn people. T a ke f o r exam ple th e re c e s s io n th a t th e w o rld p lu n g e d in to s h o r tly a fte r th e s e e v e n ts ; o r ta k e th e e n v iro n m e n ta l d is a s te rs, (m ost n o ta b ly in 1989 t h a t o f th e E x x o n V a ld e z ), w h e re sea a n d s k y a re p o iso n e d to fe e l th e m echanism s o f m o d e rn ity ;3 o r ta k e th e p e tty lit t le w a r s ta r te d u n d e r th e p re te n c e s o f th e "n e w w o rld o r d e r," a w a r w h ic h pom m elled a t h i r d w o rld c o u n tr y f o r th e sa ke o f lib e r a tin g a re p re s s iv e d ic ta to r s h ip ; o r ta k e s im p ly th e f a c t t h a t th e triu m p h o f c a p ita lis m o v e r com m unism h as q u ie tly re p re s s e d th e r e a lity t h a t econom ic in e q u a lity g ro w s in th e fr e e m a rk e t w e st.4 Bob G oudzw a ard u ses th e im age o f "c u m u la tio n a n d f r u s t r a t io n " in d e s c r ib in g th e w ay o u r p ro b le m s a re m o u n tin g

12 on to p o f each o th e r.5 S e n s itiv e c u lt u r a l o b s e rv e rs a re c o n c lu d in g th a t we liv e in a d e c lin in g age. Once th e E n lig h te n m e n t s u n g a s e c u la riz e d v e rs io n o f A m a z in g G ra ce ( " I o nce was lo s t b u t now am fo u n d, t was b lin d b u t now I see. ). Now Douglas Jo h n H a ll uses th e m e ta p h o r o f " n ig h t " to d e s c rib e th e m o d ern sense.6 Once th e E n lig h te n m e n t d e n o te d " th e d a w n in g o f a new d a y." Now L a n g d o n G ilk e y ta lk s a b o u t an "a u tu m n a l c h ill" a nd R o b e rt H e ilb ro n e r a b o u t th e e nd o f "p ro m e th e a n m a n."7 B u t n o t a ll a re n e g a tiv e as th e s e th re e. W a lte r T r u e tt A n d e rs o n, f o r in s ta n c e, ta lk s o f a new "p o s tm o d e rn " c o n s c io u s n e s s a ris in g o u t o f th e fra g m e n te d h o riz o n s o f m o d e rn ity.8 E rn e s t B e c k e r, th e s u b je c t o f th is e ssay, th o u g h t th a t a tim e o f d e a th was also p o te n tia lly a tim e o f r e b ir th ; th a t a tim e o f d e c lin e was a lso p o te n tia lly a tim e o f re n e w a l.9 A n in s ig h t f u l d ia g n o s is o f o u r tim e s lo o k s b e h in d th e h e a d lin e s and u n d e rn e a th th e a p p e a ra n c e s (s y m p to m s ) to a d d re s s th e d r iv in g m o tive s o f a c u ltu r e, it s im p e llin g s p ir it. A t th e same tim e i t is s e n s itiv e to th o s e a r tifa c ts (s y m b o ls, s to rie s, s o n g s ) w h ic h id e n t if y th e c u ltu r e, s in c e th e s p ir it o f a c u ltu r e is a lw a y s in c a rn a te in s u c h th in g s. S uch a re a d in g d a re s, as Bob G oudzw aard sa ys, to h o ld u p a m ir r o r a n d to lo o k o u rs e lv e s f u l l in th e fa c e.10 T h is is a h a rd th in g to do, h o w e v e r, s in c e in q u e s tio n in g o u r t r a d itio n we a lso q u e s tio n o u rs e lv e s. I t is a s ig n o f th e tim e s th a t w h a t D a v id T ra c y has c a lle d th e " p lu r a lit y a n d a m b ig u ity " o f a ll t r a d itio n s 11 is now g r a d u a lly b e in g a c k n o w le d g e d. And it is a s ig n o f th e tim e s th a t o u r t r a d itio n has becom e q u e s tio n a b le. (We s h o u ld n o t m iss th e ir o n y h e re : th e E n lig h te n m e n t was th a t m ovem ent th a t c a lle d in to q u e s tio n a ll " o th e r " tr a d itio n s.) Was th e E n lig h te n m e n t a p tly named as th e com in g o f a ge o f h u m a n ity, o r do we s a y w ith A la s d a ir M a c In ty re th a t i t INTRODUCTION PAGE 3

13 w as a p e rio d o f d e e p e st d a rk n e s s w h e re h u m a n ity a c tu a lly lo s t its w ay? S e lf e x a m in a tio n is th e w a tc h w o rd f o r some. And in m o d e rn ity s d a rk n ig h t o f th e s o u l, its "tim e o f t r ia ls " (as L a n g d o n G ilk e y c a lle d i t in o u r in t r o d u c t o r y q u o te ), th e q u e s tio n a b ility o f th e m o d ern p r o je c t b r in g s "th e g r a v e s t s o rt o f a n x ie ty." i f L e s s lie N e w b ig in is r ig h t in s a y in g th a t " E n lig h te n m e n t" is a c o n v e rs io n w o rd 13 th e n th is a n x ie ty c o n c e rn s o u r d eepest r e lig io u s ro o ts. I t is th e re fo re u r g e n t th a t, a t th e e nd (in b o th th e te m p o ra l a n d e x is te n tia l sense o f " e n d in g " ) o f th e tw e n tie th c e n tu ry, m o d e rn ity c o n fro n t its o w n s e lf im ages. T h is m eans re c a llin g th e hopes w h ic h g a ve b ir t h to th e m o d e rn s p ir it, as w e ll as th e fe a rs w h ic h now c h a ra c te riz e its dem ise. B. ERNEST BECKER AND THE DREAM OF ENLIGHTENM ENT MAN I. B e c k e r s Im ages o f M an 14 In th e w r itin g s o f E rn e s t B e c k e r ( ), th e h ig h s a n d th e lo w s, th e h o p e s a n d th e fe a rs, th e a n tic ip a tio n a n d th e d re a d th a t seem to c h a ra c te riz e th e m o d e rn s p ir it a re p a r tic u la r ly e v id e n t. T h a t is w h y he is th e o b je c t o f th is s tu d y. B e c k e r w ho was d e s c rib e d b y a fo rm e r s tu d e n t as "a man w ho e x e m p lifie d, in b o th h is te a c h in g a n d s c h o la rs h ip, a p a s s io n a te a n d p ro fo u n d co m m itm e n t to h u m a n is t v a lu e s " 15 once s h a re d in th a t E n lig h te n m e n t fa ith th a t saw th e e a r th as a s ta g e f o r th e f u t u r e a p o th e o s is o f h u m a n ity. He c la im e d th a t th is f a ith n eeded to s p re a d in to th e p re s e n t tim e, th a t hum ans n e e d e d to u n c o v e r t h e ir ow n p o te n tia l as a u to nom o u s c re a tu re s. A nd y e t B e c k e r a lso came to see th a t a u to n o m y was an illu s io n, a n d th a t th e c a re e r o f m an on th e p la n e t was in c id e n ta l to th e e a r th.16 B e c k e r o nce id e n tifie d m an as "th e a n im a l th a t h o ld s u p a m ir r o r to INTRODUCTION PAGE 4

14 h im s e lf." 17 When he lo o ke d in to th e m ir r o r, B e c k e r saw tw o im ages re fle c tin g b a c k. He te rm e d th e s e im ages Homo p o e ta and Homo h e ro ic a. The fo rm e r saw m an as a p ro d u c t o f a g ra n d p ro c e s s o f e m e rg e n t e v o lu tio n, th e p in n a c le o f n a tu re s t r iv in g to w a rd fre e d o m. T h is v is io n is c h a ra c te riz e d b y o p tim is m c o n c e rn in g hum an p o s s ib ility. I f m an c o u ld b u t co m p lete th e p ro c e s s o f d e ta c h m e n t fro m in s tin c tiv e b e h a v io u r, fro m fo llo w in g "th e h e r d," fro m th e c o n s tr a in ts o f " c u ltu r e," th e n th e fu lfilm e n t o f th e life p ro c e s s w o u ld be a c h ie v e d. B u t th is im age was to o o p tim is tic. L a te r B e c k e r came to see th a t i t s c re e n e d o u t to o e a s ily th e v ic io u s b e h a v io u r th a t m an was ca pable o f; and th a t m o d e rn m an was in d e e d d o in g. C om ing to te rm s w ith th e d a rk sid e o f m an m eant f o r B e c k e r fo r m u la tin g a new im age. Homo h e ro ic a re fle c ts an o n to lo g ic a l p a ra d o x. L im itle s s h o riz o n s a re now lim ite d b y n a tu re, b y th e b o d y. T h e a tte m p t to fo rm u la te a lim itle s s h o riz o n is done in th e te e th o f n a tu re, a n d is th e o r ig in o f h u m a n ly c re a te d e v il. A u to n o m y is an illu s io n. M an m u s t now a d a p t a n d w a it. W hile d iffe r e n t in th e s e w a ys, b o th th e s e im ages a re a n im a te d b y th e same s p ir it : a m o d e rn s p ir it th a t saw m an as th e open c re a tu re a n d th e e a rth as m e a n in g fu l o n ly in te rm s o f b e in g a "s ta g e " f o r h is e m e rg e n ce. We now tu r n to th e t h r u s t o f th is e ssay. 2. O u r T h e s is : F a c in g th e D eath o f M o d e rn ity s S e lf Im ages E rn e s t B e c k e r s m ost fam ous w o rk, e n title d T h e D e n ia l o f D e a th, c o n te n d e d th a t m an is lo c a te d in th e in te r s tic e s o f p a ra d o x, th a t m an s q u e s t f o r a w o rld as s ta g e f o r tra n s c e n d e n c e in s p ite o f h is lim ita tio n s fo rm s th e basic c o n te x t f o r a ll hum an a c tiv it y. He claim ed th a t d e a th is a com plex sym b o l th a t INTRODUCTION PAGE 5

15 s p e a ks n o t s im p ly o f d ecay in to th e g ra v e, b u t o f th e loss o f c o n tro l o v e r s e lf a n d w o rld. S ince th is is p re c is e ly th e w a y th a t m any m o d e rn people e x p e rie n c e t h e ir w o rld, we s h a ll th e r e fo re e x p lo re th e w o rk o f B e c k e r as a tr a c in g o u t o f th is a w a re n e s s as th a t o f a m o d e rn p e rs o n fa c in g a w o rld w e ll lo s t. We s h a ll e s p e c ia lly ta k e n o te o f th e sense o f hom elessness in th e w o rld d is c lo s e d b y b o th im ages. T hese im ages, a n d t h e ir d e a th, m u st be "o w n e d ", a n d " le t g o " b e fo re n ew ness can be hoped fo r. E rn e s t B e c k e r can h e lp show us th e w a y to new t r u s t a n d hope. 3. The P lan o f th is W ork: T ra c in g th e C a re e r o f M o d e rn S e lf-im a g e s in th e E rn e s t B e c k e r s Two Im ages o f M an T he re m a in d e r o f th is in tr o d u c tio n s h a ll be c o n c e rn e d w ith c o n te x t. T he f ir s t is th e c o n te x t o f B e c k e r s ow n w o rk : How was i t re c e iv e d? T h e second in th is c o n te x t o f th e p re s e n t w o rk : How does i t b u ild u p o n a n d d if f e r fro m o th e r s tu d ie s o f B e c k e r? T he t h ir d c o n c e rn s th e b ro a d e r s o c ie ta l c o n te x t: w h a t a re some o f th e s a lie n t fe a tu re s o f m o d e rn ity re le v a n t to a s tu d y o f B e cke r? T he tw o c h a p te rs s h a ll e xe g e te th e tw o im ages o f m an p re s e n te d b y B e c k e r. C h a p te r one s h a ll b e g in w ith an e x a m in a tio n o f B e c k e r s e a rly o n to lo g y w h e re in th e s t r iv in g life p ro c e s s is seen as o rie n te d to w a rd fre edom, w h ic h m eans fre e d o m fro m e n s la v e m e n t to p re -p ro g ra m m e d in s tin c ts. We s h a ll see how B e c k e r saw m an as th e open c re a tu re, b o u n d le s s in h o riz o n, p o te n tia lly c re a tin g h is ow n w o rld a n d r e - c r e a tin g h im s e lf in re n d e rin g a g re y a n d n e u tr a l w o rld m e a n in g fu l. We s h a ll o b s e rv e how B e c k e r saw c u ltu r e as th e w a y th is p ro c e s s w as com p ro m ise d b y an e n s la v e m e n t to th e w ill o f th e h e rd w h ic h he te rm e d "s y m b o lic r e in s tin c tiv iz a tio n." F in a lly we s h a ll ta k e note o f th e w a y s e lf a n d c u ltu r e c ritic is m o p e n e d th e w a y, f o r him, to a u th e n tic in d iv id u a lit y. INTRODUCTION PAGE 6

16 T h e n e x t c h a p te r s h a ll b e g in w ith B e c k e r s ow n s e lf- c r itic is m o f h is s u p p re s s io n o f th e d a rk s id e o f hum an s tr iv in g. We s h a ll see th e w a y he c h a ra c te ris e d Homo h e ro ic a as w o rk in g a d is tin c tiv e g if t o n to th e w o rld c o n s id e re d no lo n g e r as g re y a nd n e u tra l b u t as v io le n t a n d ir r a tio n a l. The c re a tu re, fo r m e r ly d e fin e d as one w ith lim itle s s h o riz o n s, is now re -d e s c rib e d as r a d ic a lly lim ite d, as f in it e a n d m o rta l, fr a u g h t w ith o n to lo g ic a l p a ra d o xes. We s h a ll see B e c k e r s c r itic is m o f th o s e (in c lu d in g h im s e lf fo r m e rly ) w ho saw hum an n a tu re as tra n s fo rm a b le. I t is in p a ra d o x th a t hum an n a tu re is lo c a te d, a n d w ith o u t p a ra d o x hum an n a tu re w o u ld be im p o s s ib le. We m u s t b alance th e te n s io n s b etw e e n in d iv id u a tio n a n d id e n tific a tio n a n d b e tw e e n n a rc is s is tic s e lfin fla tio n a n d y ie ld in g to o th e rs. T he w ay to do t h is is to re a s s e rt re lig io n. T hese tw o c h a p te rs a re fo llo w e d b y a b r ie f re su m e w h ic h s h a ll exam ine c o n tin u itie s a n d d is c o n tin u itie s w ith in th e s e im ages. B o th im ages, as we s h a ll see, d is p la y th e v ie w t h a t m e a n in g is fo u n d in a u to n o m o u s c o n tro l a n d th a t th e f a ll o f m an c o n s is ts in th e lo ss o f c o n tro l. D is c o n tin u ity is d is p la y e d in th e c o n tra s t b e tw e e n Homo p o e ta w ho loses c o n tro l in a p ro c e s s o f s o c ia liz a tio n (a n d w h o th e r e fo r e can re g a in i t b y o v e rc o m in g s o c ie ty ) a nd Homo h e ro ic a in w hom th e lo ss o f c o n tro l is c o n s titu tiv e to h is b e in g. We s h a ll e n title o u r c o n c lu s io n "A W o rld W ell L o s t" because, o u t o f c o n tro l, m o d e rn m an loses th e w o rld in t r y in g to g a in h im s e lf a n d tr a g ic a lly w in d s u p lo s in g h im s e lf as w e ll. A n d i t fo llo w s th a t m o d e rn m an m u st fa c e h is ow n e n d a n d hope fo r r e s u r r e c tio n. T h e re fo re th is e s s a y co n c lu d e s w ith th e im age o f a re q u ie m v ig il. To r e t u r n to th e m ir r o r im age, B e c k e r has show n us w h a t we a re. O n ly in fa c in g i t can we hope b e y o n d it s dem ise. INTRODUCTION PAGE 7

17 C. APPROACHING ERNEST BECKER 1. B e c k e r and th e Social S ciences B e c k e r was th r o u g h o u t h is c a re e r a m a rg in a l fig u r e in h is ow n a re a o f a ca d e m ic in te r e s t. B e c k e r s w r itin g s, e s p e c ia lly h is e a r lie r ones, re c e iv e d m ix e d re v ie w s in th e w o rld o f academ ic s o cia l s cie n ce. W hile P h ilip B osserm an th o u g h t th a t B e c k e r s w o rk "c o u ld n o t be m ore tim e ly," a n d th a t T he S tr u c tu r e o f E v il "c o u ld v e r y w e ll h a v e been th e b a s ic s o u rc e f o r th e S to ckholm C o n fe re n c e " (in 1969 on "T h e Place o f V alue in a W orld o f F a c t" ),13 o th e rs w e re n o t n e a rly as k in d.19 R o b e rt Ja y L ifto n n o te d in h is re v ie w o f E scape From E v il, th a t B e c k e r h a d a re p u ta tio n o f b e in g, " w ild ly a s s o c ia tiv e, d ra m a tic a lly e x is te n tia l... and le ss th a n s y s te m a tic."20 C o n s e q u e n tly h is id e as h a ve n o t been d e v e lo p e d to a n y la r g e e x te n t. T h e re is no "B e c k e r S chool o f T h o u g h t" to w h ic h we can appeal. T h e re a re no fe s ts c h r ifte n g iv in g v a ria tio n s on h is th e m e s.21 T h e re a re no d is c ip le s c a r r y in g on h is le g a c y.22 I f we w is h to re c o v e r th e s ig n ific a n c e o f B e c k e r f o r to d a y, we s h a ll need to t u r n e ls e w h e re. 2. B e c k e r a n d T h e o lo g y T h e fa c t t h a t h is w r itin g s n e v e r re c e iv e d w id e a c c e p ta n c e in th e so cia l s c ie n c e s n e v e r seem ed to b o th e r B e c k e r. R ig h t b e fo re he d ie d B e c k e r said t h a t h is g re a te s t c o n tr ib u tio n was a c tu a lly in th e d e liv e r in g o v e r o f th e so cia l s c ie n c e s to a m e rg e r w ith th e o lo g y.23 Some th e o lo g ia n s h ave made use o f B e c k e r s w r itin g s. D ouglas Jo hn Hall a n d S a lly K enel, f o r exam ple, use B e c k e r as a d ia lo g u e p a r tn e r f o r d e v e lo p in g " c o n te x tu a l" a n d ' fu n d a m e n ta l" th e o lo g ie s re s p e c tiv e ly. T h e ir w o rk is aim ed a t th e c o n s tru c tio n o f a " r e le v a n t" th e o lo g y w h ic h a p p e a ls to th e "m a in s tre a m " INTRODUCTION PAGE 8

18 a c a d e m y.24 H all f o r exam ple sees m uch p o te n tia l in B e c k e r s id e a o f th e "c re a tiv e illu s io n " as p o in tin g to th e re a p p e a ra n c e o f re lig io n in re la tio n to th e d a rk n e s s o f o u r tim e. B e c k e r s w o rk fo c u s in g on th e d a r k s id e o f hum an e x is te n c e opens u p space f o r a th e o lo g y o f th e c ro s s a s tro n g m o tiv e in H a ll s th e o lo g ic a l p ro g ra m. We h a ve n o t fo u n d H a ll s re a d in g o f B e c k e r to be s a tis fy in g, h o w e v e r. In o u r v ie w he m e re ly b a p tiz e s B e c k e r s p ro b le m a tic v ie w o f th e n a tu re o f t r u t h a n d its re la tio n to re p re s s io n. B e c k e r s cla im th a t we need "c r e a tiv e illu s io n s " is fo u n d e d on th e E n lig h te n m e n t d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n " t r u t h, " r e a lit y, " and "s c ie n c e " on th e one h a n d a n d "m e a n in g, " m y th " a n d " r e lig io n " on th e o th e r. H a ll s w o rk, w h ile in m any w a ys p ro v o c a tiv e, becomes s im p ly a n o th e r e v a n g e liz a tio n o f th e E n lig h te n m e n t. H a ll a n d K e n e l a lso te n d to p ic k a n d choose am ong B e c k e r s w o rk s. T h is is a n o th e r d if f ic u lt y we h a v e w ith t h e ir a p p ro a c h. T h e y te n d, as do m ost o th e r tre a tm e n ts o f B e c k e r, to c o n c e n tra te on T h e D e n ia l o f D e a th. W hile th e ir e x p o s itio n s a re g e n e ro u s, th e y b ra c k e t o f f B e c k e r s e a r lie r w o rk w h ic h in its o p tim is m s e ts u p h is la te r v ie w o f m an as a tr a g ic fig u r e. One e x c e p tio n to th is b ra c k e tin g te n d e n c y m ig h t be F re d e ric k S ontag. In h is c o lle c tio n o f e s s a y s e n title d The R e tu rn o f th e G ods,25 S ontag does fo cu s h is a tte n tio n o n B e c k e r s e a r lie r w o rk. H o w e ve r we h ave been d is a p p o in te d b y th is w o rk. S o n ta g sees no d e v e lo p m e n t in B e c k e r, a tta c k in g him as a s ta tic e n t it y, m a k in g no d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n h is e a r lie r a n d h is la te r w o rk. Sontag w a n ts to re c o v e r th e o lo g y a n d m e ta p h y s ic s as c la s s ic a l d is c ip lin e s w h ic h we h a v e " lo s t " and need to re g a in. B u t S ontag is s im p ly w ro n g w h e n he claim s th a t B e c k e r tr ie s, u n s u c c e s s fu lly, to do a w a y w ith th e gods. " P r o v in g " his INTRODUCTION PAGE 9

19 p o in t th a t we need to g e t b a c k to "o ld fa s h io n e d th e o lo g y " in v o lv e s m a k in g B e c k e r a sca p e g o a t. O th e r th e o lo g ia n s h ave tre a te d B e c k e r s c o n c e p ts to a c a re fu l s c r u tin y, c h ie fly c o n c e rn in g th e w a y B e c k e r uses te rm s lik e " f in it u d e " and "tra n s c e n d e n c e " to illu m in a te hum an e x is te n c e. U n fo rtu n a te ly, B e c k e r s s y n th e tic s ty le a n d u n d e r ly in g in te g r a tiv e in te n tio n s m ake s u c h an a p p ro a c h d if f ic u l t. He h im s e lf a d m itte d th a t he s a c rific e d th e o re tic a l p re c is io n f o r th e s a k e o f c o m m u n ic a tin g his u rg e n t m essage.27 In d e e d B e c k e r has been c ritic is e d f o r th is loose use o f c o n c e p ts.28 H o w e v e r w h e n one re c o g n iz e s B e c k e r as t r y in g to accom m odate an e n tir e tr a d itio n, th a t o f E n lig h te n m e n t s o c ia l scie n ce, a n d to in te g ra te i t in to a fra m e w o rk th a t re v e a ls w h a t he th o u g h t was it s tra n s fo rm in g p o w e r, we can u n d e rs ta n d w h y h is te rm s a re so o fte n a m o rp h o u s.29 I f " th e hum an s c ie n c e s " h a v e re v e a le d w h a t a n d w h o we re a lly a re, th e n th e c o n tr ib u tio n s o f each s c ie n c e 30 a re v a lid to th is la r g e r u n d e rs ta n d in g. L ik e s ta in e d g la ss, each c o lo u rs in it s o w n w a y th e lig h t th a t s h in e s on th e hum an c o n d itio n fro m th e E n lig h te n m e n t. I t is "th e la r g e r u n d e rs ta n d in g " th a t we a re in te re s te d in. W hat does B e c k e r see w h e n he lo o ks a t hum an a c t iv it y th r o u g h th e hum an s c ie n c e s? 3. T h e D is tin c tiv e n e s s o f O u r A p p ro a c h A lth o u g h we s h a ll in th e c o u rs e o f th is th e s is d is c u s s some o f th e s p e c ific c a te g o rie s th a t B e c k e r uses in h is a n a ly s is, i t is im p o rta n t to re s ta te th a t we a re n o t a f t e r a sim p le e v a lu a tio n o f th e c o n c e p tu a l co h e re n c e o f h is fo r m u la tio n s. N o r a re we in te re s te d, as K enel is, in d e v e lo p in g a fo rm a l th e o lo g ic a l m e th o d in in te r a c tio n w ith B e c k e r. N o r do we w is h, as H all does, INTRODUCTION PAGE 10

20 to c u t o u t c e rta in "g o o d id e a s " fro m B e c k e r s c o rp u s a s o rt o f te x tu a l a u to p s y. We a re in te re s te d in v is io n. M o d e rn v is io n. We w a n t to lo o k, w ith B e c k e r, in to th e m ir r o r im ages o f m o d e rn ity. O u r g u id in g a s s u m p tio n s h a ll be t h a t w h a t someone sees, e s p e c ia lly a s e n s itiv e o b s e rv e r lik e B e c k e r, is re la te d to a fu n d a m e n ta l v is io n o f h um anness. T h is v is io n is d y n a m ic, n o t s ta tic. I t is fo rm u la te d c o n tin u a lly in in te r a c tio n w ith th e n e w s p a p e rs, jo u r n a l a rtic le s, re la tio n s h ip s a n d s e tb a c k s th a t make u p o n e s life in c u ltu r e. T h is fu n d a m e n ta l v is io n th e n, w h ic h we h ave a lre a d y id e n tifie d in B e c k e r as b e in g b o th o p tim is tic a n d tr a g ic, is th e fo c u s o f th is e ssay. F u n d a m e n ta l v is io n s a re n o t s im p ly a e s th e tic in c h a ra c te r, h o w e v e r. T he q u a lifie r "fu n d a m e n ta l" means th a t s u c h v is io n s c o n c e rn th e v e r y g ro u n d o f o n e s e x is te n c e, an a c c o u n tin g f o r e v il a n d hope f o r re d e m p tio n. T h a t is, th e y a re fa ith - v is io n s in v o lv in g fu n d a m e n ta l t r u s t. T he la n g u a g e o f " t r u s t " is th e la n g u a g e o f th e o lo g y. T h e re fo re we say t h a t th is e s s a y is th e o lo g ic a l. B u t fa ith - v is io n s a re a ls o com m unal. T h e y a re, as we in d ic a te d a b o ve, in c a rn a te d in th e c u lt u r a l lif e o f a people. Hence th e p a r tic u la r k in d o f s tu d y we a re u n d e r ta k in g o u r a n g le o f a p p ro a c h to B e c k e r m ay be s ta te d as th e o lo g y o f c u ltu r e.21 S ince th is is s p e c ific a lly a th e o lo g y o f m o d e rn c u ltu r e, we m u s t ta k e one m ore s te p b e fo re e n c o u n te rin g E rn e s t B e c k e r. B e fo re we p ro ceed to h is tw o d if fe r e n t p ic tu r e s, i t w ill h e lp u s to "fra m e " th e m b y ta k in g n ote o f some o f th e s a lie n t fe a tu re s o f m o d e rn ity re le v a n t to th is s tu d y.32 INTRO DUCTION PAGE 11

21 D. THE C U LTU R E OF MODERNITY 1. F ro m D a rk Ages to E n lig h te n m e n t T h e use o f th e te rm "m o d e rn " la n d s us in a d if f ic u lt y o f d e fin itio n. "M o d e rn " is co m m o n ly u sed in th e sense o f th e "d e v e lo p e d " t h ir d o f th e w o rld (eg. "m o d e rn " v s. " p re -m o d e rn " s o c ie tie s ). "M o d e rn " is a lso u sed as th e c u m u la tio n o f th e h is to r ic a l p ro c e s s, as th e h ig h e s t " le v e l" o f c iv iliz a tio n (eg. " m o d e rn iz a tio n "). Som etim es m o d e rn s im p ly means "c o n te m p o ra ry " (as in "m o d e rn m u s ic "). In th e p s y c h e s o f "m o d e rn " people, th e re is a s h a re d c o n v ic tio n th a t th e o n e - th ir d o f th e w o rld d o m in a te d b y E u ro p e a n males is th e h ig h e s t c u ltu r a l re a liz a tio n o f hum an d o m in io n o v e r n a tu re.33 G e n e ra lly s p e a k in g, th is " c u ltu r e o f m o d e r n ity " is sa id to h a ve been b ir th e d in th e d e c lin e o f th e m id d le ages. W hile m o d e rn p e o p le sp e a k o f th is p re d e c e s s o r p e rio d as "th e D a rk A g e s " (and h ence th e "E n lig h te n m e n t" as it s s u c c e s s o r), i t is im p o rta n t (a n d ir o n ic ) to n o te th a t th e g ro p in g f o r m e a nin g is a fe a tu re o f m o d e rn ity. W hy th is is so w ill becom e a p p a re n t below. N e v e rth e le s s, "m o d e rn " u s u a lly means "a d v a n c e d." P a rt o f w h a t c o n s titu te d "a d v a n c e m e n t" f o r B e c k e r was th e m o d e rn m an s s e lf a w a reness o f th e c o n tin g e n t, c o n s tru c te d n a tu re o f a ll s o c ia l s tr u c tu r e s.34 " In th e p e rs p e c tiv e o f h is to r y, i t seems in e v ita b le th a t man s h o u ld h ave ended u p b y s e e in g th r o u g h h im s e lf, as i t w e re."35 T h e m e ta p h o r o f "s e e in g th r o u g h " is te llin g. P e rh a p s th e te rm th a t d e fin e s th e m o d e rn age b e s t is " c r itic is m." T he E n lig h te n m e n t, so B e c k e r th o u g h t, r e le n tle s s ly s u b je c te d a ll hum an phenom ena to c ritic is m. No lo n g e r a c c e p tin g a n y p a r tic u la r s o c ia l system, ty p e o f g o v e rn m e n t o r w a y o f c o n s tr u c tin g th e w o rld as " th e tr u e o n e," m o d e rn s lik e B e c k e r v ie w m an as, INTRODUCTION PAGE 12

22 m ore th a n a n y th in g else, a " w o r ld - m a k e r " r a th e r th a n s im p ly a "w o rld d w e lle r." P e rh a p s even m ore ra d ic a lly, h o w e v e r, was th e id e a c o rre la tiv e w ith th e c r itic is m o f m y th s o f tim e le ss s o c ia l o rd e r : th a t m an c o u ld a lso be a w o rld "u n -m a k e r." T he a b ility to ta k e n o te o f th e w ay s o c ie tie s w e re s tr u c tu r e d g iv e s m o d e rn m an w h a t he th in k s to be an a b ilit y to s ta n d o u ts id e th e h is to ric a l p ro c e s s a n d to s u rv e y i t as "le a d in g u p to " h is e m e rg ence. In d e e d K a n t s c a ll to m o d ern people to "d a re to k n o w " (fro m h is fam ous essay "W hat is E n lig h te n m e n t? ")36 im p lie d th a t, to th a t p o in t, p eople had n o t "d a re d to k n o w " b u t r a th e r had ta k e n th e easy w a y o u t b y b e lie v in g s u p e rs titio n s. The d iffe re n c e betw e e n th e E n lig h te n m e n t a n d th e p re -E n lig h te n m e n t p e rs o n was n o t o f d e g re e b u t o f k in d. T he E n lig h te n m e n t is, f o r m o d e rn s, a w a te rs h e d. I t fu n c tio n s in a w ay s im ila r to th e E xodus in J u d a is m a n d th e C ru c ifix io n in C h r is tia n ity. In d e e d we h a v e been c o n tin u a lly a s s a u lte d in o u r re a d in g o f B e c k e r s w o rk s w ith s ta te m e n ts lik e "to d a y we k n o w." "T h e s e c re t is o u t!" sa ys B e c k e r th e E n lig h te n m e n t man. T he c o r r e la tiv e im p lic a tio n, a t le a s t in B e c k e r s e a r lie r w o rk s, is th a t "n o w th a t we kn o w we can m a n ip u la te a b e tte r w o rld." And a b e tte r w o rld means a b e tte r m a n. 2. T h re e M o d e rn Them es B ria n W alsh a n d R ic h a rd M id d le to n c h a ra c te riz e m o d e rn ity as th a t v e n tu re,...s tr e tc h in g fro m th e R enaissance th r o u g h th e E n lig h te n m e n t to th e p re s e n t d a y, to c o n tro l n a tu re b y means o f ra tio n a l a n d te c h n ic a l in s ig h t a n d te c h n o lo g ic a l p o w e r f o r hum an p r im a r ily econom ic b e n e fit. T h is p r o je c t o f c o n tro l a n d p ro g re s s, w h ic h is b a s ic to w e s te rn s o c ie ty, is ro o te d in a u to n o m y th e s e c u la r m y th th a t hum an b e in g s a re su p re m e in th e w o rld, th a t we a re th e s e lf n orm e d m a s te rs o f o u r ow n d e s tin y, a n d o f th e d e s tin y o f th e w o rld.37 INTRO DUCTION PAGE 13

23 T h re e m o tifs o f th e m o d ern s p ir it a re p re s e n t in th is d e fin itio n. F ir s t, m o d e rn ity is ro o te d in a "s e c u la r m y th " w h ic h d is p la c e s God in fa v o u r o f m an. Second, th e t h r u s t o f m o d e rn ity is " c o n tr o l o f n a tu re," w h ic h im p lie s a c e rta in v is io n o f th e w ay hum ans a n d non hum ans in te r a c t, as w e ll as a v ie w o f th e re la tio n b e tw e e n b o d y a n d s e lf. T h ird, th e outcom e o f hum an a c tiv it y is seen in " p r o g r e s s," th e id e a th a t th e E n lig h te n m e n t in a u g u ra te s a s e c u la riz e d u to p ia w h e re " s o rr o w a nd m o u rn in g s h a ll fle e a w a y " th r o u g h hum an ra tio n a l a n d te c h n ic a l a c tiv it y. A nd th is " u to p ia " is w h e re th e c o u rs e o f th e w o rld is h e a d in g w ith m an as c a p ta in. Each o f th e s e is re p lic a te d in B e c k e r s w r itin g s. We now exam ine th e m in t u r n. a ) S e c u la r ity : T h e b a n is h m e n t o f God B y s e c u la r, we do n o t mean " a th e is tic." B e rn a rd Z y ls tra is r ig h t w hen he sa ys th a t " i t is n o t n e c e s s a ry to be an a th e is t to be an a g e n t o f th e s p ir it o f m o d e r n ity. 38 I t is p o s s ib le, e ven a c c e p ta b le, f o r m o d e rn s to b e lie v e in God. H o w e v e r s e c u la r ity does mean a c e rta in k in d o f God becomes n e c e s s a ry to p o s it, i f a God is to be p o s ite d a t a ll. T h a t is, a God th a t a llo w s, e ven e n c o u ra g e s th e p r o je c t o f hum an a u to n o m y. B y s e c u la r ity we u n d e rs ta n d th e lo ss o f a God a c tiv e ly in v o lv e d in th e a ff a ir s o f th e w o rld. B e c k e r saw th is as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f th e ris e o f th e c r it ic a l hum an scie n c e s w h ic h re p la c e d th e tr a d itio n a l ro le o f C h r is tia n ity in d e fin in g th e w o rld, a c c o u n tin g f o r e v il a n d e s ta b lis h in g n o rm s. b u rd e n o f b o th T h e S tr u c tu r e o f E v il a n d Be vo n d A lie n a tio n. T h is is th e A nd y e t n e ith e r o f th e s e w o rk s m ake th e c la im th a t m o d e rn p e o p le s h o u ld no lo n g e r b e lie v e in God. I f God m ay s t ill be a ffirm e d as " e x is te n t" in some w a y, th e v e r y p a r tic u la r re v e la tio n o f God in th e w o rld claim ed b y a n y re lig io u s tr a d itio n is INTRODUCTION PAGE 14

24 e ith e r done a w a y w ith o r g e n e ra liz e d to th e p o in t w h e re i t becom es d e v o id o f re le v a n c e to s h a re d, p u b lic life. M o d e rn s w ho cla im to be b e lie v e rs in God a re s u b je c t to a p e c u lia r s p lit betw e e n v a lu e a n d fa c t, b e tw e e n p riv a te a n d p u b lic w o rld s, b e tw e e n m e a nin g a n d t r u t h, b etw e e n p a r t ic u la r it y a n d u n iv e r s a lity.39 B e lie f in God m ay be a c c e p ta b le as a p riv a te o p tio n f o r m e a n in g, b u t no p a r tic u la r God can be a c c e p te d as u n iv e rs a l n o rm f o r p r iv a te life. One "c h o o s e s o n e s p riv a te God, ju s t as one chooses o n e s "v a lu e s y s te m." B u t th is s u p p o s e d re le g a tio n o f re lig io n does n o t mean a lo ss o f re v e la tio n p e r se. R a th e r th e lo cu s o f re v e la tio n is c h a n g e d to th e s p h e re o f h um an ra tio n a l a c tiv it y, e s p e c ia lly th e a c tiv it y o f scie n ce. In th e m o d ern w o rld, s c ie n c e becomes th e le g itim a tin g b a r o f t r u t h. F o r a m o d ern to c a ll s o m e th in g " s c ie n tific " is ju s t a n o th e r w a y o f s a y in g th a t i t is " u n d is p u ta b ly t r u e. " b ) N a tu re a s s ta g e f o r fa u s tia n c o n q u e s t C o in c id e n t w ith th is is a second fe a tu re : th e r e v e la to r y n a tu re o f c re a tio n is lo s t a n d th e pla ce o f hum ans in th e w o rld becom es a m a tte r o f "m a k in g space" r a t h e r th a n fin d in g o r a c c e p tin g. N a tu re is o p p o se d to m an s u c h th a t it m u st be "ta m e d " f o r h is b e n e fit; a n d m an is s e t o v e r a g a in s t n a tu re. M eaning is no lo n g e r seen as a c c e p tin g o n e s place in th e w o rld as a g if t. N a tu re has m e a n in g in a s m u c h as h u m a n ity c o n tro ls i t th r o u g h th e e x e rc is e o f ra tio n a l p o w e rs. T h is is a s tro n g them e in B e c k e r s 1968 w o rk T h e S tr u c tu r e o f E v il. S e c u la rity a n d th e s e ttin g o f hum an a u to n o m o u s fre e d o m o v e r a g a in s t a n a tu re s tr ip p e d o f s ig n ific a n c e c o n n e c t in a v ie w o f th e w o rld as "th e a re n a o f m an s F a u s tia n c o n q u e s t."40 B u t we a re s t ill le f t w ith th e s tra n g e te rm "h u m a n n a tu r e." F o r we a re, u n lik e th e lo w e r a n im a ls, fre e a n d y e t lik e them we a re "e m b o d ie d. B e c k e r u n d e rs to o d th is p ro b le m w hen he claim ed th a t INTRODUCTION PAGE 15

25 hum ans lo o k u p a n d see th e s ta rs b e c k o n in g. B u t th e y also look d ow n a nd see a b o d y w h ic h n e v e r seems to w a n t to do w h a t th e y w a n t i t to, and th e y lo o k a h e a d a nd see d e a th a n d d e cay as fa te.41 C a rry in g f o r t h th e them e o f th e s e ttin g o f a u to n o m y o v e r a g a in s t n a tu re m eans th a t hum an n a tu re m u st be d e fin e d as m a lle a ble a n d o pen. W hile we ''h a v e " b o d ie s, we a lone can g iv e s ig n ific a n c e to th e m.42 re -m a k in g, an a ttr ib u t io n (o r im p o s itio n ) o f "m e a n in g." T h is s ig n ific a n c e is a P u ttin g th in g s in th is w a y h o w e v e r o n ly u n d e rs c o re s f o r m o d ern m an w h a t he has lo s t. c ) P ro g re s s : A s e c u la r u to p ia T he t h ir d fe a tu re is th e s u p p o s e d o u tw o rk in g o f c o n tro l: p ro g re s s. P ro g re s s is th e id e a th a t as hum ans g a in m ore a n d m ore c o n tr o l o v e r n a tu re (and th e m s e lv e s ), th e y move c lo s e r a n d c lo s e r to th e d a y w h e n n a tu re -and th e lim its o f th e b o d y a re tam ed a n d u to p ia is a s s u re d.43 As Z y ls tra p u ts it, M a n s c r e a tu r e ly fin itu d e is e q u a te d w ith h is s in f u l p re d ic a m e n t, fro m w h ic h he m u s t b e lib e ra te d th r o u g h s e lf-re d e m p tio n... in o r d e r to re g a in p a ra d is e lo s t." 44 H is to ry is a s ta g in g o f hum an a p o th e o s is. B e c k e r b e lie v e d th a t a s c ie n c e o f m an w h e re in th e open a n d becom ing n a tu re o f m an was re v e a le d was a k e y f o r th e im p le m e n ta tio n o f p ro g re s s. A lth o u g h th is m ay seem to be a lre a d y a r e la tiv iz a tio n o f th e id e a o f in e v ita b le p ro g re s s as a la w o f h is to r y, i t is, h o w e v e r, co m b in e d w ith a s tro n g fa ith in th e s u p p o s e d h um an a b ilit y to im p ro v e it s e lf th r o u g h s e lf a w a re n e ss, to o v e rc o m e h is to r ic a l e v il th r o u g h u n d e rs ta n d in g a n d to b r in g in a new w o rld w h e re th e hum an s p ir it w o u ld be th e o b je c t o f w o rs h ip. INTRODUCTION PAGE 16

26 3. No M ore U to p ia s Bob G o u d zw a a rd claim s th a t it is th is p ro g re s s m y th th a t em bodies th e dilem m as o f m o d e rn ity.45 F o r w h a t once seemed lik e an in e v ita b le p u s h to w a rd s e c u la r u to p ia has now become a d e c lin e to w a rd d e s tru c tio n. W ith n e g a tiv e p ro g re s s comes lo ss o f a u to n o m y, o f c o n tr o l a n d o f a v is io n o f "o p e n " hum an n a tu re. M o re o v e r th e w o rld seems h o s tile, n o t am enable to hum an a c tiv it y. T he a c c o m p a n y in g sense o f d is o rd e r m akes us a lte rn a te betw e e n "e s c a p is t" b e lie f in a God th a t c o u ld c a re less a b o u t th e w o rld (as in fu n d a m e n ta lis m ) o r a n ih ilis t ic re n u n c ia tio n o f b e lie f in God, in h u m a n ity, in a n y th in g. H a v in g ta k e n n o te o f some fe a tu re s o f m o d e rn ity, we a re now re a d y to make o u r a p p ro a c h to th e im ages o f m an p u t fo r t h b y th a t m odern man, E rn e s t B e c k e r. INTRO DUCTION PAGE 17

27 NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION! S o c ie ty a n d th e S a cre d. (New Y o rk : C ro s s ro a d, 1981), p. x i. 2. H o ly B ib le, R e vise d S ta n d a rd V e rs io n. (D iv is io n o f C h ris tia n E d u c a tio n o f th e N a tio n a l C o u n c il o f C h u rc h e s o f C h ris t in A m e rica, 1952). 3. D is a s te rs had so m ounted b y th e sum m er o f 1989 th a t e n v iro n m e n ta lis t D a vid S u z u k i in d e s p e ra tio n claim ed th a t th e w o rld had te n y e a rs to re p e n t o f its e n v iro n m e n ta l s in s b e fo re th e dam age to th e e a r th w as ir r e v e r s ib le. ("A P re v ie w," A P la n e t f o r th e T a k in g, p ro d u c e d b y D a n ie l Z u k e rm a n, Q T o ro n to : CBC, 1989.) 4. See Jack C a h ill, "D a rk V ic to r y : C a p ita lism K.O. s Com m unism b u t n o t E v e ry o n e is C h e e rin g," T o ro n to S ta r. S u n d a y, D ecem ber 17, 1989, p. B - l, 4. H e re s a sam ple q u o te : "T h e c a p ita lis t econom ies a re p ro d u c in g n a tio n s o f fin a n c ie r s w ho liv e in m ansions a n d h a m b u rg e r f lip p e r s w ho c a n t a ffo r d an a p a rtm e n t." ib id, p. B - l. 5. C a p ita lis m a n d P ro g re s s. T ra n s la te d b y J o s in a Van N uis Z y ls tra, (T o ro n to a n d G ra n d R a p id s: Wedge a n d E erdm ans, 1979) p. x iv. 6. See D ouglas J o h n H all, T h in k in g th e F a ith. (M in n e a p o lis : A u g s b u rg, 1989). 7. G ilk e y, S o c ie ty a n d th e S a c re d. (New Y o rk : C ro s s ro a d, 1981), p. x i and R o b e rt H e ilb ro n e r, An I n q u ir y in to th e Human P ro s p e c t. U p d a te d a n d re c o n s id e re d f o r th e 1980 s, (New Y o rk : N o rto n, 1980), p See W a lte r T r u e tt A n d e rs o n, R e a lity Is n t W hat i t U sed to Be. (San F ra n c is c o : H a rp e r-c o llin s, 1990). 9. "T h e Second G re a t S tep in Hum an E v o lu tio n," T he C h ris tia n C e n tu ry, J a n u a ry 31, 1968, p p G o u d z w a a rd is a D u tch C h ris tia n e c o n o m is t-p h ilo s o p h e r. In h is C a p italism a n d P ro g re s s, he claim s th a t n o t o n ly a re we in th e w e s t c o n fro n te d w ith a c lu s t e r o f p ro b le m s, b u t t r a d itio n a l w ays o f s o lv in g th e m a re im p o te n t a nd lead to e v e n f u r t h e r p ro b le m s. T h e o n ly w a y th r o u g h is to lo o k d e e p ly in to th e r o o ts o f w e s te rn s o c ie ty a n d to d is c e rn th e im p e llin g s p ir it d r iv in g it. His a n a ly s is o f th e econom ic s tr u c tu r e o f th e w e s t o p e n s u p in to a n a m in g o f th a t s p ir it in c a rn a te in th e s t r u c t u r e o f c a p ita lis m as " p r o g r e s s." T h is d e m y th o lo g iz a tio n c a lls th o s e v e r y ro o ts in to q u e s tio n, a n d th u s fo llo w s th e m ir r o r im age. 11- P lu r a lit y a n d A m b ig u ity. (San F ra n c is c o : H a rp e r a n d Row: 1987), p T h e p h ra s e " th e g ra v e s t s o rt o f a n x ie ty " is C liffo r d G e e rtz. W hile it r e fe r s to th e p re c a rio u s n e s s o f a ll c u ltu r a l c o n s tru c ts, i t is p a r tic u la r ly

28 a p p ro p ria te as a re a d in g o f th e p re s e n t c r is is in m o d e rn c u ltu r e. In c id e n tly, th e c o n te x t fro m w h ic h th is p h ra s e is ta k e n a c tu a lly echoes m uch o f w h a t we s h a ll h e a r B e c k e r sa y: Man d e p e n d s u p o n s y m b o ls a n d s y m b o l syste m s w ith a d e p e ndence so g re a t th a t as to be d e c is iv e f o r h is c re a tu ra l v ia b ilit y a n d, as a r e s u lt, h is s e n s itiv ity to e v e n th e re m o te s t in d ic a tio n th a t th e y may p ro v e u n a b le to cope w ith one o r a n o th e r a s p e c t o f e x p e rie n c e ra is e s w ith in him th e g ra v e s t k in d o f a n x ie ty... ("R e lig io n as a C u ltu ra l S y s te m," in T h e In te r p r e ta tio n o f C u ltu re s, (New Y o rk : B asic B ooks, 1973), p. 99.) In a c h a p te r e n title d " M o d e rn ity in D e c lin e " in h is L a n e d o n G ilk e v : T h e o lo g ia n f o r a C u ltu re in D e c lin e, (L a nham, MD: U n iv e r s ity P re ss o f A m erica, 1991) B ria n W alsh g iv e s a lita n y o f c ita tio n s d e s c rib in g th e p re s e n t c ris is in m o d e rn ity. T h e re a d e r w ho is in te r e s te d in p u r s u in g f u r t h e r in d ic tm e n ts o f m o d e rn ity s h o u ld t u r n th e re. 13. F o o lis h n e s s to th e G re e k s. (G ra n d R a p id s: E erdm ans, 1986), p B e c k e r w ro te b e fo re th e ju s t m ovem ent to in c lu s iv iz e la n g u a g e. I have s tr u g g le d w ith B e c k e r s s e x is t la n g u a g e a n d h a ve d e c id e d th a t th e re a re th re e th in g s to " d o " w ith it. ( I sp e a k w ith re fe re n c e to m y d is c u s s io n s o f B e c k e r s id e a s ). T h e f i r s t w o u ld be to in c lu s iv iz e b y u s in g g e n e ra l a n d non s p e c ific te rm s s u c h as " t h e y " o r "h u m a n " o r " t h e ir " (in p la ce o f "h e," "m a n s " and " h is " re s p e c tiv e ly ). I h a v e re je c te d th is o p tio n s in c e i t m akes la n g u a g e to o c lu m sy. T h e seco n d o p tio n w o u ld be to a lte r n a te m a scu lin e a n d fe m in in e p ro n o u n s w h ile u s in g th e in c lu s iv e te rm "h u m a n ". T h is m akes e x p re s s io n e a s ie r b u t c re a te s a n o th e r p ro b le m. B e c k e r u s u a lly g iv e s th e im p re s s io n th a t he is ta lk in g a b o u t "m a n " as " a ll hum an c r e a tu r e s." B u t th e re a re m om ents in h is d is c u s s io n w h e re he s w itc h e s to a d is c u s s io n o f women a s i f th e y w e re e ith e r a n e x c e p tio n, o r a s p e c ia l case. (See T he S tr u c tu r e o f E v il. (New Y o rk : G eorge B ra z ille r, 1968), p p a n d D e n ia l o f D e a th. (New Y o rk : F re e P re s s, 1973), p p , 170.) To a lte r n a te g e n d e r p ro n o u n s in m y d is c u s s io n, th e n, w o u ld become c o n fu s in g. T h e t h ir d o p tio n th e one I v e d e c id e d to ta k e r is k s a lie n a tin g th e re a d e r b u t seems th e m ost f a it h f u l to B e c k e r. T h is o p tio n is to re ta in B e c k e r s s e x is t la n g u a g e in ray d is c u s s io n o f h is id e a s, to s ta te th a t he is ta lk in g a b o u t a p a r tic u la r c o n s tr u c t (a lth o u g h he th o u g h t i t u n iv e rs a l) called "m a n." W hen I use an id e a o r c o n s tru c t o f m y o w n, I s h a ll s w itc h to more in c lu s iv e la n g u a g e. 15. H a ro ld Ja cobs, " E rn e s t B e c k e r: A R e c o n s id e ra tio n," H u m a n ity a n d S o cie ty 5 (1981), p S p e a k in g on b e h a lf o f o th e r s tu d e n ts w h o owed a d e b t to B e c k e r, Jacobs goes on to s a y th a t, B y s h o w in g u s how d e e p ly o u r ro o ts w e re e m bedded in a b r illia n t and h u m a n is tic a lly - o rie n te d h is to r ic a l t r a d itio n, he p ro fo u n d ly b o ls te re d a n d s h a rp e n e d o u r v is io n, p r e v io u s ly s u p p o rte d o n ly b y o u r m o ra l in t u itio n, o f a s o c ia l s c ie n c e c o m m itte d to m a xim iz in g hum an s e lfp re s e r v a tio n a n d th e u n fo ld in g o f hum an p o te n tia l, (p. 241) 16. R e a d in g B e c k e r s d e a th b e d in te r v ie w w ith Sam Keen le d H a ro ld Jacobs to re m a rk : T h e B e c k e r o f th e e a r lie r y e a rs is a lm o st u n re c o g n iz a b le. The E n lig h te n m e n t v is io n is d w a rfe d b y an a ll- p e r v a s iv e sense o f d e s p a ir. INTRO DUCTION PAGE 19

B a rn e y W a r f. U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8

B a rn e y W a r f. U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8 U r b a n S tu d ie s, V o l. 3 2, N o. 2, 1 9 9 5 3 6 1 ±3 7 8 T e le c o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d th e C h a n g in g G e o g r a p h ie s o f K n o w le d g e T r a n s m is s io n in th e L a te

More information

ta tio n a l s c ie n c e b y s u p p o rtin g th e e m e rg in g G rid p ro to c o ls o n W in d o w s a n d

ta tio n a l s c ie n c e b y s u p p o rtin g th e e m e rg in g G rid p ro to c o ls o n W in d o w s a n d A p p e a rs in th e P ro c e e d in g s o f th e 2 0 0 5 In te rn a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e o n C o m p u ta tio n a l S c ie n c e (IC C S 2 0 0 5 ), E m o ry U n iv e rs ity, A tla n ta, G A, M

More information

Tim o th y H ig h le y. tjh ig h le c s.v irg in ia.e d u. U n iv e rs ity o f V irg in ia

Tim o th y H ig h le y. tjh ig h le c s.v irg in ia.e d u. U n iv e rs ity o f V irg in ia Ma rg in a l C o s t-b e n e fit A n a ly s is fo r P re d ic tiv e F ile P re fe tc h in g Tim o th y H ig h le y D e p a rtm e n t o f C o m p u te r S c ie n c e U n iv e rs ity o f V irg in ia tjh

More information

«С e n tra l- A s ia n E le c tric - P o w e r C o rp o ra tio n», JS C

«С e n tra l- A s ia n E le c tric - P o w e r C o rp o ra tio n», JS C J o in t - s t o c k c o m p C E N T R A L - A S IA N E L E C T R IC P O W a n y E R C O R P O R A T IO N I n t e r n a l A u d i t P O L IC Y o f J o in t - S t o c k C o m p a n y C E N T R A L - A S

More information

J a re k G a w o r, J o e B e s te r, M a th e m a tic s & C o m p u te r. C o m p u ta tio n In s titu te,

J a re k G a w o r, J o e B e s te r, M a th e m a tic s & C o m p u te r. C o m p u ta tio n In s titu te, 1 4 th IE E E In te r n a tio n a l S y m p o s iu m o n H ig h P e r fo r m a n c e D is tr ib u te d C o m p u tin g (H P D C -1 4 ), R e s e a rc h T ria n g le P a rk, N C, 2 4-2 7 J u ly 2 0 0 5.

More information

w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D ise a se. G a s tro in te s tin a l C lin ic, 2-8 -2, K a s h iw a z a, A g e o C ity, S a ita m a 3 6 2 -

w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D ise a se. G a s tro in te s tin a l C lin ic, 2-8 -2, K a s h iw a z a, A g e o C ity, S a ita m a 3 6 2 - E ffic a c y o f S e le c tiv e M y e lo id L in e a g e L e u c o c y te D e p le tio n in P y o d e r m a G a n g re n o su m a n d P so r ia sis A sso c ia te d w ith In fla m m a to r y B o w e l D

More information

W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t

W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t 110 tv c h a n n e ls to 10 0 0 0 0 u s e rs U lf V in n e ra s C is c o S y s te m s 2 0 0 2, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. 1 W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t O b je c tiv

More information

EM EA. D is trib u te d D e n ia l O f S e rv ic e

EM EA. D is trib u te d D e n ia l O f S e rv ic e EM EA S e c u rity D e p lo y m e n t F o ru m D e n ia l o f S e rv ic e U p d a te P e te r P ro v a rt C o n s u ltin g S E p p ro v a rt@ c is c o.c o m 1 A g e n d a T h re a t U p d a te IO S Es

More information

A n d r e w S P o m e r a n tz, M D

A n d r e w S P o m e r a n tz, M D T e le h e a lth in V A : B r in g in g h e a lth c a r e to th e u n d e r s e r v e d in c lin ic a n d h o m e A n d r e w S P o m e r a n tz, M D N a tio n a l M e n ta l H e a lth D ir e c to r f

More information

/* ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/* ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Pr o g r a m v a r e fo r tr a fik k b e r e g n in g e r b a s e r t p å b a s is k u r v e m e to d e n n M a tr ix * x M a tr ix E s ta lp h a B e ta ; n M a tr ix * z M a tr ix ; g e n M a tr ix X

More information

B rn m e d s rlig e b e h o v... 3 k o n o m i... 6. S s k e n d e tils k u d o g k o n o m is k frip la d s... 7 F o r ld re b e ta lin g...

B rn m e d s rlig e b e h o v... 3 k o n o m i... 6. S s k e n d e tils k u d o g k o n o m is k frip la d s... 7 F o r ld re b e ta lin g... V e lf rd s s e k re ta ria te t S a g s n r. 1 4 3 4 1 5 B re v id. 9 9 3 9 7 4 R e f. S O T H D ir. tlf. 4 6 3 1 4 0 0 9 s o fie t@ ro s k ild e.d k G o d k e n d e ls e s k rite rie r fo r p riv a tin

More information

20th century copyright system meets 21st century artist. Henrik Ingo

20th century copyright system meets 21st century artist. Henrik Ingo 20th century copyright system meets 21st century artist Henrik Ingo Kohtaamispaikka@Lasipalatsi 2006-04-03 Who am I? H a p p ily m a rrie d m a n, e n g in e e r, b it n e rd y S o ftw a re D e v e lo

More information

Erfa rin g fra b y g g in g a v

Erfa rin g fra b y g g in g a v Erfa rin g fra b y g g in g a v m u ltim e d ia s y s te m e r Eirik M a u s e irik.m a u s @ n r.n o N R o g Im e d ia N o rs k R e g n e s e n tra l fo rs k n in g s in s titu tt in n e n a n v e n d

More information

M P L S /V P N S e c u rity. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d.

M P L S /V P N S e c u rity. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. M P L S /V P N S e c u rity M ic h a e l B e h rin g e r < m b e h rin g @ c is c o.c o m > M b e h rin g - M P L S S e c u rity 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. 1 W h

More information

T ra d in g A c tiv ity o f F o re ig n In s titu tio n a l In v e s to rs a n d V o la tility

T ra d in g A c tiv ity o f F o re ig n In s titu tio n a l In v e s to rs a n d V o la tility T ra d in g A c tiv ity o f F o re ig n In s titu tio n a l In v e s to rs a n d V o la tility V. Ravi Ans human Indian Ins titute of Manag ement B ang alore Rajes h Chakrabarti Indian S chool of Bus ines

More information

STEEL PIPE NIPPLE BLACK AND GALVANIZED

STEEL PIPE NIPPLE BLACK AND GALVANIZED Price Sheet CWN-616 Effective June 06, 2016 Supersedes CWN-414 A Member of The Phoenix Forge Group CapProducts LTD. Phone: 519-482-5000 Fax: 519-482-7728 Toll Free: 800-265-5586 www.capproducts.com www.capitolcamco.com

More information

CIS CO S Y S T E M S. G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d.

CIS CO S Y S T E M S. G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile. 2 0 0 1, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. CIS CO S Y S T E M S A c c e s s T e c h n o lo g y T e le c o m /IT Co n n e c tiv ity W o rk s h o p G u ille rm o A g u irre, Cis c o Ch ile g m o.a g u irre @ c is c o.c o m S e s s io n N u m b e

More information

AN EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR PERSONS DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL 1978-1981. P. A. V a le s, Ph.D.

AN EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR PERSONS DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL 1978-1981. P. A. V a le s, Ph.D. AN EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR PERSONS DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL 1978-1981 P. A. V a le s, Ph.D. SYNOPSIS Two in d ep en d en t tre a tm e n t g ro u p s, p a r t ic ip

More information

i n g S e c u r it y 3 1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his å ] í d : L : g u id e Scanned by CamScanner

i n g S e c u r it y 3 1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his å ] í d : L : g u id e Scanned by CamScanner í d : r ' " B o m m 1 E x p e r i e n c e L : i i n g S e c u r it y. 1-1B# ; u r w e b a p p li c a tio n s f r o m ha c ke r s w ith t his g u id e å ] - ew i c h P e t e r M u la e n PACKT ' TAÞ$Æo

More information

Up c om i n g Events

Up c om i n g Events BCASA NEWSLETTER B o s to n C h a p te r o f th e A m e ric a n Sta tis tic a l A s s o c ia tio n Serving Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont Vo lu m e 2 9, N o. 3, J a n u

More information

UFPA Brazil. d e R e d e s Ó p tic a s e s e u s Im p a c to s n o F u tu r o d a In te r n e t

UFPA Brazil. d e R e d e s Ó p tic a s e s e u s Im p a c to s n o F u tu r o d a In te r n e t A v a n ç o s n o P la n o d e C o n tr o le d e R e d e s Ó p tic a s e s e u s Im p a c to s n o F u tu r o d a In te r n e t A n to n io A b e lé m a b e le m @ u fp a.b r Agenda In tr o d u ç ã o C

More information

E S T A D O D O C E A R Á P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z C Â M A R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z

E S T A D O D O C E A R Á P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z C Â M A R A M U N I C I P A L D E C R U Z C O N C U R S O P Ú B L I C O E D I T A L N º 0 0 1 / 2 0 1 2 D i s p õ e s o b r e C o n c u r s o P ú b l i c o p a r a p r o v i m e n t o c a r g o s e v a g a s d a P r e f e i t u r a M u n i c i

More information

Combinación de bandas óptima para la discriminación de sabanas colombianas, usando imagen Landsat ETM+ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCB

Combinación de bandas óptima para la discriminación de sabanas colombianas, usando imagen Landsat ETM+ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCB Combinación de bandas óptima para la discriminación de sabanas colombianas, usando imagen Landsat ETM+ZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCB O p t i m a l L a n d s a t E T M + b a n d 's c o m b i n a t i o n f o

More information

C + + a G iriş 2. K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r

C + + a G iriş 2. K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r C + + a G iriş 2 K o n tro l y a p ıla rı if/e ls e b re a k co n tin u e g o to sw itc h D ö n g ü le r w h ile d o -w h ile fo r F o n k s iy o n la r N e d ir? N a s ıl k u lla n ılır? P ro to tip v

More information

Critical Review MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: A REVIEW

Critical Review MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: A REVIEW Coi Nb I^HIpRESSj Environm ental Toxicology and Chem istry, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 1219-1234, 2004 P rinted in ihc USA 0730-7 2 6 8 /0 4 $12.00 +.00 Critical Review MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS

More information

Farmers attitudes toward and evaluation and use of insurance for income protection on Montana wheat farms by Gordon E Rodewald

Farmers attitudes toward and evaluation and use of insurance for income protection on Montana wheat farms by Gordon E Rodewald Farmers attitudes toward and evaluation and use of insurance for income protection on Montana wheat farms by Gordon E Rodewald A THESIS Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements

More information

P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E J A R D I M

P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E J A R D I M D E P A R T A M E N T O D E C O M P R A S E L I C I T A O A U T O R I Z A O P A R A R E A L I Z A O D E C E R T A M E L I C I T A T с R I O M O D A L I D A D E P R E G O P R E S E N C I A L N 034/ 2 0

More information

Morningstar Document Research

Morningstar Document Research Morningstar Document Research FORM8-K EMC INSURANCE GROUP INC - EMCI Filed: May 11, 2016 (period: May 11, 2016) Report of unscheduled material events or corporate changes. The information contained herein

More information

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew S te p h a n M a rt in S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct OPEN XCHANGE Architecture Overview A ge nda D es ig n G o als A rc h i te ct u re O ve rv i ew S c a l a b ili

More information

DESIGNING A HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROSECUTION CLINIC:

DESIGNING A HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROSECUTION CLINIC: FILE:C:\WP51\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM DESIGNING A HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROSECUTION CLINIC: Making Bedfellows of Academics, Activists and Prosecutors to Teach Students According to Clinical

More information

M Mobile Based Clinical Decision Support System Bhudeb Chakravarti & Dr. Suman Bhusan Bhattacharyya Provider & Public Health Group, VBU-HL P S aty am C om puter S ervices L im ited Bhudeb_ C hak ravarti@

More information

T c k D E GR EN S. R a p p o r t M o d u le Aa n g e m a a k t o p 19 /09 /2007 o m 09 :29 u u r BJB 06 013-0009 0 M /V. ja a r.

T c k D E GR EN S. R a p p o r t M o d u le Aa n g e m a a k t o p 19 /09 /2007 o m 09 :29 u u r BJB 06 013-0009 0 M /V. ja a r. D a t a b a n k m r in g R a p p o r t M Aa n g e m a a k t o p 19 /09 /2007 o m 09 :29 u u r I d e n t if ic a t ie v a n d e m S e c t o r BJB V o lg n r. 06 013-0009 0 V o o r z ie n in g N ie u w la

More information

TRENDnetVIEW App (Android)

TRENDnetVIEW App (Android) Installation Ta p o n th e P la y S tore ico n to d o w n lo a d a n d in sta ll T R E N D n e tv IE W a p p. O n ce in sta lle d ta p the TRENDnetVIEW icon to open up the app. N ote : A n d ro id O S

More information

THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX

THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX FILE:N:\DTP\MISS\LEAD.RAW Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX Jean Montoya * Although many legal educators would place the birth of clinical legal

More information

An E mpir ical Analysis of Stock and B ond M ar ket Liquidity

An E mpir ical Analysis of Stock and B ond M ar ket Liquidity A p r il 2 2, 2 0 0 2 An E mpir ical Analysis of Stock and B ond M ar ket Liquidity Ta r u n Ch o r d ia, A s a n i S a r ka r, a n d A va n id h a r S u b r a h m a n ya m Go iz u e t a B u s in e s s

More information

Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation, the ISO 25000 Series

Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation, the ISO 25000 Series Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation, the ISO 25000 Series PSM Technical Working Group February 2004 Dave Zubrow Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense Background

More information

A Unified Approach to Statistical Estimation and Model Parameterisation in Mass Calibration

A Unified Approach to Statistical Estimation and Model Parameterisation in Mass Calibration A Unified Approach to Statistical Estimation and Model Parameterisation in Mass Calibration by Thom as S. Leahy B.Sc. i» A Thesis presented to Dublin City University For the Degree of D octor of Philosophy

More information

az 1995. évi L X V. tv. 28. -á ra figyelem m el 20. sz á m ú UTASÍTÁSA B u d a p e s t, 1 9 6 7. é v i jú liu s hó 2 8 -á n.

az 1995. évi L X V. tv. 28. -á ra figyelem m el 20. sz á m ú UTASÍTÁSA B u d a p e s t, 1 9 6 7. é v i jú liu s hó 2 8 -á n. BELÜGYMINISZTÉRIUM SZOLGÁLATI HASZNÁLATRA! 1 0-2 4 /2 0 /1 9 6 7. A M I N Ő S Í T É S M E G S Z Ű N T az 1995. évi L X V. tv. 28. -á ra figyelem m el A MAGYAR NÉPKÖZTÁRSASÁG BELÜGYMINISZTERHELYETTESÉNEK

More information

S y ste m s. T h e D atabase. D atabase m anagem e n t sy ste m

S y ste m s. T h e D atabase. D atabase m anagem e n t sy ste m 1 C h apte r 1 1 A D atabase M anagem e n t S y ste m s 1 D atabase M anagem e n t S y ste m s D atabase m anagem e n t sy ste m (D B M S ) S to re larg e co lle ctio n s o f d ata O rg anize th e d ata

More information

B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht, DV M. M as te r of S ci en ce I n V et er in ar y Me di ca l Sc ie nc es. A pp ro ve d:

B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht, DV M. M as te r of S ci en ce I n V et er in ar y Me di ca l Sc ie nc es. A pp ro ve d: E ff ec ts o f El ec tr ic al ly -S ti mu la te d Si lv er -C oa te d Im pl an ts a nd B ac te ri al C on ta mi na ti on i n a Ca ni ne R ad iu s Fr ac tu re G ap M od el B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht,

More information

Cloud Computing Strategic View

Cloud Computing Strategic View Donald Bell IBM Academic Initiative April 2010 bellds@us.ibm.com Cloud Computing Strategic View Strategy & Enterprise Initiatives Topics Cloud Computing IBM Academic Skills Cloud (Pilot) 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qb2hjpaqy-k&fmt=18',686,580);

More information

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E-

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- EG Z IA B H ER e d it o r s N ) LICA TIO N S A N D M ETH O D S t DVD N CLUDED C o n t e n Ls Pr e fa c e x v G l o b a l N a v i g a t i o n Sa t e llit e S y s t e

More information

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ).

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ). PROCEDIMIENTO DE RECUPERACION Y COPIAS DE SEGURIDAD DEL CORTAFUEGOS LINUX P ar a p od e r re c u p e ra r nu e s t r o c o rt a f u e go s an t e un d es a s t r e ( r ot u r a d e l di s c o o d e l a

More information

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans in Union Contracts

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans in Union Contracts Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans in Union Contracts Bulletin N o. 1187 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR James P. Mitchell, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner Health, Insurance,

More information

This dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online:

This dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online: University of Iowa Iowa Research Online Theses and Dissertations 1995 An annotated bibliography and performance commentary of the works for concert band and wind orchestra by composers awarded the Pulitzer

More information

Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen

Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen Skoleåret 1969-70 V e d K: Hillers-Andersen k. s k o l e d i r e k t ø r o g Aage Christensen f u l d m æ g t i g ( Fr e d e rik sh av n E k sp r e s- T ry k k e rie

More information

C o m p u te r M o d e lin g o f M o le c u la r E le c tro n ic S tru c tu re

C o m p u te r M o d e lin g o f M o le c u la r E le c tro n ic S tru c tu re C o m p u te r M o d e lin g o f M o le c u la r E le c tro n ic S tru c tu re P e te r P u la y D e p a rtm e n t o f C h e m is try a n d B io c h e m is try, U n iv e rs ity o f A rk a n s a s, F a

More information

Management of the Belgian coast: Opinions and solutions

Management of the Belgian coast: Opinions and solutions 24363 Jo u rn a l o f C o a sta l C onservation 7: 129-144, 2001 'O EUCC: O palus Press Uppsala. P rinted in Sweden Vlaams Instituut voor dezae F la n d ers M a rin e In stitu te Management of the Belgian

More information

L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d e p r e s ió n a r t e r ia l s is t ó lic a ( P A S ) m a y o r o

L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d e p r e s ió n a r t e r ia l s is t ó lic a ( P A S ) m a y o r o V e r s i ó n P á g i n a 1 G U I A D E M A N E J O D E H I P E R T E N S I O N E S C E N C I A L 1. D E F I N I C I O N. L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d

More information

M ethodology & Taiwan s P erfor m ance

M ethodology & Taiwan s P erfor m ance T im es H igher - QS W orld University R ank ings M ethodology & Taiwan s P erfor m ance B e n S o w te r H e a d o f R e s e a rc h QS T aiwan 11 A pril 2008 S peak er I ntroduction r a d u a te d in

More information

Operational Risk Register. Legal Dem ocratic & Regulatory

Operational Risk Register. Legal Dem ocratic & Regulatory Risk Risk F in a n c e & G o v e rn a n c e > > L e g a l D e m o c ra tic & R e g u la to ry - S te v e B a k e r L D R _ F 0 1 - L a c k o f re s o u rc e s to b e a b le to s p e n d th e a p p ro p

More information

GlasCraft Air Motor Repair Kits

GlasCraft Air Motor Repair Kits Parts GlasCraft ir Motor Repair Kits 30393B ENG For replacing wear items used on GlasCraft air motors. For professional use only. Not for use in explosive atmospheres. Models M-325, M-500-02, GC2267, GC2273

More information

BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED (PROSECUTION & DEFENSE) CRIMINAL LAW CLINIC

BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED (PROSECUTION & DEFENSE) CRIMINAL LAW CLINIC FILE:C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\MYBRIE~1\LINDAS.WP 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM Jan BENEFITS OF AN INTEGRATED (PROSECUTION & DEFENSE) CRIMINAL LAW CLINIC Linda F. Smith * This article describes the University of Utah's

More information

First A S E M R e c to rs C o n f e re n c e : A sia E u ro p e H ig h e r E d u c a tio n L e a d e rsh ip D ia l o g u e Fre ie U n iv e rsitä t, B e rl in O c to b e r 2 7-2 9 2 0 0 8 G p A G e e a

More information

Purpose of presentation

Purpose of presentation ECONOMIC REGULATION Purpose of presentation To provide the Status Quo on Economic Regulation To indicate the ideal situation WHERE DOES THE MANDATE COME FROM? Constitution Water Services Act Section 10

More information

40 20 L in z. 1 7. O k tober 2 0 0 7

40 20 L in z. 1 7. O k tober 2 0 0 7 Neurochirurgische Abteilung T heoretische Neurochirurgie M ag a. Sabine Spiegl-Kreinecker Tel: + 43 (0)50 554/62-26092 E -mail: sabine.spiegl-kreinecker@ gespag.at 1 7. O k tober 2 0 0 7 A n d e n V e

More information

S c h ools a n d W e b 2.0: a c ritic a l pe rspe c tiv e

S c h ools a n d W e b 2.0: a c ritic a l pe rspe c tiv e S c h ools a n d W e b 2.0: a c ritic a l pe rspe c tiv e Lon don K n ow le dge L ab In stituto de la Educació n U n iv e rsidad de Lon dre s, R e in o U n ido Resumen: E ste a rtíc u lo ofre c e u n a

More information

A CMOS Programmable Analog Memory-Cell Array Using Floating-Gate Circuits

A CMOS Programmable Analog Memory-Cell Array Using Floating-Gate Circuits 4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 A CMOS Programmable Analog Memory-Cell Array Using Floating-Gate Circuits R eid R. H arrison,

More information

Engenharia de Software

Engenharia de Software Engenharia de Software Gerenciamento de Projeto Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 4 Slide 1 Gerenciamento de Projeto Organização, planejamento e agendamento de projetos de

More information

Unit 16 : Software Development Standards O b jec t ive T o p r o v id e a gu ide on ho w t o ac h iev e so f t wa r e p r o cess improvement through the use of software and systems engineering standards.

More information

THE TRANSISTOR - SUCCESSOR TO THE VACU U M TUBE?

THE TRANSISTOR - SUCCESSOR TO THE VACU U M TUBE? THE TRANSISTOR - SUCCESSOR TO THE VACU U M TUBE? B y John A. D o re m u s, C h ie f E n g in e e r, C a r r i e r and C o n tro l E n g in e e rin g D ep t. M o to r o la, Inc. R e p r i n t e d b y M

More information

T h is do c u m e nt r e f e r s to F a st E th e r C h a nne l, G ig a b it E th e r C h a nne l, p o r t c h a nne l a nd p o r t g r o u p w ith a

T h is do c u m e nt r e f e r s to F a st E th e r C h a nne l, G ig a b it E th e r C h a nne l, p o r t c h a nne l a nd p o r t g r o u p w ith a Understanding L ay er 3 Eth erch annel S u p p o rt o n th e Cisc o I ntegrated S erv ic es R o u ter T h e p u r p o se o f th is do c u m e nt is to e x p l a in C isc o Inte g r a te d S e r v ic e

More information

re:think creativity ICT and tourism: gaming and creative technologies & applications

re:think creativity ICT and tourism: gaming and creative technologies & applications re:think creativity ICT and tourism: gaming and creative technologies & applications Presented by: Dr. N ik o s V o g ia t zis Corallia co-founder & chief Development & Operations officer gi-cluster Governance

More information

SEARCH WARRANTS IN AN ERA OF DIGITAL EVIDENCE

SEARCH WARRANTS IN AN ERA OF DIGITAL EVIDENCE FILE:C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\MYBRIE~1\KERRRAW.BK! 12/13/05 Tue 12:52PM Dec SEARCH WARRANTS IN AN ERA OF DIGITAL EVIDENCE Orin S. Kerr * ABSTRACT This Article contends that the legal rules regulating the search

More information

UNDERSTANDING FLOW PROCESSING WITHIN THE CISCO ACE M ODULE Application de liv e r y pr odu cts can distr ib u te tr af f ic to applications and w e b se r v ice s u sing v ar y ing le v e ls of application

More information

W Regional Cooperation in the Field of A u tom otiv e E ngineering in S ty ria Dr. Peter Riedler 2 9.1 1.2 0 1 1 i e n GmbH Graz B u s ines s S trategy S ty ria 2 0 2 0 H is tory 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9

More information

Public Health is Like..

Public Health is Like.. Public Health is Like.. A box of chocolates. you never know what your gonna get, Forrest Gump. So... Build the evidence-base for public health practice Building the Evidence- Base Science is contributing

More information

B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g S y s te m

B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g S y s te m Symposium on Public Transportation in Indian Cities with Special focus on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) System New Delhi 20-21 Jan 2010 B R T S y s te m in S e o u l a n d In te g r a te d e -T ic k e tin g

More information

ComWIN Control Desk Management

ComWIN Control Desk Management ComWIN Control Desk Management ComW IN visualises, controls and automates E x tre m e s itu a tio n s su ch as car a c c id e n ts o r te c h n ic a l fa u lts a re ju s t as m u ch p a rt o f th e jo

More information

I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y

I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y I n la n d N a v ig a t io n a co n t r ib u t io n t o eco n o m y su st a i n a b i l i t y and KB rl iak s iol mi a, hme t a ro cp hm a5 a 2k p0r0o 9f i,e ls hv oa nr t ds eu rmv oedye l o nf dae cr

More information

1 D e r 1. S c h u l t a g M a l e a u s. S c h re i b e d e i n e n N a m e n u n t e r e i n K i n d. 1 2 D a s b i n i c h M a l e d i c h s e l b e r. 2 3 F re u n d e M a l e d i c h u n d d e i n

More information

A Practical Usage of Innovative Web Design Methodology: The Relational Modeling Methodology

A Practical Usage of Innovative Web Design Methodology: The Relational Modeling Methodology Abstract The web platform has transformed itself in the few years since its inception in 1993 from an instrument used merely to establish on-line presence to a platform that can support all facets of organizational

More information

T e s t e xp re s s i o n B o d y o f i f E xi t F i g u re 1 - F l o w c h art o f th e i f s tate m M u l ti S tate m s i n th e i f B o d y : L ik

T e s t e xp re s s i o n B o d y o f i f E xi t F i g u re 1 - F l o w c h art o f th e i f s tate m M u l ti S tate m s i n th e i f B o d y : L ik MQL4 COURSE By Coders guru w w w. f orex -t sd. c om -6- Loops & Decisions Part 2 ---------------------------- We l c o m e t o t h e s ix t h l e s s o n in m y c o u r s e a b o u t M Q L 4. I h o pe

More information

Creating a best fit between Business Strategy and Web Services Capabilities using Problem Frames Modeling approach

Creating a best fit between Business Strategy and Web Services Capabilities using Problem Frames Modeling approach Creating a best fit between Business Strategy and Web Services Capabilities using Problem Frames Modeling approach Anju Jha 1, Karl Cox 2 & Keith T. Phalp 3 1 School of Computer Science and Engineering

More information

User Guide SX8653EVK. SX8653EVK Evaluation kit for SX8653 multitouch controller ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING USER GUIDE EVK CONTENT

User Guide SX8653EVK. SX8653EVK Evaluation kit for SX8653 multitouch controller ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS & SENSING USER GUIDE EVK CONTENT User Guide SX8653EVK Evaluation kit for SX8653 multitouch controller 4 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The SX8653 is a touch controller for 4 or 5 wire resistive touchscreen. With 4-wire touchscreen, the multitouch

More information

3 S 3 'S INNOVATIVE MULTI-PURPOSE OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

3 S 3 'S INNOVATIVE MULTI-PURPOSE OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 3 S 3 'S INNOVATIVE MULTI-PURPOSE OFFSHORE PLATFORMS INTRODUCTION I ncreasingly, E uropean seas and oceans are su b je ct to the de ve lo p m e n t o f m a rin e in fra s tru c tu re such as o ffshore

More information

118% ( n = 5). Th is m e thod is conven ien t, rap id and accu ra te. It is read ily app lied to the qua li2

118% ( n = 5). Th is m e thod is conven ien t, rap id and accu ra te. It is read ily app lied to the qua li2 2010 2 Vo l. 28 N o. 2 Feb rua ry 2010 C h inese J ou rna l of Ch rom a tography 204 208 DO I: 10. 3724 /SP. J. 1123. 2010. 00204 C 4 3,, (, 453003) : C C 4, S inoch rom OD S2B P (416 mm 200 mm, 5 m ),

More information

Create. Increase. Accelerate. TM. New Rules for Finding and Creating Leads

Create. Increase. Accelerate. TM. New Rules for Finding and Creating Leads New Rules for Finding and Creating Leads www.3forward.com 3forward, LLC Lead Gen Goals Haven t Changed Increasing wins from targeted new logo prospects Top of mind with prospects in buying mode Accelerating

More information

A p p l i c a t i o n s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P o ly m e r M em brane I o n - S e l e c t i v e E l e c t r o d e s

A p p l i c a t i o n s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P o ly m e r M em brane I o n - S e l e c t i v e E l e c t r o d e s A p p l i c a t i o n s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P o ly m e r M em brane I o n - S e l e c t i v e E l e c t r o d e s A t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e d e g r e e o f M a s te

More information

ACTG : Principles of Financial Accounting

ACTG : Principles of Financial Accounting University of Montana ScholarWorks Syllabi Course Syllabi 1-2015 ACTG 201.04: Principles of Financial Accounting Ronald F. Premuroso University of Montana - Missoula, ronald.premuroso@umontana.edu Follow

More information

Application Note: Cisco A S A - Ce r t if ica t e T o S S L V P N Con n e ct ion P r of il e Overview: T h i s a p p l i ca ti o n n o te e x p l a i n s h o w to co n f i g u r e th e A S A to a cco m

More information

Major content M a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n ( H E ) s y s t e m s i n A s i a a n d E u r o p e M a j o r

Major content M a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n ( H E ) s y s t e m s i n A s i a a n d E u r o p e M a j o r F i rst A S E M R ec t ors C on feren c e F rei e U n i v ersi t a t B erl i n, G erm a n y, 2 7 2 9 O c t ob er 2 0 0 8 The Development of Higher Education SS yy ss tems in Europe and AA ss ia: Similarities

More information

World Wide Supply. Quarterly interim report

World Wide Supply. Quarterly interim report Quarterly interim report Q1 2016 The quarter in brief Four Vessels are laid up and two vessels are on contract with Petrobras in Brazil. In 2016 the management agreement with Sydvestor AS was terminated

More information

Lehren der Bau^Bilanz 1934.

Lehren der Bau^Bilanz 1934. D m tftttc B a u h ü t t e 5eitfd}rifi ter ileutfdjen Architekten f c f r a f t : Herausgeber: Curt R. Vincent}. Geschäftshaus: Hannover, Hm Schtffgrabeu 41. (Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.) Lehren der Bau^Bilanz

More information

Z o e k in O P L E ID IN G p. 4 z o u je z e m o e te n k e n n e n? E r is n ie ts d a t. w e g, m a a r ie d e re s tu d e n t h e e ft w é l h e t

Z o e k in O P L E ID IN G p. 4 z o u je z e m o e te n k e n n e n? E r is n ie ts d a t. w e g, m a a r ie d e re s tu d e n t h e e ft w é l h e t NHOUDSOPGAAF Ge aanvulld monlg meer Het nieuwe examreglemt COLOFON D e k o m k o m m e r t ijd is v o o r b ij e n d a t z u lle n w e g e w e t e n h e b b e n. T w e e w e k e n o n z e m iljo e n e

More information

Beverlin Allen, PhD, RN, MSN, ARNP

Beverlin Allen, PhD, RN, MSN, ARNP Pressure Ulcers & Nutritional Deficits in Elderly Long-Term Care Patients: Effects of a Comprehensive Nutritional Protocol on Pressure Ulcer Healing, Length of Hospital Stay & Health Care Charges Beverlin

More information

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide Andrew Nixon February 2002 Campus Sustainability Assessment Review Project Telephone: (616) 387-5626

More information

NAVY TODAY. -jr. c v ^ s c - s> * * * SShT: - w. s** ' ; - _. *ss- ' " *.. ** - '

NAVY TODAY. -jr. c v ^ s c - s> * * * SShT: - w. s** ' ; - _. *ss- '  *.. ** - ' s** a NAVY TODAY * * * SShT: - w ' ; - _. *ss- ' " *.. ** -jr. c v ^ s c - s> - ' The Royal Australian Navy Today The Royal A u stra lia n Navy goes i nt o th e 19 70 s w ith a stren gth unequalled in

More information

How to Successfully Integrate with ERP and Expense Management Systems

How to Successfully Integrate with ERP and Expense Management Systems Treasury and Trade Solutions Citi Commercial Cards Innovation, Efficiency, Simplicity. 2015 Commercial Cards Conference May 18-20, 2015 How to Successfully Integrate with ERP and Expense Management Systems

More information

Performance Engineering of a

Performance Engineering of a Efforts Required For Performance Engineering of a eb Application Dr. K.K. Aggarwal, Dr. Yogesh Singh & Ms. Vandana Gupta ABSTRACT NewPort group research states that 52% of the Web applications fail to

More information

Material Design and Production subprocess - 1/12

Material Design and Production subprocess - 1/12 Material Design and Production subprocess - 1/12 MATERIAL DESIGN AND PRODUCTION MODELS M aterial design and production general m odel MATERIAL DESIGN MATERIAL PRODUCTION D1 P1 Specific processes of each

More information

C e r t ifie d Se c u r e W e b

C e r t ifie d Se c u r e W e b C r t ifi d S c u r W b Z r t ifizi r t Sic h r h it im W b 1 D l gat s N ic o las M ay n c o u r t, C EO, D r am lab T c h n o lo gi s A G M ar c -A n d r é B c k, C o n su lt an t, D r am lab T c h n

More information

MUSC 2286 Internship: Recording Arts Technology, Syllabus Addendum, McLennan Community College, Waco, TX

MUSC 2286 Internship: Recording Arts Technology, Syllabus Addendum, McLennan Community College, Waco, TX MUSC 2286 Internship: Recording Arts Technology, Syllabus Addendum, McLennan Community College, Waco, TX Instructor Brian Konzelman Office PAC 124 Phone 299-8231 WHAT IS THIS COURSE? Practicum in Audio

More information

URBAN INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND URBAN MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AND CONTROL. Nathan D. Grunctstein*

URBAN INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND URBAN MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AND CONTROL. Nathan D. Grunctstein* URBAN INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND URBAN MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AND CONTROL Nathan D. Grunctstein* A system d e fin itio n of general v a lid ity has no p a rtic u la r relevance fo r the content of th is paper.

More information

Collaboration in Public H e alth be tw e e n U niv e rs ity of H e id e lbe rg and U niv e rs ity of D ar e s S alaam How t h e c oop e r a t i on e m e r g e d Informal c ont ac t s from e arly 1 9

More information

Models of Natural Language In modeling English (or another natural language) we ignore meaning and even grammar. That is, we ignore semantics.

Models of Natural Language In modeling English (or another natural language) we ignore meaning and even grammar. That is, we ignore semantics. Models of Natural Language In modeling English (or another natural language) we ignore meaning and even grammar. That is, we ignore semantics. Instead, we treat English as being the result of some random

More information

Data Center end users for 40G/100G and market dy nami c s for 40G/100G on S M F Adam Carter Ci s c o 1 W Now that 40GbE is part of the IEEE 802.3ba there will be a wid er array of applic ation s that will

More information

M Fast forward into th e fu tu re Accelerating b u s ines s o p p o rtu nity and natio nal p ro s p erity Viktor Kovacs anaging D irecto r H u ngary & Ad riatic R egio n C h a n g e t h e w o r l d» O

More information

Understanding, Modelling and Improving the Software Process. Ian Sommerville 1995 Software Engineering, 5th edition. Chapter 31 Slide 1

Understanding, Modelling and Improving the Software Process. Ian Sommerville 1995 Software Engineering, 5th edition. Chapter 31 Slide 1 Process Improvement Understanding, Modelling and Improving the Software Process Ian Sommerville 1995 Software Engineering, 5th edition. Chapter 31 Slide 1 Process improvement Understanding existing processes

More information