3 S 3 'S INNOVATIVE MULTI-PURPOSE OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

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1 3 S 3 'S INNOVATIVE MULTI-PURPOSE OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

2 INTRODUCTION I ncreasingly, E uropean seas and oceans are su b je ct to the de ve lo p m e n t o f m a rin e in fra s tru c tu re such as o ffshore w ind farm s, energy extra c tio n fro m tid e s and waves as w ell as m a rin e a q u a c u ltu re in o rd e r to m eet the dem and fo r energy and seafood.these novel o ffshore a c tivitie s req u ire sp e cific te c h n o lo g y and governance in o rd e r to address the challenges linked w ith the in s ta lla tio n, o p e ra tio n and m a in te n a n ce o f these fa c ilitie s. M oreover, the d e velopm ent and o p e ra tio n o f m a rin e in fra s tru c tu re e xe rt e n v iro n m e n ta l pressure on the oceans, th re a te n in g m a rin e ecosystem s. In th is re g a rd, It Is c ru c ia l th a t the e co n o m ic costs, the use o f m arine space and the environm e n ta l Im p acts o f these a c tiv itie s re m a in w ith in a cce ptable lim its. O ffsh o re p la tfo rm s th a t co m b in e m u ltip le fu n c tio n s w ith in th e sam e In fra s tru c tu re can o ffe r s ig n ific a n t be nefits in te rm s o f eco nom ics, o p tim is in g sp a tia l p la n n in g and re ducing the im pact on the environm ent. \

3 EUROPEAN POLICY CONTEXT The E uropean In te g ra te d M a ritim e P olicy (IM P, COM ( ) ) seeks to provide a m ore coherent approach to m a ritim e issues, w ith increased c o o rd in a tio n between d iffe re n t p o lic y areas. I t covers several c ro s s -c u ttin g po licie s, o f w h ic h 'B lu e g ro w th ' (C O M ( ) ) a n d 'M a r itim e s p a tia l p la n n in g '(C O M ( ) ) are o f sp e cific im p o rta n c e w ith re g a rd to m u lti-u s e o ffshore p la tfo rm s. B lue g ro w th is the lo n g -te rm stra te g y to s u p p o rt susta in a b le g ro w th in the m arine and m a ritim e secto rs as a w h o le, w h ile m a ritim e spatial planning is ab out planning w hen and w here hum an a c tiv itie s ta k e place a t sea - to ensure these are as e ffic ie n t and s u sta in a b le as possible. The e n v iro n m e n ta l p illa r o f the IM P is c o n s titu te d by the M a rin e S tra te g y F ra m e w o rk D ire c tiv e (M S F D, D ire c tiv e /5 6 /E C ), w h ic h intends to achieve the Good E nvironm enta l S ta tu s (G E S ) o f the E u ro pean m a rin e w a te rs by as w ell as the p ro te c tio n o f the resources on w h ic h e co n o m ic and social a c tiv itie s depend. In o rd e r to describe the GES, 11 d e s c rip to rs w ere defined, several o f w h ic h are re le va n t fo r the c o n s tru c tio n, o p e ra tio n and de com m issio ning o f m u l ti-u s e o ffs h o re p la tfo rm s (e.g. se a flo o r in te g rity, h yd ro g ra p h ic fe a tu re s and u n d e rw a te r noise and other form s o f energy).

4 EUROPEAN POLICY CONTEXT B esides the a fo re m e n tio n e d in te g ra te d policy, se cto ra l le g isla tio n and policie s e xist w ith re g a rd to the d iffe re n t user fu n c tio n s o f the m u lti-u s e o ffs h o re p la tfo rm s. E urope has em phasized the im p o rta n c e o f o ffs h o re w in d energy to achieve its ta rg e t to get 2 0 % o f E uro pe's energy fro m renewable sources by in several c o m m u n i catio n s (e.g. COM ( ) ). The E uropean p o lic y on a q u a c u ltu re (in c h m a ric u ltu re ) is included in the C om m on Fisheries P olicy (C F P ).T h e strategy fo r sustainable developm ent o f European aquacultu re w as e la b o ra te d in COM ( ) 16 2 and COM ( ) F u rth e rm o re, several o th e r E uropean d ire c tiv e s are (in d ire c tly ) im p o rta n t fo r the user fu n c tio n s o f m u lti-u s e o ffs h o re p la tfo rm s, such as the H a b ita ts D ire c tiv e, B ird s D ire c tiv e o r W a te r F ra m e w o rk D ire c tiv e. \

5 INTERNATIONAL POLICY CONTEXT The U nited N ation s C onve ntion on th e L a w o f the Sea (U N C L O S ; UN ) is a universal system o f law s and rules fo r th e w o rld 's oceans and seas, cove ring extensively the use o f th e oceans and th e ir n a tu ra l resources. UN C LO S in tro d u ce s some concepts and re g u la tio n s w h ich are o f spe cific Im p o rta n c e fo r the de ve lo p m e n t o f m u lti-u s e offshore p la tfo rm s : C o u n trie s w ith coasts have sovereign rig h ts In a n a u tlc a l m ile exclusive eco n o m ic zone ( E E Z ) w ith respect to n a tu ra l resources and specific econom ic activ itie s, and exercise a u th o r ity over m a rin e s c ie n tific research and e n v iro n m e n ta l p rotectio n. W ith re g a rd to n a vig a tio n, U N C LO S s tip u la te s th a t the coasta l sta te may, in its E EZ o r above its c o n tin e n ta l shelf, w here necessary, esta blish reasonable sa fe ty zones a ro u n d a r tific ia l islands, in s ta lla tio n s and s tru c tu re s in w hich it m ay take ap prop ria te m easures to ensure the sa fe ty o f n a vig a tio n and o f the a r tific ia l islands, in s ta lla tions and stru cture s. U N C LO S re g u la te s the de com m issio ning o f o ffs h o re In s ta lla tio n s, such as w in d tu rb in e s, once p ro d u c tio n has ceased. F u rth e rm o re, th e re are som e conventions o f the In te rn a tio n a l M a ritim e O rg a n iza tio n (IM O ) w ith re g a rd to m a ritim e sa fe ty w h ic h are (In d ire c tly ) re le va n t fo r th e d e velopm ent o f m u lti-u s e o ffs h o re p la tfo rm s, such as the C onve ntion on the In te rn a tio n a l R e gulations fo r P re ve n tin g C o llisio n s a t Sea (C O L R E G ) and the In te rn a tio n a l C onvention fo r the S a fe ty o f L ife a t Sea (S O L A S ). \

6 SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE The social and e c o n o m ic p o te n tia l o f E u ro p e 's s o - c a lle d 'B lu e E c o n o m y ' is im m ense. A c c o rd in g to th e E uro pean C o m m issio n, th is e co n o m y re p re se n ts 5.4 m illio n jo b s and a gross added va lu e o f ju s t u n der b illio n a year. The M ER M A I D p ro je c t addresses several s e c to rs o f th e blue eco n o m y w h ic h a re in te rd e p e n d e n t and m ay b e n e fit fro m shared in fr a - and p o te n tia l o f these s e cto rs s tru c tu re and c o m m o n s k ills. a re e la b o ra te d below. The social and econom ic size THE BLUE ECONOMY ACCOUNTS FOR 5.4 MILLION JOBS AND A GROSS ADDED VALUE OF APPROXIMATELY 500 BILLION EUROS EU C O M M IS S IO N - DG M A R IT IM E A F F A IR S & F IS H E R IE S In re ce n t years, o ffs h o re w in d pow er g e n e ra tio n has expanded ra p id ly in E urope, p a rtly as a re s u lt o f the E U p o lic y on re new able energy. By , a to ta l o f 2,0 8 0 tu rb in e s had been in s ta lle d and grid connected in 6 9 w in d fa rm s in the E uropean seas and oceans. These tu rb in e s a cco u n t fo r a to ta l c a p a c ity o f 6,5 6 2 M W, re p re se n tin g m o re th a n 9 0 % o f th e o ffs h o re w in d energy c a p a c ity w o rld w id e.t h e annual investm ents in this sector range

7 between 4.6 b illio n and 6.4 b illio n ( ). I t is envisaged th a t o ffs h o re w in d could m eet 4 % o f the EU e le c tric ity dem and by and 1 4 % by (E U c o m m u n ic a tio n on B lue G ro w th ). O ffsh ore w ave energy Is s till in a de ve lo p m e n t phase, a lth o u g h its p o te n tia l is huge. A c c o rd ing to C ruz e t a l. ( ), the to ta l a v a ila b le w ave pow er o f a ll coa stlin es in the w o rld is c o m p a ra b le to the c u rre n t w o rld e le c tric ity consum p tio n. W ave power devices are c u rre n tly being d e m o n stra te d and u n d e rw a te r tu rb in e s driven by c u rre n ts (tid a l o r o th e r) are close to co m m ercia lisa tion. In to ta l, 2 2 M W o f w ave and c u rre n t devices w ere in s ta lle d in On a global scale, aquacultu re is the fastest-g row ing anim al food-producing sector, con tributing sig n ifica n tly to the overall im provem ent in hum an diet. A q u a cu ltu re productio n in the European Union Is In the region o f 1.3 m illio n tonnes w ith an associated value o f 3.2 billion. This represents 2.3 % o f the to ta l w o rld a q u a c u ltu re p ro d u c tio n in te rm s o f vo lu m e and 4 % in te rm s o f value. 2 8 % o f Europe's a q uacultu re productio n concerns seaw a ter fish w h ile m o llu scs and cru staceans a cco u n t fo r 5 0 %. M o s t o f the a q u a c u ltu re businesses in the EU are S M Es, provid in g a ro u n d 8 0,0 0 0 jobs. S ources: C ruz et a l. ( ) - Ocean w ave energy: c u rre n t s ta tu s a n d fu tu re p e rsp e ctive s; E W E A O ffsh o re W in d E n e rg y S ta tis tic s ; G W E C G lo b a l W in d S ta tis tic s ; FAO The s ta te o f w o rld fisheries a n d a q u a c u ltu re ( ), F a cts a n d fig u re s o f the C F P ( ) a n d COM ( ) on blue grow th \

8 RESEARCH ON MULTI-USE PLATFORMS HORK PACKAGES MERMAID The M ER M A ID p ro je c t (E U -F P 7, w w w. m e rm a ld p ro je c t.e u ) develops concepts fo r next-genera - tlo n o ffs h o re p la tfo rm s fo r m u lti-u s e o f ocean space fo r energy e x tra c tio n, a q u a c u ltu re and p la tfo rm -re la te d tra n s p o rt. The p ro je c t does n o t envisage b u ild in g new p la tfo rm s, b u t alm s a t exa m in in g d iffe re n t concepts, such as a c o m b in a tion o f s tru c tu re s o r co m p le te ly new stru ctu re s on representa tiv e sites under d iffe re n t c o n d itio n s. In a d d itio n, p ro je c t deve lo p m e n t guid elines w ill be produced fo r sta ke h o ld e rs and end-users, addressing a w ide range o f Issues such as business and te c h n ic a l aspects and spatia l socio -econom ic planning. The M E R M A ID c o n s o rtiu m consists o f 29 European p a rtners b rin g in g to g e th e r e xp e rtise fro m both science and Industry. W P l P ro je c t m a nagem ent W P 2 Assessment o f policy, planning & m anagem ent strategies W P 3 D evelo pm e nt o f re new able energy conversion fro m w ind & waves W P 4 System s fo r s u sta in a b le a q u a c u ltu re & e c o lo g ic a lly based design W P 5 In te ra c tio n o f p la tfo rm s w ith h yd ro d y n a m ic c o n d itio n s & seabed W P 6 T ra n s p o rt and o p tim iz a tio n o f In s ta lla tio n, o p e ra tio n & m aintenance W P 7 Innovative p la tfo rm plan & design W P 8 E co n o m ica l, te c h n ica l & e n v iro n m e n ta l fe a s ib ility o f m u lti-u s e p la tfo rm s W P 9 P roject dissem ination & outreach a c tiv itie s Besides, the European C om m ission gra n te d tw o o th e r research projects w ith regard to m u ltiuse offshore pla tfo rm s : T h e H 2 0 C E A N p ro je c t ( E U- F P 7, w w w.h 2 o c e a n -p ro je c t. eu), aim ed at the developm e nt o f a w in d -w a ve pow er open-sea p la tfo rm equipped fo r hydrogen g e n e ra tio n w ith s u p p o rt fo r m u ltip le users o f energy. T h e T R O P O S p ro je c t ( E U- F P 7, w w w.tro p o s p la tfo rm. eu), aim ed a t the developm e nt o f a flo a tin g m o d u la r m u lti-u s e p la tfo rm system fo r use In deep w aters. \ 8

9 CASE STUDIES The M E R M A ID p ro je c t consid ers fo u r o ffs h o re study sites fo r m u lti-use offsh o re pla tfo rm s. S ite -specific designs are being developed based on an extensive s ta ke h o ld e r con sultation process and the e n v iro n m e n ta l c h a ra c te ris tic s o f each site.t he various concep tual designs a re presented in the next p a rt o f this booklet. \ MADDEN - NORTH S-EA SITE BALTIC SEASTTE ATLA N TIC OCEAN SITE

10 ATLANTIC OCEAN C O M B IN A T IO N USER F U N C T IO N & DE S IG N O u t l o o k & C H A L L E N G E S - a Based on the a v a ila b le re sources and the c h a ra c te ris tic s o f the A tla n tic S ite, a c o m b in a tion o f o ffs h o re w in d and w ave energy e x tra c tio n Is opted for. The proposed scenario consists o f an a rra y o f 5 M W w ave energy co n verte rs and 2.5 M W w ind turbines. Due to th e w a te r depth In the stu d y site, o n ly flo a tin g devices w ill be taken Into con sid era tion. Hence, the la tte r con cept w ill be o f p a rtic u la r in te re st fo r c o u n trie s w ith a n a rro w c o n tin e n ta l shelf. The design o f th is m u lti-u s e offshore p la tfo rm is espec ia lly c h a lle n g in g due to the ve ry ro ugh w ave and w in d c o n d itio n s in the A tla n tic S ite. In the fu tu re, o th e r user fu n c tio n s such as leisure and m a ritim e tra n s p o rt m ay be Inte g ra te d In the p la tfo rm. F u rth e rm o re, the e n viro n m e n ta l im p a c t o f th e converte rs, s tru c tu re s and fo u n d a tio n s should be e lu cid a te d in m ore d e ta il, and p o te n tia l m itig a tio n m easures and e c o -c o m p a tlb le design s o lu tio n s should be iden tified. \ 10

11 A A DEEP MATER W SITE ATLANTIC SITE FACTSHEET Geographical location Surface area of study site O ffshore distance Depth Substrate W ater tem peratu re M ax. tidal currents Wave heights Mean wave energy potential Average wind speed A tla n tic Ocean, n o rth o f Spain k m km m m ix o f sandy and rocky seabed C 1.5 cm /s M o s tly < 6 m 20 k W /m on 50 m depth 7.5 m/s V...~iy.

12 MEDITERRANEAN SEA C O M B IN A T IO N USER M lc ro -w In d system s, such as F U N C T IO N & D E S IG N a ho rizonta l axis Bergey E X C E L 10 tu rb in e (m easuring The conce p tu a l design o f the 25 m h ig h ), placed on to p o f p la tfo rm In the M e d ite rra n e a n the w ave energy converte rs. site Includes w ave energy extra c tio n, w in d energy e x tra c tio n Sea cages and cables fo r fish and fish fa rm in g.t w o w ave fa rm in g (e.g. M editerranean sea bass (D ic e n tra rc h u s energy e x tra c tio n devices are being c o m p a re d : A flo a tin g la b ra x ) and g llth e a d sea w ave energy device m easuring bream (S p a ru s a u ra tu s )) o r 15 m w id e and 30 m long, mussel fa rm in g are being and W ave S tar, a fixed system exam ined. on piles w ith flo a te rs (3 arm s m e asurin g 8 0 m long and 8 m The stu d y site Is c h a ra cte rised w id e ).T h e s e tw o types o f w ave by a re la tiv e ly m ild clim a te, fa rm s m ay be com bined w ith w hich allow s fo r a safe Installa tio n b u t s tro n g ly lim its th e fo llo w in g user fu n c tio n s : the benefits o f a singlepurpose In s ta lla tio n, both L a rg e m o n o -p lle tu rb in e s (e.g. Vestas V 1 1 2, m because o f the lim ite d h ig h ), to be In sta lle d a t the a v a ila b le energy and boundaries o f the wave fa rm. due to the s ig n ific a n t d ista n ce fro m the shore as a re s u lt o f the fla t sea b o tto m. A c o m b in a tio n o f several user fu n c tio n s Is th e re fo re re q u i red to cre a te an e c o n o m ic a lly viable solutio n. O u t l o o k & C H A L L E N G E S The p ro x im ity o f m a ritim e tr a ffic ro utes and the h a rb o r o f Venice o ffe rs o p p o rtu n itie s to In te g ra te tra n s p o rta tio n and ship p in g fa c ilitie s In the m u lti-u s e o ffs h o re p la tfo rm. F u rth e rm o re, w o rk Is needed on th e social p e rceptio n o f these m u lti-u s e p la tfo rm s, the o p tim ise d In te g ra tio n o f the design and a d e ta ile d cost and b e n e fit a n a lysis.t h e te c h n o lo g ic a l challenges are e s s e n tia lly re la te d to th e Im m a tu rity o f w ave energy deve lo p m e n t. M o re sp e cifica lly, the design o f the m ooring system

13 A SHELTERED SITE MEDITERRANEAN SITE FACTSHEET Geographical location Offshore distance Depth Substrate W a ter tem peratu re S alinity Tidal range M ean wave height Expected annual wave power Average w ind speed Expected annual wind power N o rth e rn A d ria tic Sea, o ff the coast o f Venice 16 km 16 m, g e n tle slope to w a rd s south east A m ix tu re o f sand and m ud 14 C (+ /-6 C ) psu (+ /- 1.5 psu) 0.5 m (+ / m ) m 3 k W /m m/s L a rg e tu rb in e s : G W h /y / 4 Vestas V tu rb in e s (fo r th e flo a tin g w ave energy devices), the v e rific a tio n o f fo u n d a tio n s ta b ility (fo r W ave S ta r) and the im proved design o f the devices and fa rm la yo u t to m a xim ise energy p ro d u c tio n deserve fu r th e r Inve stig a tio n. In a d d itio n, a m a jo r challe nge is to lim it the e n v iro n m e n ta l Im p a c t.t h e selectio n o f the c o n s tru c tio n m a te ria ls and the m aintenance plans should there fo re be considered c a re fu lly. \

14 MADDEN SEA NORTH SEA OM BINATION USER FUNCTION & DESIGN In a d d itio n to w in d energy, the c o m b in a tio n w ith th e fo llo w in g p o te n tia l seco ndary fu n c tio n s w ill be stud ied and assessed: Seaweed fa rm in g : Seaweed w ill Increasingly gain Im portance as a ra w m a te ria l and Is c u rre n tly a lre a d y Im p orte d by D utch com panies fro m A sia and F rance.t he m ost relevant benefit o f local cultivatio n is the p o ssib ility to o ffe r w et seaweed on the m arket. S h e llfish a q u a c u ltu re :T h e shellfish in d u s try is lo o kin g fo r a d d itio n a l fish in g grounds fo r mussel seed c o lle c to rs and c u ltiv a tio n o f mussels on long lines. An a d d itio n a l m a rk e t fo r 5 0,0 0 0 tonnes o f blue mussels is expected. W ave energy e x tra c tio n : W ave energy m ay be an o p tio n ; however, th e firs t studies reveal lim ite d energy p ro d u c tio n p o te n tia l. A m o d u la r appro a ch w ill be used fo r the stru cture s fo r seaweed and she llfish c u ltiv a tio n, e n abling an easy extension o f the a c tiv itie s.t h e s e s tru c tu re s w ill be located inside and o u ts i de the o ffs h o re w in d fa rm and w ill n o t be con necte d to the tu rb in e s. A n a lte rn a tio n o f seaweed and she llfish s tru c tu re s is envisaged. Fish fa rm in g Is not fe a sib le in th is stu d y site due to the high te m p e ra tu re (> 18 C in sum m e r) and th e re la tiv e ly sh a llo w w a te r (3 0 m ). jutlook& 'CHALLENGES In the fu tu re the m u lti-u s e p la tfo rm m ay be extended to o th e r user fu n c tio n s such as fa c ilitie s fo r energy storage, to u ris m (re c re a tio n a l fisheries and divin g trip s ) and fisheries (passive fishin g g e a r). Som e o f the key challenges th a t deserve fu r th e r stu d y are: the design o f the seaweed/m ussel fa rm in g system w ith in the o ffs h o re w in d fa rm (in te g ra tio n o f the tw o types o f a q u a c u ltu re, design o f h a rve stin g e q u ip m e n t, e tc.), the e co lo g ica l challenges linked to aquacultu re a c tiv i ties (e.g. ris k assessment of 14

15 AN ACTIVE I MORPHOLOGY B SITE 4 e n v iro n m e n ta l Im p a ct and the m itig a tio n o f diseases) and e v a lu a tio n o f the e n viro n m e n ta l and so cio -e co n o m ic b e nefits o f th is m u lti-u s e p la tfo rm. The o p e ra tio n a l challenges o f th is stu d y site in clu d e the re la tiv e ly high dista n ce to the nearest m a in p o rt (8 5 km ) and the e xtre m e w ave heights w h ich may occur during storm s.

16 BALTIC SEA C O M B IN A T IO N USER F U N C T IO N & D E S IG N A n o ffs h o re w in d fa rm (7 5 turbines w ith a to ta l capac ity o f M W ) is a lre a d y scheduled fo r c o n s tru c tio n In th is stu d y site. The M E RM A I D p ro je c t exp lo re s the th e o re tic a l p o s s ib ility to co m b in e th is w ind fa rm, w h ic h should be o p e ra tional in , w ith a d d itio n a l a q u a c u ltu re a c tiv itie s : Fish fa rm ln g :T o ta l fish fa rm in g c a p a c ity is e stim a te d a t a p p ro x im a te ly 1 0 0,0 0 0 tonnes. W ith in 3-4 years, 1 0,0 0 0 tonnes o f ra in b o w tr o u t o r A tla n tic salm o n can be produced a n n u a lly, w ith a value o f 4 0 m illio n. Seaweed fa rm in g : M o re spe cifica lly, the c u ltiv a tio n o f F u rc e lla ria sp. is investig ated given th a t th is seaweed can be c u ltu re d In w a te rs w ith lo w sa lin ity, as present in K riegers Flak. In the present plans, the w in d tu rb in e s w ill be organised In tw o groups, separated by a sand e x tra c tio n a re a.t w o sep arate fish fa rm fa c ilitie s are envisaged In betw een the tw o groups o f tu rb in e s so th a t they are sheltered by the fou ndatio n s o f the m o nopile s. Each fa rm con sists o f round cages (4 5 m in d ia m e te r and m deep) and a feeding barge. Seaweed fa rm in g ( F u rc e lla ria sp.) w ill ta ke place on subm erged longiines, w h ic h w ill also reduce the w ave im p a c t on the fish cages. O u t l o o k & C H A L L E N G E S One o f the challenges o f th is study site is the s ig n ific a n t dista n ce to the nearest p o rt. The com binatio n o f aquac u ltu re and o ffs h o re w in d energy w ill th e re fo re provide s ig n ific a n t be nefits In te rm s o f tra n s p o rta tio n and housing. S till, the o p e ra tio n a l d iffic u ltie s w hen co m b in in g d iffe re n t users should be taken into account.

17 AH ESTUARIHE SITE The m a in o b sta cle to la rg e - scale fish fa rm in g could be the e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c t caused by th e release o f n u trie n ts. In th is re g a rd, a study w ill be condu cted to exa m ine th e p o te n tia l o f sessile filte r feeders living on th e tu rb in e fo u n d a tio n to sequester a q uacultu re waste. F u tu re use o f m a c ro -a lg a l c u ltu re s fo r w ave d a m p in g w ill re q u ire bo th in n o vatio n and sm all-scale field testin g.

18 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK The in te g ra tio n o f various user fu n c tio n s in a m u lti-u s e o ffs h o re p la tfo rm provides s ig n ific a n t be nefits in te rm s o f shared use o f in fra s tru c tu re (foundations, m oorings, energy tra n sfe r, e tc.), resources (s ta ff, m a te ria l, energy, energy and th e expansion o f su sta in a b le a q u a c u ltu re.t h e inte g ra tio n o f m u ltip le a c tiv itie s in one p la tfo rm is also s tro n g ly encoura ged in th e c o n te x t o f m a ritim e s p a tia l p la n n in g. M oreover, th is c o m b in a tio n o f a c tiv itie s generally results in a SUPPORT FOR MULTI-USE PLATFORMS IN THE OCEANS H ILL BE INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT AS HE GO FORHARD and involve p o te n tia l new user fu n c tio n s such as to u ris m, m a ritim e tra n s p o rt, energy s to ra g e and fishe ries. S om e o f the key challe nges are fu r th e r re d u c tio n o f the e n v iro n m e n ta l im p a c t by m eans o f e co -co m - p a tlb le design s o lu tio n s and e la b o ra tio n o f a d e ta ile d costs and b e n e fit an alysis. \ MÁIRE GEOGHEGAN-QUINN, EUROPEAN COMMISSIONER FOR RESEARCH, INNOVATION AND SCIENCE e tc.) and services (m o n ito rin g, m a in tenance, e tc.). Hence, m u lti-u s e p la tfo rm s m ay prove e c o n o m ic a lly via b le in cases w here sin g le -p u rp o se p la tfo rm s are n o t. I t Is envisaged th a t these Inte g ra te d p la tfo rm s w ill c o n trib u te to th e fu lfilm e n t o f the EU strategies on renew able reduced e n v iro n m e n ta l Im p a ct c om pare d to several single-use p la tfo rm s, w h ic h Is c ru c ia l to reach the good e n v iro n m e n ta l sta tu s o f E uropean m a rin e w a te rs by F u rth e r research Is needed to optim ise the Integrated design 18

19 MERMAID PARTNERS Technical University of Denmark / O v 0 / \ I 0 I DTU m D e L t a r e s 5 D O N G energy CHALMERS h f Cvphi 's gt INSTITUTE Danfik AJcvakultur M U S H O L M Ho rimare. H V Í.L P S U N D NIET ü [S I K \ HAViORSKN IHGSIHSTITUTTET ibw ran NorW inc INSTALL EF V L IZ ^ % E n e l T Statoil ÍTÜ F ^ R O M A I a Itr e v s n i R.VIA i:< L j i m i 1:4 Ö i H. Ö N * f c B v R C M *T > 0 D isclaim er: The content o f th is brochure m ust not be taken as an expression of policies and strategies o f the involved project p a rtners, but as a th e o re tic a l study th a t has to be fu rth e r elaborated and analysed before potential com m ercialization.

20 P roject coordinator P ro f. E rik D a m g aard C hristensen DTU M e ch a n ica l E ngineering Technical U n ive rsity o f D e n m a rk e d m e k.d tu.d k C ita tio n : P irle t, H.; Claus, S.; C opejans, E.; D a m g aard C hristensen, E.; G uanche G a rcia, R.; M p h le n b e rg, F.; Rappé, K.; S chouten, J.-J.; Z a n u ttig h, B. ( ) The M e rm a id p ro je c t - In n o v a tiv e M u lti-p u rp o s e O ffsh o re P la t fo rm s. F la nders M a rin e In s titu te ( V L IZ ) : O stend. IS B N pp. The M E R M A ID p ro je c t has received fu n d in g fro m the E uropean U nion's S eventh F ra m e w o rk P ro g ra m m e fo r research, te c h n o lo g ic a l de velopm ent and d e m o n s tra tio n under g ra n t agre e m e n t no (to ta l budget o f 7.4 m illio n e u ro s). P icture s by Van G inderdeuren, K.; Hvalpsund Net, Seys,T. & P irle t, H.. w w w.m e rm a id p ro je c t.e u

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