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1 FILE:C:\WP51\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM DESIGNING A HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROSECUTION CLINIC: Making Bedfellows of Academics, Activists and Prosecutors to Teach Students According to Clinical Theory and Best Practices Mary A. Lynch * Broken nose. Loose teeth. Cracked ribs. Broken finger. Black eyes. I don't know how many; I once had two at the same time, one fading, the other new. Shoulders, elbows, knees, wrists. Stitches in my mouth. Stitches on my chin. A ruptured eardrum. Burns. Cigarettes on my arms and legs. Thumped me, kicked me, pushed me, burned me. He butted me with his head. He held me still and butted me; I couldn't believe it. He dragged me around the house by my clothes and by my hair. He kicked me up and he kicked me down the stairs. Bruised me, scalded me, threatened me. For C lin ic a l P r o fe s s o r o f L a w, A lb a n y L a w S c h o o l (A L S ), C o - D ir e c to r, A L S C lin ic a l P rog r a m. I a m g r a te fu l to th e fo llo w in g p e o p le fo r th e ir in v a lu a b le in s ig h ts a n d a s s is ta n c e to m e in w rit in g th is a r tic le : P e te r J o y, R u d y S te g e m o e lle r a n d m y c o l- le a g u e s a t th e A L S c lin ic e s p e c ia lly M e lis s a L. B r e g e r, N a n c y M. M a u r e r, a n d J e n n ife r T r o m b le e, A d ju n c t P r o fe s s o r s C a rm e llo L a q u id a r a a n d L yn M u r p h y, a n d fo r m e r c lin ic s tu d e n ts, L y n n W e lth y a n d A.J. V ic k e y, w h o a ls o s e r v e d a s a b r illia n t r e s e a r c h a s s is ta n t. T h a n k yo u a ls o to S ta c y C a p lo w, Larry C u n n in g h a m, V a n e s s a M e r to n, M ic h a e l M ille m a n n, P e g g y T o n o n a n d o th e r c lin ic ia n s w h o te a c h p r o s e c u tio n c lin ic s a n d g e n e r o u s ly s h a r e d in fo r m a tio n w ith m e a b o u t th e ir clin ic s. 1177

2 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 seventeen years. Hit me, thumped me, raped me. Seventeen years. 1 In the clinical education universe, the prosecutorial cohort is small. While there may be only a few of us directly teaching and supervising students in this context, every year our former students pour into prosecutors' offices where they receive little reinforcement for a victim-centered approach. 2 Despite a thicket of progressive policies and good intentions, the prosecution and punishment of domestic violence crimes remains a haphazard affair in jurisdictions across the nation R D O Y L E, T H E W O M A N W H O W A L K E D I N T O D O O R S ( ). S e le c te d e x c e r p ts fr o m th is fic tio n a l w o r k a r e a ls o fo u n d in th e te x tb o o k, B a tte r e d W o m e n a n d th e L a w. S e e C L A R E D A L T O N & E L IZ A B E T H M. S C H N E ID E R, B A T T E R E D W O M E N A N D T H E L A W ( ). I th in k th o s e o f u s in th e d o m e s tic vio le n c e fie ld a r e a m a z e d th a t s o m e o f D o yle 's w rit in g s o e lo q u e n tly m irrors th e w o r d s a n d e x p e rie n c e s o f c lie n ts, vic tim s a n d o th e r w o m e n w e h a v e k n o w n. T h u s, I h a v e c h o s e n to u s e th is fic tio n a l w o r k in s te a d o f s im ila r p h r a s in g fr o m a n a c tu a l p e r s o n. 2 S ta c y C a p lo w, W h a t if T h e r e Is N o C lie n t? : P r o s e c u to r s a s AC o u n s e o f C rim e V ic tim s, 5 C L IN IC A L L. R E V. 1, 4 4 ( ). 3 A llis o n F r a n k e l, D o m e s tic D is a s te r, A M. L A W., J u n e , a t 5 5.

3 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1179 I. INTRODUCTION These three introductory quotes were published during the period and describe the realities of many battered women, of many clinical teachers and of most prosecutions of domestic violence crimes both then and now. The idea of creating a clinical course at Albany Law School (ALS) focused on domestic violence prosecution was similarly born from: the concerns of battered women, the opportunity to teach students in an integrated, active manner on issues relevant to their eventual practice, and the handling of domestic violence crimes locally. As feminists often note, Athe personal is 4 Thus, the story of the creation of the ALS Domestic Violence Prosecution Unit and my personal experience in facilitating its creation may offer political lessons for others. In addition, although some of the questions, issues and institutions which affected the development of my program are specific to my situation, there is a universal need to analyze the effect of political institutions and systems, educational choices and human actors on the creation and design of any prosecution clinic. 5 4 T h is q u o ta tio n w a s o r ig in a lly u s e d to c o m m u n ic a te th a t th e s o c ia l a n d le g a l d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n p u b lic m a tte r s a n d p r iv a te m a t te r s w a s b o th fa ls e a n d s e x is t. S e e W M S T - L, AT h e P e r s o n a l is P o litic a O rig in s o f th e P h r a s e, a t h ttp :/ / r e s e a r c h. u m b c.e d u / ~ k o r e n m a n / w m s t/ p is p.h tm l (la s t vis ite d A p r. 6, ); A m y R ic h a r d s, W h a t D o e s th e F e m in is t P h r a s e AT h e P e r s o n a l Is P o litic a l M e a a t h ttp :/ / w w w.fe m in is t.c o m / a s k a m y/ fe m in is m / fe m / 5 3.h tm l (la s t vis ite d J a n. 4, ). It h a s b e e n u s e d m o r e e x p a n s iv e ly sin c e th e n to a ls o c o m m u n ic a te th e fa ls e n a tu r e o f th e s u b je c tiv e / o b je c tiv e d is tin c tio n s m a d e in la w a n d r e a s o n in g w h ic h tra d i- tio n a lly e le v a te Ao b je c a n a lysis o v e r As u b je c a n a lysis. F e m in is t le g a l s c h o la r s h a v e o b je c t e d o n s im ila r g r o u n d s to th is d is tin c tio n a s w e ll. S e e A n n C. S c a le s, T h e E m e r g e n c e o f F e m in is t J u r is p r u d e n c e : A n E s s a y, 9 5 Y A L E L.J , ( ). 5 C lin ic a l s c h o la r s h a v e u s e d th e te r m Ah y b r c lin ic to d e s c r ib e a v a r ie ty o f prog r a m s. S o m e u s e it to d e s c r ib e th e c o m b in a tio n o f a la r g e tra d itio n a l c o u r s e w ith a c lin ic a l in fu s io n o f s tu d e n ts, c a s e s a n d fa c u lty w h ic h c r e a te th e b a s is fo r e x p loratio n

4 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 The fall of 1997 was my first time teaching a ADomestic Violence outside of my teaching in our in-house clinic. 6 Having just completed four years in our clinic's postconviction project in which students and I represented incarcerated battered women who killed their abusers, it was exciting to take both the knowledge and the lessons learned in clinical teaching and sow them into the syllabus, discussion and format of my seminar class. 7 During the semester, many o f th e le g a l s u b je c t m a t te rct h e c o m b in a tio n o f b o th tra d itio n a l a n d c lin ic a l s o th a t At e a c h e r s a n d s tu d e n ts c o n tin u a lly u s e p r a c tic e to c r itic iz e e th ic s th e o r y a n d e th ic s th e ory to in fo r m p r a c tic D a v id L u b a n & M ic h a e l M ille m a n n, G o o d J u d g m e n t: E th ic s T e a c h in g in D a r k T im e s, 9 G E O. J. L E G A L E T H IC S 3 1, 6 4 ( ); s e e a ls o L is a G. L e r m a n, T e a c h in g M o r a l P e r c e p tio n a n d M o r a l J u d g m e n t in L e g a l E th ic s C o u r s e s : A D ia lo g u e A b o u t G o a ls, 3 9 W M. & M A R Y L. R E V , ( ). O th e r s h a v e u s e d it in th e im m ig r a tio n c o n te x t to m e a n a p r o g r a m w h ic h c o m b in e s a s ylu m / im m ig r a tio n la w w ith h u m a n r ig h ts p r a c tic e. S e e A rtu r o J. C a rrillo, B rin g in g In te r n a tio n a l L a w H o m e : T h e In n o v a tiv e R o le o f H u m a n R ig h ts C lin ic s in th e T r a n s n a tio n a l L e g a l P r o c e s s, 3 5 C O L U M. H U M. R T S. L. R E V , ( ); D e e n a R. H u r w itz, L a w ye r in g fo r J u s tic e a n d th e In e v ita b ility o f In te r n a tio n a l H u m a n R ig h ts C lin ic s, 2 8 Y A L E J. I N T ' L L , ( ). S till o th e r s u s e h yb r id to m e a n Aa n y clin ic a l p r o g r a m in w h ic h la w s tu d e n ts rec e iv e a t le a s t s o m e o f th e ir c a s e s u p e r v i s io n fr o m la w fa c u P e te r A. J o y, T h e E th ic s o f L a w S c h o o l C lin ic S tu d e n ts a s S tu d e n t - L a w yers, 4 5 S. T E X. L. R E V , n.5 ( ). F o r p u r p o s e s o f th is a r tic le, I d e fin e Ah yb r a s a Ac o m b in a tio n o f th e in - h o u s e a n d e x te r n s h ip c lin ic m o d e Id. (c it in g M a r g a r e t M a r tin B a rry e t a l., C lin ic a l E d u c a tio n fo r th is M ille n n iu m : T h e T h ir d W a v e, 7 C L IN IC A L L. R E V. 1, 2 8 ( )). 6 T h is tra d itio n a l s e m in a r w a s first ta u g h t in b y A lb a n y L a w S c h o o l P r o fe s s o r K a th y K a tz a n d h a s c o n tin u e d e v e r y y e a r s in c e. W h e n I m e t P r o fe s s o r N a n c y K.P. L e m o n, a u th o r o f o n e o f th e first la w textb o o k s o n D o m e s tic V io le n c e a n d L e c tu r e r a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f C a lifo r n ia, B o a lt H a ll S c h o o l, s h e s p e c u la te d th a t th e c o u r s e m a y h a v e b e e n th e first o f its k in d in th e c o u n try. B u t s e e M ith r a M errym a n, A S u rvey of D o m e s tic V io le n c e P r o g r a m s in L e g a l E d u c a tio n, 2 8 N E W E N G. L. R E V , n.3 ( ) (c itin g th a t in , o n ly o n e s c h o o l, M ia m i U n iv e r s ity, o ffe r e d a d o m e s tic vio le n c e s e m in a r e a c h ye a r ). In , P r o fe s s o r K a tz h o n o r e d m e w ith th e o ffe r to ta k e o v e r th e te a c h in g o f th is s e m in a r. 7 F o r m o s t o f to , th e D o m e s tic V io le n c e P roje c t c o n s is te d o f a fa m ily c o u r t u n it a n d a p o s t - c o n v ic tio n u n it. S tu d e n ts in th e p o s t - c o n v ic tio n u n it re p r e - s e n te d in c a r c e r a te d b a t te r e d w o m e n o n c le m e n c y m a tte r s, s ta te p o s t - c o n v ic tio n m o -

5 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1181 students in the class disclosed and used their personal, academic or professional experiences to enhance class discussion and to broaden perspectives. Despite the plethora of reading and class discussion addressing cultural myths, one seminar student asked over and over AWhy doesn't she or would announce AI just can't understand why she puts up with The student, who was enrolled in our District Attorney field placement course, exploded one day with anger about the level of the class discussions critiquing the criminal justice response to domestic violence. He knew the real world perspective from his five week experience in Albany city police court. 8 He and his field supervisor were not going to let Athese n s, h a b e a s c o r p u s p e n s a n d / o r p a r o a p p e a. S c e e e a r s, s e v e r a l A a n y L a w S c h o o l c a l c u h a v e u g h t o c r e d s e m a r s w h h a r e c o - o r p r e - r e q u s c a l c o u r s e s. T h e s e s e m a r s a r e o p e n a s d e n, b u t a r e r e q u e d r o s e p a r u r c s. T h u s, a o u g h I h a d u g h t a p o s t - c o n v n s e m a r, m y a c h g o f d o m e s n c e w h a d b e e n r e s d e s s c o m p o n e n o f o u r p o s t - c o n v n p r o c F o r a g o o d t g o f d o m e s - n c e w c o u r s e s a n d p r o g r a m s a c r o s s e c o u n s e e e r e c e n t A m e r a n B a r A s s o c n C o m m s n o n D o m e s V n c e r e p o r t e n d, T e a c h Y o u r S d e n W e c o r p o r a g D o m e s V n c e L a w S c h o o l C u u L a w S c h o o l R e p o a v a b a t h / w w w b a n e r g / d o m a c h u r s d e n d f s t d A p 6, ) ; s e e a o J o e l L a n d a u, D o m e s V n c e C o u r s e s F u r h : A R e c o g n n o f a e N e e d ' r C o u r s e s, N A T ' L L. J J u 5, , a t 4 e g a t w s c h o o n o w o r c o u r s e s d o m e s n c e, w h h u p o m s e v e n s c h o o A a n y C p o e c o u r s c o r e s o f d o m e s n c e c r a l c a s e s a r e e s s e e a c h d a S e e D A V H E B R O N E R, R O U G H J U S T E : D A Y S A N D N H T S O F A Y O U N G D ) e s c r g a n a n a g o u s p r o c e d u r e o f r o c e s s N e w Y o C o u n h e s p e e d o f e p r o c e e d g s c a n d a r a o k e p t m e p e r p e a o b a n c e. E a c h o f e o r e e h u n d r e d c a s e s w e h a n d d e v e r y d a y r e c e e d a b o u t a m u a n d a h a o f c o u r t e. a t T h e c k o f a n n a n d r e s o u r c e s e A a n y c o u r t a n d d o m e s n c e c a s e o a t e c o u r t s e m b d m o r e o f a d n c n a l c r y t h a n a c o m m u n c o u r a s a n a r g u m e n t u s e d b y D a v S o a r e s, w h o d e a d e c u m b e n t D t A r n e y b y a r g u g r m o r e c o m m u n v o e m e n t a n d b e r a n n d o m e s n c e. S e e M h e M o r g a n B o n, D o m e s V n c e s u e R e s D A R a c e, T E S U N N, A u g. 1 3, , a t B 4 g e e n - D t tio titio le ls in th ly lb lin ic fa lty ta tw it in ic is ite to lin ic in to ll tu ts ir fo th in tic la lin ic lth ta ic tio in te in tic vio le la tric te to th Ac la ic tio je t. lis in tic vio le la th try, th ic ia tio is io tic io le title tu ts ll: In tin tic io le In to rric la BA rt, ila le ttp :/.a t.o vio l/ te yo tu ts.p (la vis ite r. ls tic io le lo is itio `D ir fo., ly (d ta ilin th la ls ffe in tic vio le ic is fr fifty ls in ). In lb ity lic t, tic vio le im in Ap roc y. ID IL IC IG.A (1 (d ib in lo Ap in in rk ty). AT th in in le ls tu lly ff la th tw to th le iv in te lf Id la tte tio to th lb to tic vio le scs th th re le ysfu tio fa to ity tcw id fe te th in is tric tto in fo ity in lv tte tte tio to tic vio le ic le lto tic io le Is is in IM IO (critic izin th th is tric

6 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 determine what happens on these cases. Prosecutors were not victim's lawyers. They would do the right thing. 9 This outburst presented a wonderful teaching opportunity both for my seminar 10 and for the field placement program. 11 At the same time, my Ainner clinical was smiling. How ironic it was that I was being perceived as the academic who had no idea how the real world operated. 12 What this A r n e y r n o t a p p g r d e r a l d o m e s n c e g r a n a v a b a t W L T h e s e p r o b m s w e c o u r t a n d e c k o f p r o s e c u r l r e s o u r c e s w a s e p e s r e A a n y C o u n C o a n A g a s t D o m e s V n c e J u d l S e e s C o m m e a p p r d e r a l n d g r r e s o u r c e s c r e a a n d b e r s a d o m e s n c e c o u r S e e d e s c r n P a. 9 T h s e c o n d a r s d e n t h a d m a d e k n o w n h d e s e b e a n a s s n t d t a r n e y u p o n g r a d u a n. A o u g h s d e n p r e s e n n w a s e x m e, h k g w a s r e p r e s e n e o f o n e e o f o u - b e p r o s e c u 1 0 I w a d d a t - h o u s e c a l s d e n c o n u d g r e a t e d c u s s n w h h w e d. A o, r e y e a r s, I c o m p o r g a n e d e s e m n a r m a k e s u r e s p g a d v o c a s, s u c h a s K a r D o m o, a n d a r u s u r v i - v o r s w e r e a r e d a s g u e s t c r e r s e a r o n e c o u r s e. F r o m , M s. D o m o c o o r d a d d o m e s n c e s k r c e s a n d c o m m s n s N e w Y o S w h h d N e w Y o e a r e r p m e n t g e r e r m, s e c u r e n d g r e m e r g e n c y s h e r s, a d v o c a c y p r o g r a m s a n d c o m m u n o u t r e a c h e s a n d p r o v e g p r o g r a m s r p o e a n d h e a c a r e p r o s s n a. T h e E x e c u e D e c r o f e N Y S O e r e P r e v e n n o f D o m e s V n c e, a c a b e t m e m b e r p o s n u n d e r G o v e r n o r M a r C u o m o, M s. D o m o h a s s d b e r e C o n g r e s s, c r e d n a n a p r o v e d c o n s u n n a n a l a n d r n a - n a l o r g a n a n s a d d r e s s g d o m e s n c e s u e s a n d s d a s a n e x p e r t w e s s M a s s a c h u s e a n d N e w Y o 1 1 I w a s a b d c u s s e v e n t a n d e n e e d r m o r e s n a l u w e d e c r o f e p c e m e n t p r o g r a m w h o o v e r s e e s e a d n c t a n d s u p e r v i s o r s a n d m e e e a s e m e s r w s d e n. S e e n o P r m a t a t e, e h t a r s o f w o r k e A a n y L a w C -, I h a d w o r k e d r u r y e a r s a s a p r o s e c u r N e w Y o C o u n T h e C h a s b e r e c e n t e c h a d b e e n s u c c e s s l a w e p u b e d c a s e, o b g c m e n c y r a n c a r c e r a d b a t r e d w o m a n w h o k d h e r a b u s e r. T h u s, I w a s k n o w n e s d e n a s e e m d e n d e r o f b a r e d w o m e n k r s a n d n o t a s a r m e r p r o s e c u r. A o, e r e a r e s o m e u p s - c o n s e r v a e / d o w n s - e r a l c u r a l a s s u m p n s a n d b s e s w h h p e r m e a d c u s s n s o f N e w Y o r k e r s tto fo lyin fo fe tic vio le ts ), ila le le ith th th la to ia th im tu fo th lb ty litio in tic io le 's ic ia rvic itte to ly fo fe fu in fo to te tte ta ff tic vio le t. ip tio in fra rt IV.D is ye tu is ir to is ta is tric tto tio lth th is tu t's ta tio tre is th in in ta tiv typ Aw ld ill th in lin ic tu ts trib te ly to th is io ic fo llo ls in fu tu le te ly re- iz th i- to in irin te la ig ir la tic la te fe tu le tu ly in th to ig ir la in te tic vio le ta fo is io in rk ta te ic le to rk's ly ffo ts to im le le is la tiv fo fu in fo lte ity in itia tiv id tra in in fo lic lth fe io ls first tiv ir to th ffic fo th tio tic io le in itio io ig ir la te tifie fo le tu tio lly, id lta tio to tio in te tio iz tio in tic vio le is te tifie itn in tts rk. le to is th is th fo Ain titu tio critiq ith th ir to th fie ld la th ju fie ld ts tw ic te ith tu ts in fra te rio to y, th tim ig ye in th lb lin ic fo fo to in rk ty. ris tm fo th is in id th lin ic fu in id ly lic iz in ta in in le fo in te te ille to th tu ts th Af in is fe tte ille fo to ls th ta te tiv ta te lib ltu tio ia ic te is io

7 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1183 student needed was a Adisorienting 13 so that he could examine in a more theoretical manner the pre-conceived notions of his field placement supervisor and critique the existing legal system. 14 I also was feeling a little homesick for the in-house clinic. In-house clinics provide such fertile ground for integrating theory, law, reality, practice and disorienting moo n a s e s o f e d e a n d u s p e r h a p s s o m e w a y m y e x p e r n c e a s a p r o s e c u 1 3 F r a n Q u S e g e D o r n g M o m e n A d u L e a r n g T h e o r y a n d e T e a c h g o f S o c l J u s e L a w S c h o o l C s, 2 C L A L L. R E 3 7, S e e h e r d c u s s n o f e w o r k o f J a c k M e z o w a n d o e r s a s a d u a r n g b a s e d o n a l o f e o w n a n d e c u r e v a e s, a s - s u m p n s a n d b e.. a t 4 7 g J A C K M E Z O W E T A L F O S T E R G C R A L R E F L E C T N A D U L T H O O D : A G U E T O T R A N S F O R M A T E A N D E M A N C A T O R Y L E A R N G A o, s e e h e r d e s c r n o f a n a n a g o u s s d e n t s a n. Q u s u p r a, a t I d o a c k n o w d g e a t w h e n I c e a b o v e e x a m p a s a g o a l o f w h a t e s d e n t e e d s I a m u g m y h r a r c h a l r o a s a c h e r a n d w a g e e e b e e e n s c r - a s - c r a n d s c r - a s - s o c l a d v o c a. a t 6 1. H o w e v e r, s o m e o f o u r s d e n, a s e s d e n t a b o v e d, c o m e u s w d e x p e r n c e s. d e a g w s u c h s d e n w h o p r e s e n t e n o r m o u s e x p e r n l g a p s, I a m m o r e c e d a d o p t e v w s o f o s e w h o a r g u e a t n o t s d e n t b e n e o m a c u r r u m a n d / o r a c h g a p p r o a c h b a s e d s o o n a d u a r n g e S e e L d a M o r n e t a N o t Q u G r o w n U p : T h e D u o f A p p g A n A d u E d u c a n M o d e l L e g a l E x r n s, 5 C L A L L. R E 4 6 9, ) c u s s g h u m a n m, a n d r a g o g y a n d p e d a g o g a d u a r n g e o r s a n d e c a l r e s p o n s e e d u c a n e o 1 4 A d s n a n t g o a l o f c a l g a l e d u c a n - s n a l u e - c a n o c c u r w h e n u b s n e d o c e ' c o m b e d w w o r k e x p e r n c e ' a n d e p o y c o n s e r a n s p a t e d g a l d o c e L d a F. S m, D e s n g a n r n C a l P r o g r a m : O r a s Y o u S o w, S o S h a Y o u R e a p, 5 C L A L L. R E 5 2 7, ) e r e a r S o S h a Y o u R e a p S m g e s a u n C a M e n k e M e a d o w o t n o e e r c o n s e r g a a c r g o a l o f s k a c q u n.. a t n 2 g C a M e n k e M e a d o w, T h e L e g a c y o f C a l E d u c a n : T h e o s A b o u t L a w r g, 2 9 C L E S T. L. R E 5 5 5, 5 5 6, s e e a o L a u r M o r & L o u e H o w e, T h e R e c e J u d g m e n t P c t, 9 C L A L L. R E 6 2 3, ll id th ivid th Ad ilu in ie tor. ig le y, izin th is ie tin t: lt in th in ia tic in lin ic IN IC V. (1 ). is io th ir th to lt le in Ac ritic scrutin th ir th ir ltu 's lu tio lie fs Id (c itin IR., IN IT IC IO IN ID IV IP IN (1 )). ls ip tio lo tu itu tio ig le y, le th ite th le th tu tiliz in ie ic le te lk in th fin lin tw Ain tru to fa ilita to in tru to ia Id tu ts th tu id to ith lim ite life ie In lin ith tu ts ie tia in lin to th ie th th every tu fits fr ic lu te in le ly lt le in th ory. in to l., ite iffic lty lyin lt tio to te IN IC V. (1 (d is in is y, lt le in th ie th lin ic to tio th ry). th ir ig ific lin ic le tio in titu tio critiq `s ta tiv trin is in ith `fie ld ie `th lic id tio im lic in le in ith ig in Exte lin ic ll IN IC V. (1 [h in fte ll ]. ith iv ttrib tio to rrie l- in fo te tw lv fo id in th is Am ill is itio Id.1 (c itin rrie l- lin ic tio rie ye in V. V. (1 )); ls ie in is lls fle tiv roje IN IC V. (2 ).

8 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 ments. 15 Classroom discussions can lead to some epiphanies, but from my experience teaching both in and out of clinic, I knew that students' most transformative moments came from clinic. 16 Moreover, adult students (or even adolescents) learn better when they actually experience conflict rather than just talk about it. How wonderful it would be to have students experience an in-house prosecution course. Within the next two years, in the fall of 1999, I was presented with the opportunity to design and direct an in-house domestic violence prosecution project and have done so for the last four years. The complementary relationship between the development and design of the clinical project and the evolution of local domestic violence courts in the Capital Region of New York State is a hallmark of the ALS hybrid clinic. In the past four years, local coalitions of domestic violence activists/advocates, judges, probation officers, prosecutors, law professors, students, defense lawyers 17 and family court law- 1 5 B e s t P r a c e s o f L a w S c h o o r P r e p a r g S d e n P r a c e L a w , a t h / p r o s s n a m w c d u / d o w n a d s / x d f s t u p d a d D e c. 7, ) o g a t o n e b e s t p r a c e g r a e T e a c h g o f T h e o D o c e a n d P r a c ; s e e a o R o b e D e r s, R e p o r t o f e C o m - m e o n e F u r e o f e - H o u s e C, 4 2 J. L E G A L E D U C L e a h W o r a m, T h e L a w r g P r o c e s s : M y T h a n k s r e B o o k a n d e M o v, 1 0 C L A L L. R E 3 9 9, ) c u s s g e a m e w o r k r a r n g b e a w r 1 6 A o u g h I s t o n e s r y h e r e c a p r e m y n e r c n o u g h, m y c o a g u e s a n d I w h o h a v e u g h t a n d o u t o f c h a v e m a n y m o r e. T o p a r a p h r a s e, o n a n y g e n d a e r e a r e a o u s a n d s r s e n a k e d 1 7 T h e d e n s e b a r w a s o n d b u t d n o t p y a c o n s n t r o d e v e p g o r r e - d e s n g o u r c a l c o u r. T h w a s u n r n a. T h e d e n s e c o m m u n c a n r a e g a c o n c e r n s a b o u t r o b m - s o g c o u r s u c h a s d o m e s n c e c o u r. S e e N a n a l L e g a l A a n d D e n d e r A s s o c n L A D A A m e r a n C o u n c o f C h f D e n d e r s, T e n T e n e o f F a a n d E f c e P r o b m S o g C o u a v a b a t h / w w w d a r g / D M S / D o c u m e n / / d o c u m e n s t d A p 6, S u b s n e d e n s e c r m o f d o m e s n c e c o u r - c d e : ) e m o d e l h e r e n b s e d w a r d p r o s e c u n o d e p e n d e n t u p o n D A p o s r e n g d o m e s n c e c a s e s, a n d o o c s e a n e d w tic ls fo in tu ts to tic ttp :/ fe io lis.la.s.e lo te t1.p (la te (n tin th tic is to AIn te te th in ry, trin tic ls rt in te in th itte th tu th In lin ic (1 ); th ye in fo th th ie IN IC V. (2 (d is in th fr fo le in to la ye ). lth te ll ju to to tu in lin ic ia 's th ts lle ta in lin ic iv y, th th to ie in th Ac lin fe fte in vite to id la is te le in lo in ig in lo ts is fo tu te fe ity is le itim te Ap le lvin tic vio le ts tio id fe ia tio (N )/ ic il ie fe ts ir fe tiv le lvin rts (2 ), ila le ttp :/.n la.o ts.9 t_ in fo (la vis ite r. ). ta tiv fe itic is tic vio le ts in lu (1 th is Ain tly ia to is to lic ie fo id tifyin tic vio le is At lo ly lig ith

9 w FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1185 yers designed, created or redesigned domestic violence courts. 18 At the same time, the ALS Domestic Violence Prosecution Unit formed and evolved. 19 This article explores the vic tim a d v o c a te s to r e ta in im p a r tia L IS A N E W M A R K E T A L. (T H E U R B A N I N S T IT U T E J U S T IC E P O L IC Y C E N T E R), S P E C IA L IZ E D F E L O N Y D O M E S T IC V IO L E N C E C O U R T S : L E S S O N S O N I M P L E M E N T A T IO N A N D I M P A C T S F R O M T H E K IN G S C O U N T Y E X P E R IE N C E 4 4 ( ); s e e a ls o G r e g B e rm a n & J o h n F e in b la tt, (C e n te r fo r C o u rt In n o v a tio n th r o u g h g r a n t fro m S ta te J u s tic e In s titu te ), J u d g e s a n d P r o b le m - S o lvin g C o u rts 1 7 ( ) (q u o tin g S u s a n K e ilitz o f th e N a tio n a l C e n te r fo r S ta te C o u rts : As p e c ia liz e d ju d g e s c a n lo s e th e ir n e u tra lity, o r th e a p p e a r a n c e o f n e u tra lity b y b e c o m in g m o r e e d u c a te d to th e e f fe c ts o f d o m e s tic vio le n c e a n d c o lla b o r a tin g w ith th e a d v o c a c y c o m m u n (2 ) s u c h c o u r ts a n d a llie d a g e n c ie s lo s e p e r s p e c tiv e a b o u t w h e r e th e ir c a s e s fit in to th e b r o a d e r r a n g e o f o f fe n s e s, e x a g g e r a tin g th e s e r io u s n e s s o f c a s e s in th e d o m e s tic vio le n c e c o u r ts, id., (3 ) p r a c tic e s s u c h a s m a k in g p a r tic ip a tio n in b a tte r e r in te r v e n - tio n p r o g r a m s a r e q u ir e m e n t o f r e le a s e o n b a il a s s u m e g u ilt a n d im p o s e p e n a ltie s w ith o u t a c o n vic tio n, in frin g in g o n d e fe n d a n ts ' rig h ts, w ith th e v e r y title o f th e c o u r t p r e s u p p o s in g th e g u ilt o f a ll d e fe n d a n ts. Eric L a n e, D u e P r o c e s s a n d P r o b le m - S o lvin g C o u rts, 3 0 F O R D H A M U R B. L.J , ( ); R o b yn M a z u r & L ib e r ty A ld r ic h, W h a t M a k e s a D o m e s tic V io le n c e C o u rt W o r k? L e s s o n s fr o m N e w Y o rk, J U D G E S J., S p rin g , a t 5, N o te th a t d o m e s tic vio le n c e (D V ) c o u r ts c a n r e fe r to a w id e r a n g e o f c o u r t s tru c tu r e s fo c u s e d o n d o m e s tic vio le n c e. F o r a d e s c r ip tio n o f N e w Y o rk's D V c o u r ts, s e e O n e F a m ily, O n e J u d g e : In te g r a te d D o m e s tic V io le n c e C o u rts, a t h ttp :/ / w w w.c o u r ts.s ta te.n y.u s / ip / d o m e s ticvio le n c e / in d e x.s h tm l (d e ta ilin g th e s tru c tu r e o f th e N e w Y o rk In te g r a te d D o m e s tic V io le n c e C o u rts (ID V )) (la s t vis ite d A p r. 6, ). A n ID V c o u r t w a s e s ta b lis h e d in a c o u n ty n e a r o u r in s titu tio n. D e s c r ib e d a s th e AO n e F a m ily - O n e C o u c o n c e p t, th e c o u r t a s s ig n e d to th e s a m e ju d g e a ll fa m ily, a ll crim in a l a n d s o m e c ivil m a tte r s in v o lvin g fa m ily m e m b e r s. S e e O n e F a m ily, O n e J u d g e, s u p r a. B e c a u s e th e first c ity crim in a l c o u r t w ith w h ic h w e w o r k e d w a s a ls o s itu a te d in th e s a m e c o u n ty a s th e ID V c o u r t, th e c ity c o u r t's d o m e s tic vio le n c e in itia tiv e w a s la b e le d a D V c a le n d a r. F o r s im p lic ity in th is a r tic le, I w ill r e fe r to a ll d o m e s tic vio le n c e c o u r ts, w h e th e r o p e r a tin g a s a n ID V c o u r t o r s im p ly a s a D V c a le n d a r, g e n e r a lly, a s D V c o u r ts. D o m e s tic V io le n c e c a le n d a r s r e fe r to th e p r o c e s s o f o r g a n iz in g th e d o m e s tic vio le n c e c a s e s a ll a t o n e tim e o r a ll b e fo r e o n e ju d g e, ith o u t n e c e s s a r i ly provid in g th e fu ll r a n g e o f s ta ffin g, res o u r c e s, tra in in g a n d s e r v ic e s fo u n d in a n ID V c o u r t. 1 9 T h e A lb a n y L a w S c h o o l C lin ic a l P rog r a m is o r g a n iz e d in to a n u m b e r o f p r o je c ts fo c u s e d o n p a r tic u la r a r e a s o f la w o r p a r tic u la r k in d s o f c lie n ts. F o r e x - a m p le, w e c u r r e n tly o p e r a te s ix in - h o u s e p r o je c ts : C ivil R ig h ts a n d D is a b ilitie s,

10 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 educational, community and personal needs that led to the development and design of a hybrid prosecution project. It evaluates goals for a hybrid prosecution project and some alternative educational models, assessing their ability to be replicated at other law schools. Based on an evaluation of the experience of ALS, this article also offers some recommendations and suggestions for others and the future. II. IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS AND OPPORTUNITIES: EDUCATIONAL, COMMUNITY AND PERSONAL Much has been written in the clinical literature about designing an externship or field placement program 20 and about the value and experiences of in-house clinical programs. 21 However, a third form of clinical education has received less attention: D o m e s tic V io le n c e, H e a lth L a w, In v e s to r s R ig h ts, L itig a tio n, a n d L o w In c o m e T a x. F r o m , th e D o m e s tic V io le n c e L a w P r o je c t w a s fu r th e r s u b d ivid e d in to tw o s e p a r a te c lin ic a l c o u r s e s a n d u n its : th e F a m ily V io le n c e U n it (D V F U ) a n d th e P r o s e c u tio n U n it (D V P U ). 2 0 S e e g e n e r a lly S ym p o s iu m, D e v e lo p m e n ts in L e g a l Exte r n s h ip P e d a g o g y, 5 C L IN IC A L L. R E V ( ) a n d S ym p o s iu m, Exte r n s h ip s : L e a r n in g fr o m P r a c tic e, 1 0 C L IN IC A L L. R E V ( ) (d e s c r ib in g v a r i o u s is s u e s r e la t in g to c lin ic a l le g a l e d u c a tio n ). F o r a r tic le s th a t a r e p a r tic u la r ly h e lp fu l in th in k in g a b o u t c lin i- c a l d e s ig n, s e e S o S h a ll Y o u R e a p, s u p r a n o te 1 4, a n d M a r y J o E y s te r, D e s ig n in g a n d T e a c h in g th e L a r g e E x te r n s h ip C lin ic, 5 C L IN IC A L L. R E V , ( ). F o r a m o r e r e c e n t u p d a te w h ic h th o u g h tfu lly e v a lu a te s c o n tra s t in g m o d e ls o f s u p e r v i s io n, o v e r s ig h t a n d tra in in g, s e e B a r b a r a A. B la n c o & S a n d e L. B u h a i, Exte r n s h ip F ie ld S u p e rvis io n : E ffe c tiv e T e c h n iq u e s fo r T r a in in g S u p e rvis o r s a n d S tu d e n ts, 1 0 C L IN IC A L L. R E V ( ). F o r a n e x c e lle n t o v e r v ie w o f m a te r ia ls rela tin g to c lin ic a l le g a l e d u c a tio n, s e e C lin ic a l L e g a l E d u c a tio n : A n A n n o ta te d B ib lio g r a p h y (J.P. O g ilvy & K a r e n C z a p a n s k iy e d s., ), a t h ttp :/ / fa c u lty.c u a.e d u / o g ilvy/ B ib lio 0 4 A.p d f. [h e r e in a fte r C L E B ib lio g r a p h y ]; s e e a ls o R o b e rt F. S e ib e l & L in d a H. M o r to n, F ie ld P la c e m e n t P r o g r a m s : P r a c tic e s, P r o b le m s a n d P o s s ib ilitie s, 2 C L IN IC A L L. R E V , ( ). 2 1 In th e s e c tio n e n title d Ac lin ic a l d e s ig (lo c a te d in th e C L E B ib lio g r a - p h y ), th e r e a r e o v e r n in e ty a r tic le s d is c u s s in g in - h o u s e c lin ic a l is s u e s. S e e, e.g.,

11 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1187 In a d d itio n to th e s e tw o d o m in a n t fo rm s o f re a l c lie n t c lin ic a l p ro g ra m s [in - h o u s e a n d e xte rn a l/ e xte rn s h ip ], th e re is a th ird typ e o f c lin ic a l p ro g ra m o fte n re fe rre d to a s Ah yb c lin ic s, c o m b in in g fe a tu re s o f in - h o u s e a n d e xte rn s h ip p rog ra m s. In a h yb rid c lin ic, a la w s c h o o l c r e a te s a p a rtn e r s h ip w ith a le g a l p ro vid e r, s u c h a s a c ivil le g a l s e r - vic e o ffic e o r p u b lic d e fe n d e r o ffic e, a n d th e s t u d e n ts e n ro lle d in th e c lin ic a re s u p e rvis e d b y b o th a fu ll- tim e c lin ic ia n a n d la w ye rs fro m th e o u ts id e o f fic e. In 1999, when I set out to design a hybrid project, with a few exceptions, little had been written or documented about hybrid clinics, in particular hybrid prosecution clinics. 23 Therefore, I S u s a n B rya n t & M a r ia A ria s, A B a tte r e d W o m e n 's R ig h ts C lin ic : D e s ig n in g a C lin ic a l P r o g r a m W h ic h E n c o u r a g e s a P r o b le m - S o lvin g V is io n o f L a w ye r in g th a t E m p o w e r s C lie n ts a n d C o m m u n ity, 4 2 W A S H. U. J. U R B. & C O N T E M P. L ( ); R ic h a r d D. M a r s ic o, W o r k in g fo r S o c ia l C h a n g e a n d P r e s e r v in g C lie n t A u to n o m y: Is T h e r e a R o le fo r AF a c ilita L a w ye r in g?, 1 C L IN IC A L L. R E V ( ); M a r jo r ie A n n e M c D ia r m id, W h a t's G o in g o n D o w n T h e r e in th e B a s e m e n t: In - H o u s e C lin ic s E x p a n d T h e ir B e a c h h e a d, 3 5 N.Y.L. S C H. L. R E V ( ); M ary H e le n M c N e a l, U n b u n d lin g a n d L a w S c h o o l C lin ic s : W h e r e 's th e P e d a g o g y?, 7 C L IN IC A L L. R E V ( ); M ic h a e l M e lts n e r & P h ilip G. S c h r a g, S c e n e s F r o m a C lin ic, U. P A. L. R E V. 1 ( ); J. M ic h a e l N o r w o o d, R e q u irin g a L iv e C lie n t, In - H o u s e C lin ic a l C o u r s e : A R e p o rt o n th e U n iv e r s ity o f N e w M e x ic o L a w S c h o o l E x p e r ie n c e, 1 9 N.M. L. R E V ( ); S te p h e n W iz n e r, B e yo n d S k ills T r a in in g, 7 C L IN IC A L L. R E V ( ). 2 2 P e te r A. J o y, E v o lu tio n o f A B A S ta n d a r d s R e la tin g to E x te r n s h ip s : S te p s in th e R ig h t D ir e c tio n?, 1 0 C L IN IC A L L. R E V , n.1 ( ) (c ita tio n o m itte d ). AW h e n la w s c h o o l fa c u lty a s s u m e fu ll o r p a r tia l r e s p o n s ib ility fo r c a s e s u p e r v is io n in a n e x te r n a l p la c e m e n t, th e c lin ic is s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to a s a Ah a s it b le n d s fe a tu r e s o f b o th a n in - h o u s e a n d e x te r n a l c lin W o r th a m, s u p r a n o te 1 5, a t A ls o, s e e th e r e fe r e n c e to h yb r id lite r a tu r e, s u p r a n o te S e e S o S h a ll Y o u R e a p, s u p r a n o te 1 4, a t (n o tin g th a t in - h o u s e Ac rim in a l p r o s e c u tio n c lin ic s a r e... ra r e w ith in la w s c h o o A fe w c o m m e n ta to r s h a v e d e s c r ib e d th e m s e lv e s a s te a c h in g a n Ain - h o u s p r o s e c u tio n c lin ic a n d h a v e w ritte n a b o u t th o s e e x p e r ie n c e s o r u s e d th o s e e x p e r i e n c e s to e x p lo r e o th e r is s u e s. S e e C a p lo w, s u p r a n o te 2, a t AF a c u lty- s u p e r v is e d c lin ic s in w h ic h s tu d e n ts p e r s o n a lly h a n d le th e p r o s e c u tio n o f th e c a s e a r e u n u s u a l. T h e m o r e typ ic a l m o d e l is a n e x te r n s h ip th a t p la c e s s tu d e n ts in lo c a l a n d fe d e r a l p r o s e c u to r s ' o ffic e Id.

12 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 resorted to my understanding of classic clinical methodology and of collaborative approaches found in both the field placement and the in-house traditions: examine the needs, goals and potential opportunities for students, the law school, the community (both grassroots and public sector portions) and the faculty member; 24 evaluate the methods of achieving those goals and the alternative models already designed by those mentors and teachers in the clinical community; 25 and attempt to use an integrated, 26 reflective, 27 holistic, 28 culturally competent, 29 problem-solving, 30 inter-disciplinary 31 and 32 approach to creation of the program. 33 a t 1 n. h e r e a r e r w e r c r a l p r o s e c u n c s a n e r e a r e c r a l d e n s e c s. T h e r e a p p e a r s b e a n p d a s s u m p n a t a l d e n s e c s p r o v e a b e r e d u c a n a l e x p e r n c e.... T h a r r e e x a m e s e a s s u m p n.... K a r e n K n h T o P r o s e c u H u m a n, 7 5 N E L. R E 8 4 7, F o r b r f r e r e n c e s p r o s e c u n c s, s e e S n y Z. F h e r, S e a r c h o f e V o u s P r o s e c u r : A C o n c e p a l F r a m e w 1 5 A M. J. C R. L s e e a o J o a n L. O u a n e t a E a l D e c n m a k g a n d E s s c - n C a l L a w P r a c e, 3 C L A L L. R E 1 0 9, e r e n c g a C h A b u s e a n d D o m e s V n c e P r o s e c u n P c 2 4 W o r a m, s u p r a n o S e e g e n e r a P e r A. J o T h e M a c C r a R e p o M o v g T o w a r d g r a t e d L e a r n g E x p e r i e n c e s, 1 C L A L L. R E 4 0 1, S e e g e n e r a R h a r d K. N e u m a n n, J r D o n a S c h o n, e R e c e P r a c n e r, a n d e C o m p a r a e F a r e s o f L e g a l E d u c a n, 6 C L A L L. R E 4 0 1, S e e r n a n a l A n c e o f H o L a w a t h / w w w h r g s t e d A p 6, h e e a o f h o w r g, r e x a m p, s u g g e s a t g a l p r a c n e r s s h o u b e c n t - c e n r e d e a p p r o a c h, w g e p o n s s a s n o t s t s o g s u e s o f w b u t a o h e g a d d r e s s e v a r i o u s p r o b m s o g a l a n d n o n g a a t h a v e c o n u d e n u b s L u n a, P u n h m e n t T h e o r H o m, a n d e P e d u r a l C o n c e p n o f R e s r a e J u s e, U T A H L. R E 2 0 5, S e e g e n e r a S u s a n B n T h e F e H a b : B u g C r o s s - C u r a l C o m p e n c e L a w 8 C L A L L. R E 3 3, AT fa fe im in tio lin ic th th im in fe lin ic to im lie tio th crim in fe lin ic id tte tio ie is tic le in th ig t, te is B. V. (1 ). ie fe to tio lin ic ta le is In th irtu to tu ork, IM (1 ); ls 'S lliv l., th ic is io in th ic In tru tio in lin ic tic IN IC V. (r fe in ild tic io le tio roje t). th te Id lly te y, te rt: in In te in IN IC V. (1 ). lly ic., ld th fle tiv titio th tiv ilu tio IN IC V. (2 ). In te tio llia lis tic yers, ttp :/.ia l.o (la vis it r. ). AT id lis tic la ye in fo le ts th le titio ld lie te in th ir vie in th ir res ib ilitie ju lvin is la ls lp in th le (b th le le l) th trib te to th ir clie t's tro Erik is y, lis th roc tio to tiv tic V. (2 ). lly rya t, iv its ild in ltu te in yers, IN IC V. (2 ).

13 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1189 With respect to the first prong above, the desire to create a hybrid prosecution clinical opportunity arose from my perceptions of need in several areas: students' educational needs, community needs and personal/faculty needs. Complementing these needs, opportunities for collaboration and innovation existed because of the maturity of the ALS clinical program, 34 the loyalty of our alumni/ae base, the idealism, openness and expertise of the local and statewide domestic violence advocacy community and the flexibility of the clinical director at that time. 35 These overlapping needs and opportunities intersected to fashion the design of a hybrid domestic violence prosecution project. 3 0 S e e g e n e r a A n d r e a M. S e d, C o m m u n B u g a s a M e a n s o f T e a c h g C e, C o o p e r a e, a n d C o m p x P r o b m S o g C a l L e g a l E d u c a n, 8 C L A L L. R E 4 4 5, S e e g e n e r a J a n e t W e s, C o m g o f A g e : R e c o g n g e p o r n c e o f r d c a r y E d u c a n L a w P r a c e, 7 4 W A S H. L. R E 3 1 9, S e e g e n e r a G E R A L D P. L O P E R E B E L L U S L A W Y E R G : O N E C H A N O ' S V I S N O F P R O G R E S S E L A W P R A C T E h a r d e r g e t a e r m o g y o u t a n b e m d l o f a c h g a n d p r a c g! F o r a n o v e r v w o f c u r r e n t c a l a p p r o a c h e s a n d k - g, s e e B a e t a s u p r a n o 5, a t A L S c a l p r o g r a m c e s r o o b a c k a p p r o x a C a l c o a g u e s a r e c u r r e n w g o n a s s e m b g a h W h e n I d c u s s a I a m a o r e g e c t a t e r e w e r e e s b h e d a n d n g s n d g c a l c, a n e x n s e p c e m e n t p r o g r a m a n d a t e c u c o n e d r e e n u r e d c n s w v o t g r h a n d a n g - r m c o n c t p r o c e s s r o e r c n s. 3 5 I a m g r a l r e o f A L S A s s o c D e a n a n d P s s o r C o n n M a r, C a l D e c r o m , a n d r h e r u n w a g s u p p o r t o f e. lly ie ls ta ity ild in in rea tiv tiv le le lvin in lin ic tio IN IC V. (2 ). lly in te in in iz in th Im ta In te is ip lin tio in tic V. (1 ). lly Z, IO IN IC IO IV IC (1 ). It's to ll th te in lo th it is to in fu it in te in tic in ie lin ic th in in rry l., te 's lin ic tra its ts to im te ly lin ic lle tly orkin lin is tory. is Am ls ferrin to th fa th th ta lis lo ta in lin ic proje ts te iv fie ld la th th fa lty ta in th te lin ic ia ith fu ll in ig ts lo te tra fo th lin ic ia te fu fo th flexib ility ia te rofe ie ye lin ic ir to fr to fo verin th is in itia tiv

14 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 A. Examining Educational Needs and Identifying Educational Goals for a Hybrid Prosecution Project In designing a project, educational needs should be examined on at least three levels: (1) examination of the overall institutional needs or gaps in the curriculum, (2) examination of the needs or gaps in the clinical program and (3) examination of student needs and desires. In examining my institution's needs and gaps, I concluded that there was good reason to design a hybrid prosecution project. For instance, there was a lack of diversity on our criminal law faculty. Moot court activities, trial advocacy classes and the field placement program 36 did not provide full opportunities to teach important clinical judgment in prosecution 37 or prepare students for the changing variables of real practice. Most importantly, there was a clear student desire for more prosecution placements. At the time the clinic was being created, ALS's traditional or Astand criminal law faculty was exclusively male. 38 There was unquestionably a lack of diversity on that faculty and a perception among students that women's issues were not being addressed thoroughly. 39 This perception was in fact a national 3 6 S e e n o P a c e L a w S c h o o l P r o s s o r V a n e s s a M e r n h a s r m e d m y k g a b o u t e a c h g o f c a l d g m e n t p r o s e c u n a n d c u r r e n w g a p c e o n p. 3 8 T h e s e p r o s s o r s a r e m y c o a g u e s a n d n d s, w h o m I e s e m g r e a d e e d, e y w e r e v a a b r e s o u r c e s m y s t u d e n t s a n d m e d u r g e a r s I d e c d e P o s t - C o n n P r o c O n e p r o s s o r e v e n c o - u g h t e c o n m p o r a n e o u s s e m a r w m e. H o w e v e r, w a s u n q u e s n a b a w h, m a a l w d e p a r e n t a c h g a r c r a l w. T h a n k o u r c r a l w c u h a s b e c o m e m o r e d e r s e w e a d d n o f a w o n d e r l c o a g u e, P s - s o r L e n e s e C. H e r b e r 3 9 D u r g e s, m a s d e n a t A a n y L a w S c h o o l o n c o m - p e d c a l p r o s s o r s a t s u e s o f r a p e a n d d o m e s n c e w e r e e e r n o t b e g u g h n o t e n d o m a m t p e r s p e c e, o r n o t d c u s s e d A t a s t o n e n a l c u m e m b e r a r n e d o f e s e c o m p a n d r e a c h e d o u t in fra te fe to in fo th in in th te in lin ic ju in tio is tly ritin ie th is to ic fe lle frie te tly. In th in lu le to in th ye ir te th vic tio je t. fe ta th te in ith it tio ly ite le crim in la tm te in first ye im in la fu lly, im in la fa lty iv ith th itio fu lle rofe t. in th fe le tu ts lb fte la in to lin ic fe th is tic vio le ith in ta t, pres te fr fe in is tiv is fu lly. le trad itio fa lty le th la in ts

15 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1191 reality. 40 Despite the Adramatic change in the legal system's response to women who have been 41 traditional legal education had Avirtually the reality and experiences of battered women. 42 By teaching a hybrid domestic violence prosecution course, I desired further to emphasize not only the evolution of the law concerning violence against women but also ideas about the appropriate response of the criminal law to such violence. I also hoped to introduce a feminist criminal law/prosecution perspective and to provide a model for female students who desired to enter the machismo-saturated 43 world of criminal law. There are numerous issues involved in the question of whether a hybrid prosecution clinic advances the school's existing professional skills, clinical and placement offerings. Prosecution projects generally focus on fact investigation, victim/witness interviewing, charging and evidentiary analysis, negotiations (offers for reduced charges and/or sentences) and trial skills. Arguably, the curriculum at ALS already provided good opportunities in fact investigation, negotiation and courtroom per- c a l c u r e a s o f h o w b e r c o r p o r a d o m e s n c e s u e s e c s s d c u s s n. 4 0 S e e g e n e r a M a n, s u p r a n o a t A a n y L a w R e v w, h o w e v e r, h e a w o n d e r l p o s m o n D o m e s V n c e s u e s M a r c h o f S e e g e n e r a S p o s m, R e c o n c e p a g V n c e A g a s t W o m e n b y a P a e r s : C a l s u e s, 5 8 A L L. R E S e e, e., R e n a M. A h o n, A C o m p a r o n o f G e n d e r B s S d s : E h C c u a n d S o u D a k o F d g s e C o n x t o f N a n w e S d s, 4 3 S. L. R E 6 1 6, ) e a r e a o f a l p r a c e, m a a r n e y s e E h C c u o u u m b e r e d m a a r n e y s e h t o n a n d g o v e r n m e n t m e n a r e m o r e e b e e c r a l p o s n s E a b e E r n y F o o e t a W o m e n R a m a k e r s W h e n R a s, P o o 4 5 L A B A R J e b ) o t g a l d e n s e b a r w a s a n d s d o m a d b y m a a r n e y s a n d b y e a c h o m u a s s o c d w c r a l d e n s e w o r k to lin ic fa lty fo id to tte in te tic vio le is in to th la is io lly errym te Id Id lb ie ld fu sym iu tic io le is in lly ym iu tu lizin io le in In tim te rtn ritic Is B. V. (1 )..g tc is is ia tu ie ig th ir it th ta in in in th te tio id tu ie.d V. (1 (AIn th crim in tic le tto in th ig th ir it tn fe le tto ig to in lik ly to in th im in itio ); liz th te l., in It in It rs, (F (n in crim in fe till is in te le tto th Am ystiq ia te ith im in fe ).

16 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 suasion. 44 If the project offered nothing more than simply another opportunity to learn about or be exposed to these skills, it would not be filling an unmet need. Of course, clinics do much more than teach skills. In addition to teaching how to learn from experience and to think and practice like a lawyer, most clinical projects differ from simulated courses because they allow students to assume the role of a professional and deal with ever changing facts and people. Prosecution clinics do all that too. Prosecutor clinics, however, do not provide opportunities to represent individuals and practice client centered representation. 45 Thus, it is important to consider whether the existing curriculum and clinical program generally include adequate opportunity for students to represent actual clients and to teach client-centered counseling. If not, perhaps the program should consider adding a client-based clinic in which students form an attorney-client relationship with a flesh and blood human being before allocating faculty resources to a prosecution project A lb a n y L a w S c h o o l, lik e m a n y o th e r s c h o o ls, h a d a n e x te n s iv e m o o t c o u r t a n d tria l a d v o c a c y p r o g r a m w h ic h, in p a r tic u la r, ta u g h t g o o d Ac o u r tro o m s k F r o m , A lb a n y L a w S c h o o l's M o o t C o u rt te a m s c o n s is te n tly re a c h e d th e s e m ifin a ls a n d fin a ls o f n u m e r o u s in te r s c h o la s tic c o m p e titio n s a r o u n d th e c o u n try, in c lu d in g th e A B A N a tio n a l C rim in a l J u s tic e T ria l A d v o c a c y a n d A s s o c ia tio n o f T r ia l L a w ye r s o f A m e r ic a c o m p e titio n s. In , th e fa c u lty h a d a ls o a d o p te d a v o lu n tary profe s s io n a l S kills C o m p e te n c y prog r a m, p u r s u a n t to th e M a c C r a te R e p o r t, w h ic h in tro d u c e d n e w s im u la te d s k ills c o u r s e s, e m p h a s iz e d th e v a lu e o f s k ills o ffe r in g s a n d c e r tifie d s tu d e n ts in s k ills s u c h a s d r a ftin g, fa c t in v e s tig a tio n, a lte r n a tiv e d is p u te r e s o lu tio n a n d p e r s u a s io n. S e e F a c u lty P r o p o s a l (o n file w ith a u th o r ). T h a t p r o p o s a l a ls o c r e a t e d a n e w ye a r - lo n g c o u r s e in c ivil P re- T r ia l a n d T r ia l L it ig a tio n (P T T L ). Id. 4 5 T h is is n o t to s u g g e s t th a t is s u e s s u c h a s v ic tim - c e n te r e d c o u n s e l- in g, th e q u e s tio n o f w h o is th e p r o s e c u to r 's c lie n t, a n d th e c o n tra s t b e tw e e n p r o s e c u to r s ' a n d o th e r la w ye r s r o le s c a n n o t b e e x p lo r e d in a p r o s e c u tio n c lin ic. S e e g e n e r a lly K n ig h t, s u p r a n o te 2 3 ; C a p lo w, s u p r a n o te 2, a t 4 4. In d e e d, m y s t u d e n t s a lw a y s p a r tic ip a t e d in c lin ic - w id e s e s s io n s o n c lie n t - c e n te r e d c o u n s e lin g a n d w e u s e d th e s e s k ills a n d le s s o n s in o u r w ork. 4 6 I s u p p o s e o th e r c o n s id e r a tio n s s u c h a s c lin ic a lly te a c h in g im p o r ta n t s k ills o f a d v a n c e d r e s e a r c h a n d w rit in g, c ivil d is c o v e r y o r th e s k ills o f w o r k in g o n la r g e

17 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1193 The clinic's place in the larger community should also be examined. Do the law school and clinical program work together with the community on an adequate number of opportunities? If not, perhaps a clinical program should establish credibility in and linkage to its community. 47 Are there a good number of projects which enable access to justice, raise social justice awareness and instill a strong pro bono ethic? If not, perhaps scarce resources should not be devoted to assisting government or to imprison the poor. 48 As Karen Knight humorously points out: ANebraska's prosecution clinic has been likened by some members of the faculty to providing free legal services to 49 On a more serious note, the dearth of well-funded and vigorous criminal defense does suggest that a criminal defense clinic should be considered before a prosecution one. 50 c a s e s s h o u ld a ls o b e c o n s id e r e d. B u t, th e y fa ll lo w e r d o w n o n th e h ie r a r c h y o f im p o r ta n c e in m y m in d. 4 7 S e e R ic h a r d A. B o s w e ll, K e e p in g th e P r a c tic e in C lin ic a l E d u c a tio n a n d S c h o la r s h ip, 4 3 H A S T IN G S L.J ( ); A n to in e tte S e d illo L o p e z, L e a r n in g T h r o u g h S e r v ic e in a C lin ic a l S e t tin g : T h e E ffe c t o f S p e c ia lizatio n o n S o c ia l J u s tic e a n d S kills T r a in in g, 7 C L IN IC A L L. R E V ( ). 4 8 S e e A b b e S m ith, C a n Y o u B e a G o o d P e r s o n a n d a G o o d P r o s e c u tor?, 1 4 G E O. J. L E G A L E T H IC S 3 5 5, ( ) [h e r e in a fte r G o o d P r o s - e c u to r ]. 4 9 K n ig h t, s u p r a n o te 2 3, a t N o te th a t s o m e o th e r la w s c h o o l c lin ic s d o p la c e s tu d e n ts a t p r iv a te firm s a n d b u s in e s s e s w h e n p e d a g o g ic a l r e a s o n s w a r r a n t s u c h p la c e m e n t. 5 0 S e e G o o d P r o s e c u to r, s u p r a n o te 4 8 (d e s c r ib in g th e r a c is m, c la s s is m a n d s e r io u s Aju s tic p r o b le m s w h ic h a r e r a m p a n t in th e p r o s e c u tio n o f crim e s ); s e e a ls o C h a rle s J. O g le tre e, J r., B e yo n d J u s tific a tio n s : S e e k in g M o tivatio n s to S u s ta in P u b lic D e fe n d e r s, H A R V. L. R E V ( ) (c a llin g fo r le g a l s c h o la r s to m o v e b e yo n d a b s tra c t ju s tific a tio n s o f crim in a l d e fe n s e w o r k to e x p lo r e a n d d e v e lo p m o tiv a tio n s fo r la w ye r s to r e p r e s e n t th e in d ig e n t); s e e a ls o J o h n G ib e a u t, D e fe n s e W a r n in g s, A.B.A. J. D e c a t 3 5, 3 5 ( ) (d e s c r ib in g c o u n tie s w h e r e Ap u b lic d e fe n d e r s a r e s o s w a m p e d th a t th e y c a n 't e v e n d r e a m o f s a tis fa c to r ily re p r e s e n t in g th e ir in d ig e n t c lie n F o r a n e x c e lle n t o u tc o m e a n a lysis o f th e fa v o r a b le r e s u lts o b ta in e d b y th r e e y e a r s o f s tu d e n t s in th e N Y U C rim in a l D e - fe n s e C lin ic a n d th e s ig n ific a n t c o n trib u tio n la w s tu d e n ts m a k e to r e p r e s e n t in d ig e n t p e o p le a c c u s e d o f crim e s, s e e S te v e n Z e id m a n, S a c rific ia l L a m b s o r th e C h o s e n

18 F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 Examining the application of these questions to the ALS clinical program, I concluded that there were good reasons for forging ahead, in spite of other reasons suggesting reconsideration. ALS is fortunate to house a multi-faceted in-house clinic and an extensive field placement program which provides students numerous opportunities to learn about and practice client-centered representation and whose faculty and students work with and in the surrounding community. At the time of the creation of the hybrid prosecution clinic, the in-house clinic consisted of three community-based clinics 51 and another longstanding clinic which received referrals from our local Legal Aid office. 52 The community-based clinics were well known, worked with advocates and other community groups, and provided representation, training, information and referrals to local individuals. The bounty of client-centered opportunities for students, 53 the large number of clients represented and the extensive work done with community partners on social justice F e w? : T h e p a c t o f S d e n t D e n d e r s o n T h e R h o f e A c c u s e d, 6 2 B R O O K. L. R E T h e y w e r e : e F a m V n c e P c t w h h s d e n r e p r e s e n d s u r o r s o f d o m e s n c e m c o u r t a n d o n c m a r s, a n A S / H L a w P r o c t w h h s d e n r e p r e s e n d c n o n m a r s o f c u s d g u a r d n s h, h e a c a r e a n d e n d - o f - d e c n m a k g a n d a C R h a n d D - a b s P r o c t w h h s d e n r e p r e s e n d d u a w d a b s o n m a t r s o f e d u c a n r h, e m p e n t h a n d o e r d c r a n s u e s. S c e e n, e c h a s e x p a n d e d c d e a L o w c o m e T a x P r o c t a n d a n v e s r s R h P r o c a d d n, e A S / H p r o c t w a s s u b s u m e d w i n a H e a L a w P r o c t w h h h a s o u n e A S / H u n a n d e C a n c e r C a r e u n 5 2 T h e L a n P r o c t p a r e r s w e L e g a l A S o c o f N o r - e a s r n N e w Y o p r o v e r e p r e s e n n c n o n u n e m p e n t s u r a n c e m a t r s. 5 3 a d d n e a p p r o x a r s e - h o u s e c, w e a o o f r e d m a n y n t - c e n r e d p c e m e n c a l n o t - r - p r o s u c h a s D a b A d a s, L e g a l A, a n d M e n l H y g n e L e g a l S e e s. S c e o u r c h a s e x p a n d e d, s o h a s e n u m b e r o f s d e n. Im tu fe ig ts th V. (1 ). th ily io le roje in ic tu ts te viv tic vio le in fa ily ivil tte ID IV je in ic tu ts te lie ts tte to y, ia ip lth life is io in iv il ig ts is ilitie je in ic tu ts te in ivid ls ith is ilitie te tio ig ts lo ym rig ts th is im in tio is in th th lin ic to in lu In je In to ig ts je t. In itio th ID IV je ith lth je ic tw its th ID IV it th it. itig tio je tn ith th id ie ty th te rk to id ta tio to lie ts lo ym in te In itio to th im te ly th irty to fo ty lo ts in th in lin ic ls fe clie te fie ld la ts in lo fo fits is ility voc te id ta ie rvic in lin ic th tu ts

19 FILE:C:\wp51\74-4\LYNCH.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:22AM 2005] HYBRID DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CLINIC 1195 matters gave me the to consider a clinic that was not client-centered. 54 True, after the post-conviction project ended, we did not and still do not have an in-house criminal defense clinic, and that is certainly a gap in our program. 55 One of the reasons involves the politics of some members of our local public defense bar. 56 Another reason is that the level of criminal defense work in one public defender office was so substandard that we removed it from our field placement program since we believed students would learn how badly to represent individuals accused of a crime. Frankly, no clinician has yet had either the freedom to design such a project or the fire in his/her belly to take on the hard work to overcome these obstacles. 57 But criminal defense aside, a prosecution project would complement our existing civil in-house clinic nicely F o r m o r e o f a n e x p r a n o f p, s e e M A. L y n c h, C a n Y o u B e a o o d P e r s o n a G o o d C n a n d a S u p e o r o f S d e n t P r o s e c u r s?, s e n d a t e A A L S C a l S e c n C o n r e n c e a s a o r k P r o g r e s s w h h e x p a n d s o n a n d r e s p o n d s A b b e S m a r, G o o d P r o s e c u r, s u p r a n o 4 8, a t h / w w w a r g / c a / w o r k s 5 5 T h e p r o c t h a d b e e n n d e d b y T m o n s. F o r a h r y o f e n d g o f c a l e d u c a n, s e e M h a e l M e n e r & P h G. S c h r a g, R e p o F r o m a C L E P R C o n y, 7 6 C O L U M. L. R E s e e a o B a e t a s u p r a n o 5, a t W e h a v e s o m e o u n d g a n d z e a u s c a l p u b a n d a s s n e d c o u n s e l d e n s e a r n e H o w e v e r, n o t a c a l a l d e n s e a r n e y s w e o m e a s s n c e o m e w c. S o m e c a l w r s v w e e s d e n t w o r k a s c u t g e b r e a d a n d b u r o f p r a c e. S e e M C K N E S N E W Y O R K R U L E S O F C O U R T ) g w s d e n a y n d e r a s s n c e d e n t p e r s o n s a n y m a r w h h a p a r d o e s n o t h a v e e r h t a s s n m e n t o f c o u n s e. N o, h o w e v e r, a t w e a r r a n g e d r a n e x c e p t n r u e c a s e o f o u r F a m V n c e U n 5 7 T h e s e o b s c s a r e n o t s t m y o w n p e r c e p n s, b u t a r e s h a r e d b y m y c o a g u e s e c a n d p a r u r b y m y c o a g u e w h o h a s r g r e a r a l d e n s e e x p e r i e n c e, k n o w d g e a n d c o n c a n I d o. 5 8 S o, w a s I s t g s a b y d e s n g a h y b r p r o s e c u n p r o c P r o b a b A m I d b y e e a o f a c r i n a l d e n s e c w h e r e m y - d e n a n d I a r e r e s p o n s r p e o p e r a n d? A b s o lo tio th is to ic ary lin ic ia rvis tu to pre- te th lin ic tio fe AW ic to ith 's tic le to te ttp :/.a ls.o lin ic l2.h tm l. je fu itle IX ie is to th fu in lin ic tio ic lts ilip rt lo V. (1 ); ls rry l., te ts ta in lo lo lic ig fe tto ys. ll lo crim in fe tto lc is ta fr th la lin ic lo la ye ie fr tu tin in to th tte tic IN Y'.5 (d (s ta tin la tu ts Am re is ta to in ig in tte in ic ty th ig to ig te th fo io to th is le in th ily io le it. ta le ju tio lle in th lin ic in tic la lle fa te crim in fe le ta ts th ju Ap la yin it ig in id tio je t? ly. terrifie th id im fe lin ic stu ts ib le fo le 's lib ty life lu te ly!

20 w F IL E :C : \ W P 5 1 \ L Y N C H.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 2 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 It was also true that Albany Law School, in theory, already provided plenty of opportunity for Ainstitutional 59 and exposure to law practice through its field placement program. 60 Our field placements provided wonderful opportunities for exposure to real life practice, to test the waters of certain subject matter areas, and to practice lawyers' skills. Some students have had life-altering experiences in the program: they gained a mentor for life, experienced an epiphany about a career path or engaged in the best educational experience of law school. Within this program, opportunities existed with at least four regional and geographically convenient district attorneys' offices, the United States Attorney's office and the New York Prosecutors Institute. Something truly irked me, however, about the experiences of students placed in local district attorney offices. It may well be that my prior experience as an assistant district attorney in Manhattan made me more sensitive tocor judgmental aboutcthe experience of students placed in these offices. The students seemed to swallow whole the culture of a particular officecto be unable to separate process, procedure and skills from viewpoint, strategy and political bent. At first, I thought the fault lay in our field placement model of having expert prac- 5 9 S e e g e n e r a S o S h a Y o u R e a p, s u p r a n o A a n y L a w S c h o o l r u n s a n e x n s e p c e m e n t p r o g r a m w o v e r p c e m e n t o p p o r n s a n d o v e r s d e n p a r a g e a c h s e m e s r. A a n a s a m a r c a p l c e s a w e a o f o p p o r n r p c e m e n. A d o p d , o u r c u r r e n t p c e m e n t m o d e l k e s a d v a n g e o f o u r c a n b y o r g s d e n a n h e r e o m s e v e n n s e c n s o f p c e m e n c s r e d b y s u b c t m a r : E n o n m e n C a l D e n s e, D t A t r n e y, G o v - e r n m e n t a n d P u b S e e, H e a L a w, J u d L e g a l A, S c n c e a n d T e c h n o g a n d U n e d S s A r n e y p c e m e n. E a c h p c e m e n t c s r u g h t b y a n a d - n c t c a l p r o s s o r / e x p e r t p r a c n e r. T h e d e c r o f o u r F P c e m e n a e c u m e m b e r, p e r r m s o v e r s h t o v e r a p c e m e n a n d a n o r s o a d - n c t c a l p r o s s o r s, h o s o r n n s e s s n s, c s s e s, p a n e l p r e s e n n s a s lly ll te lb te iv fie ld la ith la tu itie tu ts tic ip tin te lb y, jo ita ity, provid lth tu ity fo fie ld la ts te in fie ld la ta ta lo tio ffe in tu ts yw fr to te tio la ts lu te je tte vir ta l, rim in fe is tric to lic rvic lth ic ia l, id ie lo y, it ta te tto la ts la lu te is ta ju lin ic fe titio ir to ie ld la t, fu ll tim fa lty fo ig ll la ts ll te ju lin ic fe ld ie ta tio io la ta tio a r r a n t e d, re q u ir e s jo u r n a lin g in a p p r o p r ia te s itu a tio n s fo r p u r p o s e s o f in s titu tio n a l u e a n d r e c n a n d m e e e a s e m e s r w a p s s d e n. S e e a o n o 6 6. critiq fle tio ts tw ic te ith ll lu tu ts ls te

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