THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX

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1 FILE:N:\DTP\MISS\LEAD.RAW Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM THE UNIVERSITY OF SAN DIEGO CRIMINAL CLINIC: IT'S ALL IN THE MIX Jean Montoya * Although many legal educators would place the birth of clinical legal education in the 1960's, legal scholars have convincingly traced it to the early twentieth century. 1 Nevertheless, in the wake of Gideon v. Wainwright, 2 and its progeny, 3 law school criminal clinics in particular proliferated. 4 P r o s s o r o f L a w, U n e r s o f S a n D g o S c h o o l o f L a w. A , P c e n U n e r s J , U n e r s o f C a r n a t L o s A n g e s S c h o o l o f L a w. I a m g r a l P r o s s o r s L a u r a B e r e n d a n d H a n s S h a r c r u g a n e a r r d r a o f e a r. I a m g r a l e U n e r s o f S a n D g o r s u p p o r g e w g o f a r b y p r o v g m e w a s u m m e a r c h g r a n t a n d r e s e a r c h a s s n c e. 1 S e e M a r g a r e t M a r B a e t a C a l E d u c a n r M n n m : T h e T h d W 7 C L. R E 1, ) e s c r g e h r y a n d r e d e c n s o f c a l g a l e d u c a n F o r s e m a l a r s o n e n e e d r c a l g a l e d u c a n, s e e J e r o m e F r a n k, W h y N o t a C a l L a w r - S c h o o, 8 1 U. P E N N. L. R E ) g e L a n g d e n a p p r o a c h g a l e d u c a n W m V. R o w e, L e g a l C s a n d B e r T r a e d L a w N e c e s s 1 1 I L L. R E ) d v o c a t g c a l g a l e d u c a n a s s e n l b u g p r o s s n a l c h a r a c r U ) o g a t e S A m e n d m e n a p p a b e s s r o u g h e F o u r e n A m e n d m e n q u e s s s p r o v e a r n e y s r d e n t d e n d a n c r a l p r o s e c u n s G e o n, e d e n d a n t w a s c h a r g e d w a n y a n d r e q u e s d e c o u r t a p p o t c o u n s e l r h. G e o n, U. a t T h e c o u r t a p o g e a d e c e d d o s o, d a t g a u o r w a s d a p p o g c o u n s e l c a p l c a s e s.. a t T h e d e n d a n t p r e s e n d h s e a t. H e w a s c o n v d a n d s e n n c e d s e r v e e y e a r s s p r o n.. F o r a r e p e c e a n d p r o s p e c e a n a o f G e o n, s e e Y a K a m a r e t a G e o n a t 4 0 : F a c g e C, F u g e P r o m e, 4 1 A M. C R. L. R E ) e c o r d g a m o d e r a d p a n e l d c u s s n 3 A r g e r s g e r v. H a m, U c r d G e o n b y h o g a t n o p e r s o n m a y b e p r o n e d r a n y o n s e, w h e e r p e m d e m e a n o r, o r n fe iv ity ie.b rin to iv ity;.d iv ity lifo ia le te fu to fe in fo itiq in lie ft th tic le te fu to th iv ity ie fo tin th rit in th is tic le id in ith er res is ta tin rry l., lin ic tio fo th is ille iu ir ave, V. (2 (d ib in th is to fu tu ir tio lin ic le tio ). in tic le th fo lin ic le tio lin ic ye l? V. (1 (critic izin th llia to le tio ); illia lin ic tte in yersba ity, L. V. (1 (a in lin ic le tio in trum ta to ild in fe io te )..S (1 (h ld in th th ixth t, lic le to th ta te th th te th t, re ir ta te to id tto fo in ig fe ts in im in tio ). In id th fe ith fe lo te th to in fo im id.s lo tic lly lin to in ic in its th ity lim ite to in tin in ita Id fe re te im lf tria l. Id ic te te to fiv in ta te is Id tros tiv tiv lysis id le is l., id in th ris is lfillin th is IM V. (2 (r in te is io ). in lin.s (1 ), la ifie id ld in th im is fo ffe th tty, is fe lo y, 1021

2 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 The University of San Diego (USD) offers law skills training through a variety of legal clinics, including its Criminal Clinic. In response to Gideon=s trumpet, USD=s Criminal Clinic first appeared as a course offering in 1973, 5 but u n le s s h e w a s r e p r e s e n te d b y c o u n s e l a t tria l. A r g e r s in g e r, 4 0 U.S. a t 2 5. In A r g e r s in g e r, th e d e fe n d a n t w a s c o n v ic te d o f carryin g a c o n c e a le d w e a p o n a n d s e n te n c e d to s e r v e n in e ty d a ys in ja il. Id. a t In A r g e r s in g e r, th e C o u rt e m p h a s iz e d th a t th e h ig h v o lu m e o f m is d e m e a n o r a n d p e tty c a s e s in e v ita b ly le a d s to r u s h e d ju s tic e a n d th a t th e p r e s e n c e o f c o u n s e l in th e s e c a s e s is c r itic a l to in s u r in g fa ir tria ls. Id. a t In a c o n c u r r in g o p in io n, J u s tic e B r e n n a n o b s e r v e d th a t la w s tu d e n ts in la w s c h o o l c lin ic a l prog r a m s c o u ld b e e x p e c te d to p la y a n im p o r ta n t ro le in p r o v id in g le g a l r e p r e s e n ta tio n to in d ig e n t crim in a l d e fe n d a n ts. Id. a t 4 4 (B r e n n a n, J., c o n c u r rin g ); s e e S te v e n Z e id m a n, S a c - rific ia l L a m b s o r th e C h o s e n F e w? : T h e Im p a c t o f S tu d e n t D e fe n d e r s o n th e R ig h ts o f th e A c c u s e d, 6 2 B R O O K. L. R E V ( ) (s tu d yin g th e e ffe c tiv e n e s s o f s tu d e n t d e fe n d e r s a n d c o n c lu d in g th a t th e y p r o v id e d b e tte r r e p r e s e n ta tio n th a n p r o fe s s io n a l d e fe n d e r s in te r m s o f r e s u lts a c h ie v e d a n d th e n a tu r e a n d q u a lity o f r e p r e s e n ta tio n ). 5 R o d n e y J o n e s, c u r r e n tly in p r iv a te p r a c tic e in C a lifo r n ia, jo in e d th e U S D la w fa c u lty in T e le p h o n e In te r vie w w ith R o d n e y R. J o n e s, fo r m e r fa c u lty m e m b e r, U n iv e r s ity o f S a n D ie g o S c h o o l o f L a w (S e p. 1, ). T h e th e n la w s c h o o l d e a n, D o n W e c k s te in, c h a r g e d h im w ith d e v e lo p in g a n in - h o u s e C rim in a l C lin ic. Id. W ith g r a n ts fr o m th e F o r d F o u n d a tio n a n d la te r fr o m T itle IX p rog r a m s, J o n e s d e v e lo p e d a n in - h o u s e C rim in a l C lin ic. S e e B a rry e t a l., s u p r a n o te E r r o r! B o o k m a r k n o t d e fin e d., a t (d e s c r ib in g th e fu n d in g a v a ila b le fo r c lin ic a l le g a l e d u c a tio n fr o m to ). A lth o u g h J o n e s to ye d w ith th e id e a o f o b ta in in g s p e c ia l p r o s e c u to r s ta tu s a n d d e v e lo p in g a p r o s e c u tio n c lin ic, th e c lin ic o ffe r e d d e fe n s e s e r v ic e s o n ly. T e le p h o n e In te r vie w w ith R o d n e y R. J o n e s. W a lk - in s, S a n D ie g o S ta te U n iv e r s ity s tu d e n ts (b y c o n tra c t), ja il in m a te s w ith p o s t - c o n v ic tio n p r o b le m s (m o tio n s to m o d ify p r o b a tio n, b u t n o t a p p e a ls o r p e titio n s fo r w rits ), r e fe r rals fr o m U S D=s C ivil C lin ic a n d c o u r t a p p o in tm e n ts p r o v id e d th e c lie n t b a s e. Id. F r o m its in c e p tio n, th e C rim in a l C lin ic h a d a c la s s c o m p o n e n t th a t e x a m in e d s e le c t to p ic s. E v e n tu a lly, th e la w s c h o o l w o u ld o ffe r p r o s e c u tio n a n d d e fe n s e e x te r n s h ip s to o. Id. F o r p e r s p e c tiv e s o n c r im in a l c lin ic s fr o m th is tim e in c lin ic a l e d u c a tio n=s h is tory s e e C. P a u l J o n e s, L a w S c h o o l C lin ic a l P r o g r a m s : T h e V ie w fr o m th e D e fe n d e r=s O ffic e, in C L IN IC A L E D U C A T IO N F O R T H E L A W S T U D E N T ( ) (a r g u in g th a t la w s tu d e n ts in c r im in a l c lin ic s h a v e a n im p o r ta n t ro le to p la y in r e fo r m in g th e c r im in a l ju s tic e s ystem ) a n d R o b e rt D. B a rte ls, C lin ic a l L e g a l E d u c a tio n a n d th e D e livery of L e g a l S e rvic e s : T h e V ie w fr o m th e P r o s e c u to r=s O ffic e, in C L IN IC A L E D U C A T IO N F O R T H E L A W S T U D E N T ( ) (a r g u in g th a t b e n e fits o u tw e ig h c o s ts to p r o s e c u tio n a g e n c ie s p a r tic i p a tin g in la w s c h o o l p r o s e c u tio n c lin ic s ). F o r e x a m p le, in , P r o fe s s o r B a rte ls n o te d Aa fa irly w id e s p r e a d fe e lin g a m o n g la w s tu d e n ts th a t th e r e is s o m e tin g [s ic ] in h e r e n tly b a d a b o u t p r o s e c u tin g p e o p Id. a t T h e p e n d u lu m

3 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1023 the current course is the product of an evolutionary process. The current Criminal Clinic is neither a prosecution clinic nor a criminal defense clinic. Instead, it brings together students who fancy themselves future prosecutors and future criminal defense attorneys. 6 I. THE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT OF USD=S CRIMINAL CLINIC Criminal Clinic I is a four-credit course consisting of two distinct components: the externship component and the class component. 7 m a y h a v e s w u n g. e w a k e o f e u g h - o n - e p o s o f e a n d , I h a v e u n d w s d e n m o r e c e d p r o s e c u a n d e n d c r a l d e n d a n. 6 I d o n o t o w h o w m a n y w s c h o o l a l c s a r e d e n s e - o n s, a s o p p o s e d p r o s e c u n - o n s, o r c s a t b r g g e e r s d e n t - p r o s e c u - r s a n d s d e n t - d e n s e a t r n e y s. C d e s n a n s a r e o n v a g u e a t r e g a r d. F o r e x a m p, e d e s n a n s a l P r a c e C a n d i n a l J u s e C u s. S e e R o b e F. S e e l & L d a H. M o r n, F P c e m e n t P r o g r a m s : P r a c e s, P r o b m s a n d P o s s s, 2 C L A L L. R E 4 1 3, A p p e n d B ) e p o r g a n a n w e s u r v e y o f e x r n s h p r o g r a m s C a l c s c e r k e m a n y r m s. P r o s s o r F e h a s d e s c r e d e C a l C a t T h o m a s M. C o o y L a w S c h o o l a s c o m b g e x r n s h a n d c s s c o m p o n e n. S e e N o r m a n F e D e v e p m e n t o f a C a l L a w C : A B n d e d A p p r o a c h, 4 4 C L E S T. L. R E 2 7 5, T h e C o o y, h o w e v e r, o n p c e d s d e n d e n s e e x r n s h s a t a s g p u b d e n d e o e.. a t A s w b e d e s c r e d r e r b e w, U S C a l C u n u e p c e s s d e n a v a r o f b o d e n s e a n d p r o s e c u n e x r n s h s. P r o s s o r S u b d e s c r e d e C a l L a w C a t N e w Y o U n e r s Y U ) a s c o m b g w o r k a n d c s s r o o m w o r k. S e e H S u b, C a l P e d a g o g h e E d u c a n a l P r o g r a m o f e N e w Y o U n e r s S c h o o l o f L a w C a l C, C L A L L E G A L E D U C A T N T h e N Y U c, h o w e v e r, v o e d a c n - h o u s e c, n o t e x r n s h s, a n d s d e n t w o r k w a s e d c r a l d e n s e.. 7 T h e p r e r e q u s r C a l C I a r e C a l L a w r e q u e d a r c o u r s e c u s g o n s u b s n e w a n d e p h s o p h a l s a n s r p u n h - m e n L a w r g S k I r e q u e d a r c s s o n g a l r e s e a r c h a n d w g L a w r g S k n u p p e r d n e c e e x p o s g s d e n a v a r o f w r g s k, c d g l s k, a n d c u a t g a m o c k C a l P r o c e d u r e n u p p e r d n e c e c u s g o n e F o u r a n d F A m e n d m e n a n d E v e n c e n u p p e r d n e c e e m p h a s g e F e d e r a l R u s o f e n c e B e c a u s e o f e n u m e r o u s p r e r e q u s, m o s t s d e n w h o k e C r a l C w In th th to crim litic th 's 's fo la tu ts in lin to te th fe im in fe ts kn la crim in lin ic fe ly clin ic to tio ly clin ic lin ic th in to th tu to tu fe to lin ic ig tio fte in th le th ig tio AC rim in tic lin AC rim tic lin te ll little rt ib in to ie ld la tic le ib ilitie IN IC V. ix (1 (r tin tio id te ip ). rim in lin ic ta in ly ta fo fe ll ib th rim in lin ic le in in te ip la ts ll, lo rim in lin ic le V. V. (1 ). le clin ic ly la tu ts in fe te ip in le lic fe r=s ffic Id ill ib fu th lo D=s rim in lin ic iq ly la tu ts in ie ty th fe tio te ip fe in ib th rim in lin ic rk iv ity (N in in fie ld la arry I. in lin ic yct tio th rk iv ity rim in lin ic in IN IC IO (1 ). lin ic in lv live- lie t, in lin ic te ip tu fie ld lim it to im in fe Id is ite fo rim in lin ic rim in (a ir first ye fo in ta tiv la th ilo ic ju tific tio fo is t), ye in ills (a ir first ye la le ritin ), ye in ills II (a ivis io le tiv in tu ts to ie ty la ye in ills in lu in tria ills lm in in in jury tria l), rim in (a ivis io le tiv fo in th th ifth ts ), id (a ivis io le tiv izin th le Evid ). th is ite tu ts ta im in lin ic ill

4 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 A. The Externship Component 8 In the externship component of the course, students engage in legal work at the local office of a criminal defense or prosecution agency. 9 Six government b e d y e a r w s d e n. S d e n w h o c o m p C a l C I c a n e n r o C a l C r o, r e e, u r, e o r s c r e d. S d e n e x r n w a d e n s e o r p r o s e c u n a g e n c y u r h o u r s p e r w e e k p e r s s c r e d r u r e n w e e k s. A c c o r d g a s d e n t k g C a l C r s c r e d w s p e n d e n u r h o u r s p e r w e e k r u r e n w e e k s w a n a p p r o v e d a g e n T h e C a l C e x r n s h m u s t b e m a r d r e n t m t h e C a l C I e x r n s h. O a a t m e a n t s d e n e x r n g w a p r o s e c u n a g e n c y r C a l C I w o u e x r n w a d e n s e a g e n r C a l C o r a t a s t e x r n a t a d r e n t p r o s e c u n a g e n c y e r h a p s g o o m e D t A r n e O e e U. A r n e O e T h e r e q u e m e n t h a s s c e e v o e d c d e r e m a g a t e s a m e a g e n c y r e x a m p, e D t A r n e O e ) b u t c h a n g g u n o g o m e g a n g u n e m p r o c n u n o r a b r a n c h c o u r t o e ) o r o b g a c o m m e n t o m e a g e n c y e x p o s e e s d e n t e x r n d r e n t s k o r s g e s o f c a l a n. F o r e x a m p, a C a l C I e x r n s h m a y h a v e e x p o s e d e s d e n t e x r n b a m o n a n d s e n n c g h e a r g s, b u t e C a l C e x r n s h w e x p o s e e s d e n t e x r n. C a l C h a s n o c s s c o m p o n e n S - d e n m e e t d u a w e c o u r s e s c r e a c h m o n, m a a u r n a l a n d w a r e c n p a p e r. C a l C I a n d a r e o r e d b o s e m e s r s. 8 S d e n g a p o r n t s u m e - b u g e x p e r n c e s c n - h o u s e c s, e x r n s h s a n d r n s h s. A t U S D, e x r n s h s a r e d g u h e d o m c n - h o u s e c s a n d r n s h s a s w s. S d e n e n r o d c n - h o u s e c s p r o v e g a l s e r v e s c n o f e w s c h o o l c a n d r e c e e a c a d e m c r e d m e w s c h o o l r e e r. S d e n e n r o d e x r n s h s a r e p c e d w a g a l o e d e p e n d e n t a n d s e p a r a o m e w s c h o o p r o v e g a l e s c n o f a t o e a n d r e c e e a c a d e m c r e d o m e w s c h o o l r e e r. r n s h s d r o m r n s h s a t e x r n s h e x p e r n c e s a r e o r g a n e d a n d s u p e r v e d b y e w s c h o o r n s h e x p e r n c e s a r e o r g a n e d a n d s u p e d b y e d e p e n d e n t a n d s e p a r a g a l o e. S d e n m a y c e e a c a d e m c r e d r e r n s h e x p e r i e n c e s r o u g h U S A g e n c y r n s h s p r o g r a m. T h e c u r r e n t U S D C a l C v o e s e x r n s h s a t p r e a p p r o v e d a g e n c s. 9 U S D p c e s s d e n a t e c a l o e s o f g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c s p r a r e n - g a g e d c r a l a n d r e t e d a n. W e h a v e s h d a w a y m a w g s - th ir la tu ts tu ts le te rim in lin ic ll in rim in lin ic II fo tw th fo fiv ix its tu ts te ith fe tio fo cla it, fo fo te in ly, tu ta in rim in lin ic II fo ix its ill tw ty- fo fo fo te ith cy. rim in lin ic II te ip te ia lly iffe fro rim in lin ic te ip rig in lly th tu ts te in ith tio fo rim in lin ic ld te ith fe cy fo rim in lin ic II le te iffe tio (p fr th is tric tto y=s ffic to th.s tto y=s ffic ). ir in lv to in lu in in th (fo le th is tric tto y=s ffic in its (g in fr th it to th fa ily te tio it ffic ta in in itm fr th to th tu te to iffe ills ta rim in litig tio le rim in lin ic te ip th tu te to il, tio te in in th rim in lin ic II te ip ill th tu te to tria ls rim in lin ic II la t. tu ts in ivid lly ith th in tru to th in ta in jo rite fle tio Every year, rim in lin ic II ffe th te tu ts in im ta re ild in ie in live- lie t, in lin ic te ip in te ip te ip is tin is fr live- lie t, in lin ic in te ip fo llo tu ts lle in live- lie t, in lin ic id le ic to lie ts th la lin ic iv ic it fro th la fo th ir ffo ts tu ts lle in te ip la ith le ffic in te fr th la l, id le servic to lie ts th ffic iv ic it fr th la fo th ir ffo ts Exte ip iffe fr in te ip in th te ip ie iz is th la l. In te ip ie iz ervis th in te le ffic tu ts re iv ic it fo th ir in te ip th D=s In te ip rim in lin ic in lv te ip ie la tu ts th lo ffic ie im ily in im in tria ls la litig tio ie fro llo in tu

5 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1025 agencies regularly participate in the program. 10 Students seeking a Criminal Clinic externship interview directly with the agencies of their choice. Students are free to choose among the externships offered to them by any one of these agencies. Students interested in prosecution can interview with three agencies: the San Diego City Attorney=s Office, which prosecutes misdemeanors committed within the city limits; the San Diego County District Attorney=s Office, which prosecutes felonies committed in the county and misdemeanors committed outside the city limits; and the Office of the United States Attorney for the Southern District of California, which prosecutes federal crimes. These prosecution agencies have office units specializing in a particular type of crime. For example, students externing at the City Attorney=s Office may be placed in the domestic violence unit, students externing at the District Attorney=s Office may be placed in units specializing in family protection, gangs, narcotics, fraud or juvenile delinquency, and students externing at the U.S. Attorney=s Office may be placed in units specializing in fraud, narcotics and general crime, including border crime. Students interested in criminal defense can interview with three agencies: the Office of the Public Defender, which provides representation to financially qualifying criminal defendants accused of committing crime anywhere in San Diego County; the Office of the Alternate Public Defender, which provides representation to financially qualifying criminal defendants when the Office of the Public Defender has a conflict of interest; and the office of Federal Defenders of d e n w o r k r p r i v a c r a l d e n s e a r n e y s o r g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c s d o g p r a r a p p e w o r k e A p p e D e n d e r s, c o r e S A r n e y G e n e r a O e O u r c o n c e r n w p e c t e p r i v a c r a l d e n s e b a r a m a r o f q u a c o n A s s n d s, e c o u r s e s c r m o n r s s u p e r v g a r n e y s a t s a g e n c s, b u t a c h a o f c o m m a n d a n d o n a t e a c h a g e n c y c s e o n - g o g r e n s h b e e e n e w s c h o o l a n d e a g e n c A w g s d e n e x r n w e p r a c r a l d e n s e b a r w o u g r e a c r e a s e e c u e e x p e n d e d o n e m o n r g o f s u p e r g a r n e O u r c o n c e r n w r e s p e c t a p p e a g e n c s w a s a t a p p e a d v o c a c y v o e s p r o c e d u r e s a n d s k a t c o u n o t b e a d d r e s s e d a d e q u a b y e c s s c o m p o n e n t o f e c o u r s e. A n u p p e r d n c o u r s e a p p e l a d v o c a c y a v a b r e s d s d e n. 1 0 S a n D g o h a s a s n a n t m r y p r e s e n c e. a d d n e s r e g u r a g e n c s, U S D s d e n s e r v g e m r y o c c a s n a e x r n r e J u d g e A d a G e n e r a C o r p s o r e p o p u r k n o w n a s e J A G C o r p s ) o f e m r y b r a n c h. ts to fo te im in fe tto ie in im ily lla te (lik lla te fe In., th ta te tto l=s ffic ). ith res to th te im in fe is tte lity tro l. it ta th in tru to ito is in tto ix ie in lia is fa ilita te th in la tio ip tw th la th y. llo in tu ts to te ith th iv te im in fe ld tly in th fa lty tim th ito in vis in tto ys. ith to lla te ie th lla te in lv ills th ld te ly th la th ivis io in la te is ila le to in te te tu ts ie ig ific ilita In itio to th ix la ie tu ts in in th ilita io lly te fo th voc te l=s (m la ly th th ir ilita

6 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 San Diego, Inc., which provides representation to financially qualifying criminal defendants accused of committing federal crimes. 11 These agencies are not divided into as many subunits as the prosecution agencies. Students externing at the Office of the Public Defender and the Office of the Alternate Public Defender may be placed in subunits specializing in juvenile delinquency. Although the Office of the Public Defender is divided into lawyers assigned to misdemeanors and lawyers assigned to felonies, students externing at this agency are typically assigned to both a team of misdemeanor lawyers and a felony mentor. In Criminal Clinic I, students are expected to work for their externship site a minimum of fourteen hours per week for fourteen weeks, or a total of 196 hours. Students often work many more hours, because they are enthused by what is often their first Areal legal experience. Others will often work many more 1 1 T h r o u g h th e s p r in g o f , s tu d e n ts in te r e s te d in c r im in a l d e fe n s e e n jo ye d a fo u r th o p tio n : a n in - h o u s e c r im in a l d e fe n s e c lin ic. T h e c lin ic o r ig in a lly p r o v id e d r e p r e s e n ta tio n to a d u lts a c c u s e d o f crim e, b u t in th e c lin ic b e g a n to s p e c ia liz e in ju v e n ile d e lin q u e n c y. T h is c lin ic w a s a w o n d e r fu l le a r n in g e x p e rie n c e fo r s tu d e n ts w h o fu n c tio n e d lik e la w ye r s w ith th e ir o w n c a s e lo a d, re p r e s e n tin g juven ile s a c c u s e d o f crim e fr o m th e in itia l in tervie w th r o u g h a n y m o tio n s, tria l (k n o w n a s a d ju d ic a tio n h e a r in g s ), a n d s e n te n c in g (k n o w n a s d is p o s itio n h e a r in g s ). S e v e r a l fa c to r s le d to its d e m is e : (1 ) D e c lin in g s tu d e n t in teres t: S tu d e n ts fa c in g a tig h t jo b m a r k e t a p p a r e n t ly prefe r r e d to e x te r n w ith p o te n tia l fu tu r e e m p lo ye r s ; (2 ) In s titu tio n a l r e s o u r c e s : T h e c lin ic w a s lim ite d to s ix stu d e n ts a n d te a m - ta u g h t b y tw o fu ll- tim e fa c u lty m e m b e r s, ra is in g is s u e s o f c o s t - e ffe c tiv e n e s s ; (3 ) D e c lin in g fa c u lty in te r e s t: E v e n w ith o n ly th r e e s tu d e n ts p e r in s tru c to r, s u p e r v is io n o f th e in - h o u s e c lin ic w a s e n o r m o u s ly tim e - c o n s u m in g. G iv e n th e d e m a n d s o f te n u r e a n d v a r io u s p a y in c e n tiv e s (in c lu d in g m e r it p a y in c r e a s e s a n d s u m m e r r e s e a r c h g r a n ts ), in s tru c to r s b e c a m e m o r e in te r e s te d in p r o d u c in g s c h o la r s h ip th a n c o o lin g th e ir h e e ls in c o u r tro o m h a llw a ys; (4 ) L e g a l c h a n g e s : C a lifo r n ia =s T h r e e S trik e s L a w c a m e in to e ffe c t in , a n d it w a s u n c le a r w h e th e r a n d w h e n tru e fin d in g s in ju v e n ile c o u r t (th e e q u iv a le n t o f a d u lt crim in a l c o n v ic tio n s ) w o u ld c o u n t a s p r io r a b le s trik e s. T h e p o te n tia l c o n s e q u e n c e s fo r c lie n ts m e a n t in c r e a s e d e m o tio n a l a n d p r o fe s s io n a l b u r d e n s fo r s tu d e n ts a n d in s tru c to r s. T h e first tw o fa c to r s h a v e b e e n id e n tifie d p r e v io u s ly a s fa c to r s fa v o r in g e x te r n s h ip s o v e r live- c lie n t, in - h o u s e c lin ic s. S e e, e.g., F e ll, s u pra n o te 6, a t (d e s c r ib in g th e C rim in a l C lin ic a t T h o m a s M. C o o le y L a w S c h o o l). T h e th ir d fa c to r h a s b e e n id e n tifie d a s a n o c c u p a tio n a l h a z a r d o f s o r ts. S e e R u s s e ll E n g le r, T h e M a c C r a te R e p o rt T u r n s 1 0 : A s s e s s in g Its Im p a c t a n d Id e n tifyin g G a p s W e S h o u ld S e e k T o N a r r o w, 8 C L IN IC A L L. R E V , n ( ) (a ttrib u tin g a d im in u tio n in c lin ic a l e q u a l ju s tic e w o r k to th e a s s im ila tio n in to th e le g a l a c a d e m y o f c lin ic a l in s tru c to r s ).

7 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1027 than the required hours because they want to impress their externship supervisors either to get a good letter of recommendation or a job offer after graduation. USD=s understanding with the approved agencies is that student externs will be exposed to a variety of lawyering skills, not simply as an observer but as a student-lawyer, with students conducting witness interviews, counseling clients, investigating facts, researching legal issues, drafting legal documents (like points and authorities in support of or in opposition to motions), doing other writing (like client letters), engaging in negotiations and making court appearances. 12 Most students spend the bulk of their time researching legal issues and writing motions (or in the prosecution agencies, responding to defense motions), and they will often argue these motions in court and handle any evidentiary hearings connected to the motions. Students receive their work assignments from one or more externship supervisors. Externship supervisors are lawyer-mentors on staff at the externship site. At the end of the semester, students complete a writing assignment that requires them to reflect upon their externship experience. 13 Externship supervisors complete a form evaluating the student=s externship performance and are invited to attach letters further detailing the student extern=s performance. 14 Externship supervisors are also encouraged to give students feedback on their performance throughout the semester as they complete projects, like writing assignments, and make court appearances. Student externs meet individually with the course instructor at least three times over the course of the semester. The point of these meetings is to make sure that students are getting a good educational experience. How are they spending their time at the externship? Do they have enough work? Do they have too much work? Are they doing appropriate work? How is the work environment? Are their supervisors available to them for guidance and feedback? Are supervisors abusive in any way or otherwise acting in inap- 1 2 T h e S ta te B a r o f C a lifo r n ia c e r tifie s s tu d e n ts to m a k e c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e s u n d e r th e s u p e r v is io n o f a lic e n s e d a tto r n e y. P u r s u a n t to R u le o f th e C a lifo r n ia R u le s o f C o u rt, la w s tu d e n ts a r e e lig ib le fo r S ta te B a r c e r tific a tio n if th e y h a v e s u c c e s s fu lly c o m p le te d o n e fu ll ye a r o f s tu d ie s a t a n a c c r e d ite d la w s c h o o l a n d h a v e c o m p le te d o r a r e c u r r e n tly e n r o lle d in c o u r s e s o n C iv il P r o c e d u r e a n d Evid e n c e. C A L. C T. R P u r s u a n t to th e lo c a l r u le s o f th e fe d e r a l c o u r t, s tu d e n ts a r e n o t a llo w e d to m a k e c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e s. S.D. C A L. C T. R S e e A p p. A (fin a l w ritin g a s s ig n m e n t g u id e lin e s ). 1 4 S e e A p p. B (e v a lu a tio n fo r m c o m p le te d b y e x te r n s h ip s u p e r vis o r s ).

8 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 propriate ways? When a problem is detected, the course instructor may take action by contacting the student=s externship supervisor, but usually the course instructor brainstorms with the student about what actions the student can take to improve the situation. For example, a student extern may have trouble connecting with an overextended supervisor. The course instructor might suggest that the student set up a regular meeting time with the supervisor (say, Mondays at 4 p.m.). To her disappointment, a student may find herself only researching and writing motions (or oppositions to motions). The course instructor might suggest that the student ask to argue any motions that she writes or suggest that the student meet with her externship supervisor to ask for other assignments. On a rare occasion, the agency may contact the course instructor with concerns about an extern=s performance. These concerns are usually about attendance, inappropriate attire or other unprofessionalism. When the agency raises such concerns, the course instructor will meet privately with the student extern to discuss the matter. B. The Class Component 15 The class component of Criminal Clinic is an indispensable part of the course, 16 using simulation exercises to introduce students to the various stages 1 5 S o m e le g a l s c h o la r s ta k e is s u e w ith th e w o r d Ac o m p o n e n in th is c o n te x t. S e e, e.g., Eric a M. E is in g e r, T h e E x te r n s h ip C la s s R e q u ir e m e n t: A n Id e a W h o s e T im e H a s P a s s e d, 1 0 C L IN IC A L L. R E V , n.2 ( ). T h e y a r g u e th a t th e w o r d c a r r ie s a n e g a tiv e c o n n o ta tio n a n d d e s c r ib e s a c la s s th a t is p a r tia l o r d im in is h e d in v a lu e a s c o m p a r e d to o th e r c la s s e s. Id. I u s e th e te r m h e r e q u ite lite r a lly. C rim in a l C lin ic I a t U S D c o n s is ts o f a t le a s t tw o c o m p o n e n ts o r tw o p a r ts. T h a t s a id, C rim in a l C lin ic =s c la s s c o m p o n e n t c o u ld e a s ily b e o ffe r e d a s a s ta n d - a lo n e c la s s, a n d o th e r le g a l e d u c a to r s u s e th e c o u r s e te x tb o o k to te a c h a s ta n d - a lo n e s im u la tio n c la s s (i.e., s tu d e n ts a r e n o t re q u ir e d to w o r k s im u lta n e o u s ly in e x te r n s h ip s ). In fa c t, o v e r th e ye a r s, C rim in a l C lin ic I s tu d e n ts h a v e s u g g e s te d o ffe r in g th e c la s s c o m p o n e n t a s a p r e r e q u is ite fo r a n e x te r n s h ip s - o n ly clin ic (s tu d e n ts w o u ld n o t b e r e q u ir e d to a tte n d c la s s s im u lta n e o u s ly b u t c o u ld a p p ly w h a t th e y le a r n fr o m th e c la s s - a s - p r e r e q u is ite th r o u g h o u t th e ir exte r n s h ip s ). T h e s u g g e s tio n is m o tiv a te d b y th e fa c t th a t s o m e e x te r n s w ill e n c o u n te r a s p e c ts o f crim in a l litig a tio n a t th e ir exte r n s h ip s b e fo r e th o s e a s p e c ts a r e c o v e r e d in c la s s. 1 6 In its A c c r e d ita tio n S ta n d a r d s, th e A m e r ic a n B a r A s s o c ia tio n (A B A ) h a s e x p r e s s e d a p r e fe r e n c e fo r s u p p le m e n t in g e x te r n s h ip s w ith c la s s r o o m in s tru c tio n. S e e P e te r A. J o y, E v o lu tio n o f A B A S ta n d a r d s R e la tin g to E x te r n s h ip s : S te p s in th e R ig h t D ir e c tio n? 1 0 C L IN IC A L L. R E V , ( ) (tr a c i n g th e

9 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1029 of criminal litigation. At USD, we use Criminal Litigation in Action, 17 published by NITA, as our textbook. The book tracks a realistic but fictitious criminal case (People v. Battistone) from arrest through sentencing (but not trial), 18 providing students with an overview of criminal litigation. The case unfolds in the fictitious State of Nita. The book includes a partial law library based on California law and practice but compares and contrasts procedures from different jurisdictions. For example, although most felony cases proceed by way of preliminary hearing in California, the book compares and contrasts grand jury proceedings with preliminary hearings. It further compares and contrasts different approaches to grand jury proceedings and preliminary hearings (for example, in most but not all jurisdictions, hearsay is admissible in grand jury proceedings). In the various simulations, students are assigned to play the role of either the prosecutor or defense counsel at a particular stage in the Battistone litigation. 19 For example, when we study pretrial release, students are asked to h r y o f A B A r e g u n o f e x r n s h s N e v e r e s s, e n o n o f r e q u g a c s s r o o m c o m p o n e n t h a s e n g e n d e r e d a a m o u n t o f m. S e e, e., E g e r, s u p r a n o 1 5, a t , r g u g, r a, a t e m o r e v a r i e d e p c e m e n e s s c o m p e g e c s s r o o m c o m p o n e n S e e l & M o r n, s u p r a n o 6, a t g e A B m a n a g e m e n a p p r o a c h e x r n s h s a n d a r g u g a t x e d e s n o f e x r n s h p r o g r a m s w b e s t a d v a n c e p e d a g o g a l g o a S e e a o D a n l J. G e e r e t a L e a r n g T h r o u g h W o r k : A n E m p a l S d y o f L e g a l r n s h, 4 5 J. L E G A L E D U C ) o n c d g o n e b a s o f a n e m p a l s d y a e v e n w h e n p r o s s n a l e d u c a r s a r e u n - v o e d, w o e w o r k h a s s n a n t e d u c a n a l v a e r w s d e n 1 7 L A U R A B E R E N D & J E A N M O N T O Y A, C R A L L A T N A C T N T h e c s s c o m p o n e n t o f C a l C s p e n d s e, a n o n l a d v o c a c y. s a d, e c o u r s e e m p h a s e s p r e l a n a n d e x p r e s p a b a r g a g w e d b y s e n n c g. T h a s p e c t o f e c s s c o m p o n e n t n o t u n p r o b m a. C e p a b a r g a g e m o r e c o m m o n r o u e r e s o n o f a l c a s e s. S e e r e A e r n a z, P d 7 4 7, a ) b s e r v g a t a b a r g a g a n g r a l c o m p o n e n t o f e c r a l s e s. M o r e o v e r, s d e n k g C a l C h a v e a e a d y c o m p d a l a d v o c a c y c o u r s e a w r g S k a n d s d e n r e s d h o n g e l a d v o c a c y c a n k e A d v a n c e d T r l A d v o c a c y. L a w r g S k a n d E v e n c e a r e p r e r e q u s. o c c u r s m e, h o w e v e r, a t a s p e c t o f e c s s c o m p o n e n t m a y b e a d v e r n s e n d g e m e s s a g e s d e n a t p a b a r g a g e p r e r r e d m e o d o f r e s o g c r - a l c a s e s. 1 9 S o m e o f e s u n s d o n o t v o e a d g e. F o r e x a m p, e is to la tio te ip ). th le th tio ir in la fa ir critic is.g is in te (a in in te lia th th th la ts th le llin th la t); ib to te (critic izin th A=s Am icro- to te ip in th fle ib ility in th ig te ip ill ic ls ). ls ie iv lb l., in iric tu In te ip (1 (c lu in th is iric tu th t, fe io to in lv la ffic ig ific tio lu fo la tu ts ). IM IN IT IG IO IN IO (2 ). la rim in lin ic little tim if y, tria skills In te th iz tria litig tio lo le in in fo llo te in is th la is le tic rta in ly, le in in is th te to th lu tio crim in In lv.2 (C l. (o in th Ap le in in is in te th im in ju tic tu ts ta in rim in lin ic lr le te tria (L ye in ills II), tu ts in te te in in th ir tria skills ta ia ye in ills II id is ite It to th th is th la in te tly in th to tu ts th le in in is th fe th lvin im in th im la tio in lv ju le th

10 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 assume that the defendant is in custody, his bail is set at an amount certain and the matter is set for a bail review hearing. All the students are given the same police report, but each pair of opposition counsel are given a different rap sheet (detailing the defendant=s criminal history) and bail report (detailing the defendant=s family, work and community ties). Counsel address the court, arguing for or against the defendant=s release on his promise to appear (also known as OR), or arguing that the bail amount should be raised, lowered or remain the same. Counsel are given the opportunity to respond to each other=s arguments and are expected to address any questions or concerns raised by the court. Following the court=s ruling, students and the course instructor debrief. During debriefing the course instructor will lead a discussion regarding the immediately preceding student performances and explore the choices made by the student advocate. Sometimes the course instructor will examine the substance of the argument by inquiring: What were your points? What unmentioned facts would have lent additional support to those points? What other points might you have raised? Did you consider calling witnesses, identifying people in the courtroom audience as the defendant=s supporters or supplying the court with letters documenting family, work and community ties? Sometimes the course instructor will make observations about style or professionalism: The argument seemed overly defensive; try making an affirmative argument. Did you mean to attack opposition counsel=s intelligence? Opposition counsel=s integrity? What was gained? Lost? A description of how the class component unfolds over the course of the semester may be useful to new and seasoned clinicians alike. A synopsis follows. For many years, we began the class component of the course with a charging exercise. It seemed logical to start there. At least in the state courts of California, most criminal cases begin with the prosecution=s filing of a criminal complaint. Of course, while lawyer involvement in a criminal case might begin with charging by the prosecutor, a criminal case arguably begins earlier, when law enforcement first becomes involved. s im u la tio n s r e g a r d in g c h a r g in g, g r a n d ju r y p r o c e e d in g s, d is c o v e r y a n d p le a b a r g a in in g e ith e r d o n o t in v o lv e a ju d g e o r th e ju d g e=s r o le is m in im a l. O th e r s im u la tio n s in v o lv e a ju d g e. F o r e x a m p le, th e s im u la te d b a il revie w h e a r in g s, p r e lim in a r y h e a r in g s, m o tio n h e a r in g s, a n d s e n te n c in g h e a r in g s r e q u ir e s o m e o n e to p la y th e r o le o f th e ju d g e. S o m e tim e s s tu d e n ts a r e a s s ig n e d to p la y th e r o le o f th e ju d g e. S o m e tim e s th e c o u r s e in s tru c to r p la y s t h e r o le o f th e ju d g e. S o m e tim e s v o lu n te e r a tto r n e y s p la y th e r o le o f th e ju d g e. S tu d e n ts a r e p a r tic u la r ly e n e r g iz e d w h e n v o lu n te e r a tto r n e y s p la y th e r o le o f th e ju d g e.

11 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1031 We now begin the class by discussing arrest, pretrial detention and the constitutional requirement of a prompt judicial determination of probable cause following a warrantless arrest. 20 Starting here allows us to highlight the distinct roles played by law enforcement officers, prosecutors and the courts in a typical case. Moreover, from the perspective of a criminal defendant, the central figure in a criminal case, the case begins here, with police investigation (or lack thereof) 21 and restrictions on his liberty. We then turn to charging. We talk about fact management and ask students to organize the known evidence in Battistone according to the elements of various crimes. 22 Students also read and apply the Nita Uniform Crime Charging Standards. Should prosecutors file charges on the basis of probable cause or some other standard? When should prosecutors pursue additional investigation before charging? Under what circumstances should prosecutors dismiss charges? We then turn to arraignment as an often pro forma hearing, and interviewing and counseling. Students are introduced to interviewing and counseling by conducting brief initial meetings with either the complaining witness (as prosecutor) or criminal defendant (as defense attorney). At these meetings, students encounter different classic personas, as played by other students. Prosecutors are introduced to the complaining witness who is reluctant to participate, perhaps recanting, distracted, hostile or unfamiliar with the criminal justice system. Defense attorneys are introduced to the hostile defendant (he wants a Areal not a public defender), the inexperienced and frightened defendant, as well as an agitated, indignant or lying criminal defendant. Following these meetings, the class instructor debriefs the class, persona by persona. How did or should the student lawyer handle the hostile defendant or recanting complaining witness (aka victim)? After arraignment and initial interviews, we study pretrial release. Roger Battistone is in custody. Under what circumstances, if any, should he remain 2 0 S e e C o u n ty o f R iv e r s id e v. M c L a u g h lin, U.S. 4 4 ( ) (h o ld in g th a t th e F o u r th A m e n d m e n t g e n e r a lly re q u ir e s ju d ic ia l d e te r m in a tio n s o f p r o b a b le c a u s e w ith in fo r ty- e ig h t h o u r s o f w a r r a n tle s s a r r e s ts a s a p r e r e q u is ite to e x te n d e d p r e tria l d e te n tio n ). 2 1 S e e S ta n le y Z. F is h e r, AJ u s t th e F a c ts, M a=a Lyin g a n d th e O m is s io n o f E x c u lp a tory Evid e n c e in P o lic e R e p o r ts, 2 8 N E W E N G. L. R E V. 1 ( ) (d o c u m e n t in g th e p r o - p r o s e c u tio n b ia s in p o lic e in v e s tig a tio n ). 2 2 T h e to p ic o f fa c t m a n a g e m e n t is r e v is ite d in th e c la s s e s o n d is c o v e r y, m o tio n s a n d tria l p r e p a r a tio n.

12 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 incarcerated pending resolution of the charges? What information is relevant at a bail review hearing and why? What options are available to the judge? Should the prosecutor always try to increase the bail amount? Oppose an OR release? Should defense counsel always seek an OR release? As described above, students engage in simulated bail review hearings in their role as counsel. Following pretrial release, we study preliminary hearings as probable cause hearings and contrast these hearings with grand jury proceedings. What are the defendant=s rights at each of these hearings? From the perspective of the state or the criminal defendant, is one type of hearing to be preferred over the other? Following our study of preliminary hearings and grand jury proceedings, students are introduced to formal discovery. Both the student prosecutors and the student defense attorneys receive discovery packets based on Battistone (including photographs, witness statements and real evidence) and have to decide what they will turn over to opposition counsel pursuant to a reciprocal discovery statute. Formal discovery (pursuant to statute) is compared with informal discovery and the prosecutor=s obligations pursuant to Brady. 23 Following the discovery exercise, students are introduced to motion work. The Battistone facts support several pretrial and in limine motions: a motion to suppress a confession as involuntary/pursuant to Miranda; 24 a motion to suppress evidence pursuant to the Fourth Amendment; a motion to suppress an incourt identification; a motion for a live line-up (defense); a motion for a handwriting exemplar (prosecution); a discovery motion; a motion to obtain personnel records of a law enforcement officer (known in California as a Pitchess motion); 25 and a motion to sever counts. Students are paired as opponents and argue the motions. Following the court=s ruling, the class debriefs: When is the motion brought? What type of notice and format is required? What is the purpose of the motion? The grounds for the motion? Who has and what is the burden of proof? Are witnesses called? If so, who should be called to testify? What are the ethics of bringing or opposing the particular 2 3 S e e B rady v. M aryla n d, U.S. 8 3 ( ) (e x p la in in g p r o s e c u to r 's d u ty to d is c lo s e e v id e n c e fa v o r a b le to th e a c c u s e d ). 2 4 S e e M ir a n d a v. A riz o n a, U.S ( ). 2 5 S e e C A L. E V ID. C O D E '' (W e s t ) (p r o v id in g fo r d is c o v e r y o f c e r ta in p o lic e o ffic e r p e r s o n n e l rec o r d s ); P itc h e s s v. S u p e rio r C o u rt, P.2 d (C a l ) (h o ld in g th a t a d e fe n d a n t c h a r g e d w ith a s s a u ltin g a p o lic e o ffic e r o r r e s is tin g a r r e s t a n d c la im in g s e lf- d e fe n s e is e n title d to d is c o v e r y o f in fo r m a tio n a n d d o c u m e n ts th a t m a y h e lp h im e s ta b lis h th e p r o p e n s ity o f th o s e o ffic e r s to a c t vio le n tly).

13 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1033 motion? What effect will winning or losing the motion have on the case? Following the discovery and motion exercises, students are in possession of new information which they must assimilate. Students are expected to evaluate the case from their perspective and their opponent=s perspective for purposes of trial in light of the applicable law and all the known evidence. Students methodically analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each charge and defense, as well as each witness=s credibility, and articulate their theory of the case. Following the case evaluation exercise, students engage in plea bargaining. Plea bargaining is presented as a complex matter, 26 requiring competent counsel to investigate the facts and law, assess the likelihood of conviction at trial, calculate the defendant=s maximum exposure to imprisonment assuming conviction at trial, investigate the collateral consequences of a conviction and identify the aggravating and mitigating factors for purposes of sentencing before negotiating. Students negotiate in pairs of opponents. Any pair of students unable to reach an agreement discusses the matter with the judge in chambers. Otherwise, the various plea bargains reached are discussed during a debriefing period. Here, students also consider whether and how hard defense counsel should Alean on a to plead, 27 as well as how much say crime victims should have about the resolution of cases by negotiated plea. 28 Following plea bargaining, the students study sentencing and, in particular, discretion in sentencing. Students are also paired as opponents and conduct sentencing hearings based on the Battistone incident but different presentencing reports (detailing a particular plea agreement as well as criminal 2 6 F o r a d c u s s n o f d e n s e c o u n s e r e s p o n s s p r e p a r g n e g o a p a w p r o s e c u n c o u n s e s e e R o d n e y J. U p h o T h e C a l D e n s e L a w r a s E c e N e g o r : A S A p p r o a c h, 2 C L A L L. R E F o r a n e x c e n t a r o n w h e e r a n d h o w h a r d d e n s e c o u n s e l s h o u a n o n a c n p a d, s e e A b b e S m, D e n d g e n o c e n t, 3 2 C O N N. L. R E S e e a o S v e n Z e m a n, T o P a d o r N o t P a d : E c e A s s n c e a n d C n t - C e n r e d C o u n s e g, 3 9 B. L. R E ) r g u g a t d e n s e c o u n s e l s h o u b e r e q u e d a d v e e c n t w h e e r o r n o t a c c e p t a p a o r a n d p e r s u a d e e c n t a c c e p t c o u n s e r e c o m m e n d a n 2 8 S e e S c y C a p w, W h a t T h e r e N o C n : P r o s e c u r s a s o u n s e o f C e V s, 5 C L A L L. R E ) d v o c a g r m o r e c o b o r a e r e n s h s b e e e n p r o s e c u r s a n d c r e v s is io fe l=s ib ilitie in in to tia te le ith tio l, ff, rim in fe ye ffe tiv tia to ystem ic IN IC V. (1 ). lle tic le th fe ld Ale lie to le ith fe in th In V. (2 ). ls te id le to le ffe tiv is ta lie te lin.c V. (1 (a in th fe ld ir to is th lie th to le ffe try to th lie to l=s tio ). ta lo If Is lie t? to AC rim ic tim IN IC V. (1 (a tin fo lla tiv la tio ip tw to im ic tim ).

14 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 history and social background of the defendant). II. THE VALUE IN COMBINING CRIMINAL EXTERNSHIPS WITH CLASS MEETINGS The class component of USD=s Criminal Clinic is important for several reasons. First, no two externships will be exactly alike. Students are placed with different agencies. Even when students are interning at the same agency, they may be assigned to different units of the office. Even when students are in the same unit at the same agency, they may have different externship supervisors with different approaches to their cases. Even when students are at the same agency and have the same supervisor, they will typically be working on different cases. The class component of the course ensures that students share basic knowledge about the criminal justice system, and this common knowledge facilitates dialogue on normative issues. Second, in a one-semester course, students will not always follow a case from beginning to end (arraignment through sentencing or dismissal) at their externships. Most students will research various points of law and write memoranda or motion papers. Many, but not all, of these students will argue these motions in court. 29 Some of these students may also write a sentencing memorandum (known as a statement in mitigation or aggravation). Many, but not all, of these students will argue at the sentencing hearing. Many, but not all, externs will conduct a preliminary hearing. Only some students will conduct plea negotiations. Most students will see a case only after charges have been filed. Most students will not actively participate in the trial of a case, but they may organize discovery, prepare the trial notebook and sit at counsel table with their supervisor. No student extern will ever observe grand jury proceedings, 30 but some may be peripherally involved. The class component of the course gives students an overview of the process, filling in the gaps in their externship experience, and crystalizing for students how the various stages of litigation are 2 9 N o t a ll s tu d e n ts w ill g e t to a r g u e th e m o tio n s th e y w rite. S tu d e n ts s o m e tim e s c o n fr o n t s c h e d u lin g c o n flic ts b e c a u s e m o tio n h e a r in g s a r e s e t o u ts id e th e ir exte r n s h ip h o u r s, p e r h a p s d u r in g c la s s tim e. S o m e e x te r n s h ip s u p e r v is o r s a r e n o t a s c o m fo r ta b le a s o th e r s in a llo w in g s tu d e n ts to c o n d u c t h e a r in g s, p a r tic u la r ly e v id e n tia r y h e a r in g s, e s p e c ia lly w h e n th e s ta k e s a r e h ig h. 3 0 S a n D ie g o p r o s e c u to r s a t th e s ta te a n d fe d e r a l le v e l h a v e n o t a llo w e d s tu d e n ts to o b s e r v e o r a c tiv e ly p a r tic ip a te in g r a n d ju r y p r o c e e d in g s. It is n o t c le a r to m e w h e th e r th is is b e c a u s e th e y in te r p r e t g o v e r n in g s ta t u te s to p r o h ib it th e p r e s e n c e o f s tu d e n t e x te r n s o r b e c a u s e o ffic e p o lic y p r o h ib its th e ir p r e s e n c e.

15 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1035 sequenced and impact each other. Third, students generally come to the clinic with little or no real world legal experience. Even when they have been exposed to criminal defense or prosecution work, only rarely have they previously appeared in court. They are understandably quite nervous and appreciate the opportunity to preview the courtroom experience in the less intimidating, classroom setting. The simulation exercises afford students the opportunity to practice making oral arguments but also practice responding to an opponent=s arguments and interacting with a judge. Fourth, and perhaps most importantly, an mentality and other prejudices seem endemic to practice and myopic lawyering can follow. 31 Of course, being adversarial-minded is not necessarily bad. Our legal tradition regards the adversary process as the best means of ascertaining truth. 32 More- 3 1 T h e v a n o f o p p o s n c o u n s e l n o t u n c o m m o n. F o r e x a m p, a q u e s n n a e s d y a b o u t b a r g a g c s e c r a l s e s u n d, a m o n g o e r g s, a t d t a r n e y s a n d p u b d e n d e r s e x a g g e r a d e a c h o e s t a n c e o n [ ] q u e s n a b c s e n e g a e d e c n. T h a t, b o s e s o u g h t e o e r w o u a p p r o v e o f [ ] q u e s n a b c s a g r e a r e x n t a n e y a c a d S v e n M. G a e t a M o r a Q u e s n a b T a c s : N e g o n s B e e e n D t A r n e y s a n d P u b D e n d e r s, 2 7 P E R S O N A L Y A N D S O C. P S Y C H O L. B U L 7 3 1, A p p a r e n n o t u n u s u a l r r o u p s a t o d d s o v e r a n s u e [ ] e x a g g e r a e s n c e o f e o e r s e. a t N e v e r e s s, e s d y r e r u n d a t e p u b d e n d e r s w e r e m o r e p r o n e e x a g g e r a a n e d t a r n e. 3 2 A s e U n d S s S u p r e m e C o u h a s o b s e r v e d a n o n - q u o d p a s s a g e : h e v e r y p r e m e o f o u r a d m o f a l s e a t p a r a n a d v o c a c y o n b o s e s o f a c a s e w b e s t p r o m o e u a o b c e a t e g u b e c o n v d a n d e n o c e n t g o e e H g v. N e w Y o U , ) o g a t d e n g d e n s e c o u n s e l e o p p o r n m a k e a c s g a r g u m e n t a b e n c h l d a c r a l d e n d a n S A m e n d m e n t h t e a s s n c e o f c o u n s e N e v e r e s s, s o m e g a l s c h o r s, c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p e r c e e d a d v e r s a r l e x - c e s s e s, h a v e s u g g e s d a t e E n g h s o f a u n d c r a l b a r, a s m w h h e s a m e w r m a y p r o s e c u a c r a l c a s e o n e d a y a n d d e n d a c r a l c a s e a n o e r d a b e p r e r r e d o u r s y s m. S e e, e W L M T. P Z T R L S W H O U T T R U T H : W H Y O U R S Y S T E M O F C R A L T R L S H A S B E C O M E A N E X P E N S E F A U R E A N D W H A T W E N E E D T O D O T O R E B U D I T W m T. P D c o v e r g W h o W e A r e : A n E n g h P e r s p e c e o n e S p s o n T r 6 7 U. C O L L. R E B u t s e e R h a r d S. F r a s e, T h e S e a r c h r e W h o T r u A b o u t A m e r a n a n d ilific tio itio is le tio ir tu in in ta tic in th im in ju tic ystem fo th th in th A[ ]is tric tto lic fe te th r=s tio le ta tic in th tiv ir tio is th id th th th ld tio le ta tic to te te th th tu lly te rcia l., lly tio le tic tia tio tw is tric tto lic fe IT L. (2 ). tly, it is fo Ag is to te th ta th th Id th le th tu fu th fo th th lic fe to te th th is tric tto ys. Id th ite ta te rt in fte te AT is versary syste crim in ju tic is th tis th id ill te th ltim te je tiv th th ilty ic te th in errin rk,.s (1 (h ld in th yin fe th tu ity to lo in in tria vio la te im in fe t=s ixth rig to th is ta l). th le le la iv ia te th th lis ystem ifie im in yste in ic th la ye te im in fe im in th y, is to fe to te.g., IL IA IZ I, IA IT IM IN IA IV IL IL (1 ); illia izzi, is in lis tiv th im ia l, O. V. (1 ). ic fo th le th ic

16 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 over, the image of the prosecutor as villain may motivate at least some public defenders. 33 Nevertheless, we want our students to appreciate the opponent=s perspective, not only to promote civility, respect and professionalism more generally, but also to enhance their competency as they better anticipate their opponent=s motivations and actions. 34 To this end, we have experimented with E u r o p e a n C r a l J u s e, 3 B U F C R. L. R E ) w g P r o s s o r P b o o k O e r s h a v e a d v o c a d a u n d b a r, n o t a d d r e s s a d v e r s a r l e x c e s s e s, b u t m a k e e a d v e r s a r l s y s m m o r e b y e s b h g p a r b e e e n p r o s e c u r s a n d c r a l d e n s e a r n e S e e, e D o n a A. D p s, e c e A s s n c e o f C o u n s e T h e C a s e r a n A n P a S n d a r d, 8 8 J. C R. L. & C R O L O G Y F o r e x a m p, a s d y o f e C o o k C o u n P u b D e n d e O e, P s s o r M c o b s e r v e d e w g : T h e s o r t o f c h e a g w h h p u b d e n d e r s a u e h o s w a r d p o e, p r o s e c u r s, a n d d g e s s o m e g a t p u b d e n d e r s s a y e y s e e a A n d o u g h s u c h c h e a g m a y b e e x p e c d, p u b d e - n d e r s d u n a c c e p b n d a r e n o t a a s a y s o. o n, b u t n g p u b d e n d e r s a b o u t e c a s e s a n d w h y e y d o w h a t e y d o e n g s o m e o n e w h o h a s s t b e e n m u g g e d. P u b d e n d e r s d o e l a s e y a r e o n m u g g e y e g a l s y s m. T h e r e a t o f r e a l a n d p a s s n a a n g e r Y e e r e a l e q u e n c y o f m c o n d u c t b e s e e p o T h e p o t a t m o s t p u b d e n d e r s b e a t s u c h g s d o h a p p e n e e. s o m e g u r e a h a v e w a h [ W h e e r o r n o t p u b d e n d e r s a r e c o r r e c t e a s s u m p n s a t p o e, a t p r o s e c u r s w o n d o a n g w, a n d a t d g e s d o n o t a c a r e o r k n o w e n o u g h b e q u c a r a t e w a y w h h e p u b d e n d e r s s e e e w o r n o t o n e x c u s e s e w o r k b u t m a k e s s e e m p o r n L A J. M C I N T Y R E, T H E P U B L D E F E N D E T H E P R A C T I C E O F L A W T H E S H A D O W S O F R E P U T E P r o s s o r M c d e s c r e s e p u b d e n d e w o r v w a s a n n a b g m e c h a n m. a t ; s e e a o A b b e S m, T o o M u c h H e a r t a n d N o t E n o u g h H e a T h e S h o L a n d F r a c r e d E g o o f e E m p a, H e r o P u b D e n d e r, 3 7 U. D A V L. R E ) e n g r e s p e c t r c n p r e c r a a n d o u g e a t s e a s m o a n s r p u b d e n d e r s C h a s J. O g e, J r B e n d J u s a n s : S e e k g M o a n s S u s P u b D e n d e r s, H A R V. L. R E ) e n g e m p a y a n d h e r o m a s m o a n s s u s p u b d e n d e r s 3 4 A s a g a l e d u c a r, I a m a s n g b e v e r r e q u g s d e n k m e o d a a b o u t a c a s e r o u g h e o p p o n e n e s. K n o w g m y o p p o - im in tic F. IM V. (2 (revie in fe izzi=s ). th te ifie to ia to th ia te fa ir ta lis in ity tw to im in fe tto ys..g., ld rip In ffe tiv is ta l: fo Ex te rity ta IM IM IN (1 ). le in tu th ty lic fe r=s ffic rofe In tyre th fo llo in tin to ic lic fe ttrib te th ir tility to lic to ju is th in th lic fe th lo t. th tin te lic fe fin it ta le Ba fr id to It is ir ic lis te in to lic fe ta lk th ir th th is lik lis te in to ju lic fe fe if th fte dbb th le te is lo io te t, th fr is is id th in t. in is th lic fe lieve th th in Aa ll th tim It=s th in yo lly to tc fo ]. th lic fe in th ir tio th lic lie th to ill fte yth in to in th ju re lly to fa ir, it is ite le th th in ic th lic fe th ld ly th ir it im ta t. IS IC R: IN (1 ). fe In tyre ib th lic fe r=s ld ie Ae lin is Id ls ith t: rt ife tu th th ic ic lic fe.c IS V. (2 (id tifyin fo lie t, id in ft tra in ju tic tiv tio fo lic fe ); rle le tre., yo tific tio in tiv tio to ta in lic fe V. (1 (id tifyin th is tiv tio to ta in lic fe ). le to tro lie in irin tu ts to th in th ic lly th th ir t=s ye in

17 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1037 role-switching, requiring students who are externing with a prosecution agency to play the role of defense counsel in the Battistone simulations and vice versa. 35 Even when we have not required role-switching, the debriefing period following a simulation exercise and other opportunities for discussion afford students the opportunity to debate various topics. 36 n e n t=s c a s e b e tte r th a n m y o p p o n e n t h a d s e r v e d m e w e ll a s a la w ye r. In th is r e g a r d, I o w e a d e b t o f g r a titu d e to U C L A P r o fe s s o r s B e r g m a n a n d B in d e r, w h o s e w ritin g in s tille d in m e a n a p p r e c ia tio n o f c o n s id e r in g m y o p p o n e n t=s c a s e a n d g a v e m e th e to o ls to d o s o. S e e, e.g., D A V ID A. B IN D E R & P A U L B E R G M A N, F A C T I N V E S T I G A T IO N : F R O M H Y P O T H E S IS T O P R O O F ( ) (d is c u s s in g e v i d e n c e m a r s h a llin g o u tlin e s ). 3 5 S tu d e n ts s o m e tim e s c o m p la in a b o u t ro le - s w itc h in g. T h e y s o m e tim e s a r g u e th a t th e y a r e in a p r o s e c u tio n e x te r n s h ip a n d n e e d to p r a c tic e b e in g a p r o s e c u to r, n o t a d e fe n s e a tto r n e y, a n d v ic e v e r s a. O th e r s h a v e a lr e a d y c u ltivate d a p h ilo s o p h ic a l b e n t re g a r d in g c r im e a n d p u n is h m e n t a n d a r e v irtu a lly in c a p a b le o f e ffe c tiv e o r e v e n c o m p e te n t la w ye r in g w h e n th e y sw itc h r o le s. In d e e d, s o m e h a v e fu ll b lo w n a v e r s io n s to th e ir o p p o n e n t=s w ork. M o s t s tu d e n ts a r e m o r e fle x ib le. T h e s e s tu d e n ts s e e th e v a lu e o f s te p p in g in to th e ir o p p o n e n t=s s h o e s to s e e h o w th e o th e r s id e w o r k s. S o m e a r e s till u n s u r e a b o u t w h e th e r th e y w a n t to d o p r o s e c u tio n o r d e fe n s e w o r k a fte r g r a d u a tio n a n d a p p r e c ia te th e e x p o s u r e to th e o th e r s id e a s th e y try to d e te r m in e w h e r e th e y w ill b e m o s t s a tis fie d p e r s o n a lly a n d p r o fe s s io n a lly. In th is r e g a r d, I h a v e trie d to b e a n e x a m p le. A lth o u g h I p r a c tic e d la w a s a p u b lic d e fe n d e r, I u s e d a s a b b a tic a l le a v e to in te r n w ith th e F a m ily P r o te c tio n U n it o f th e lo c a l D is tric t A tto r n e y=s O ffic e. It w a s e ye - o p e n in g. A s a p u b lic d e fe n d e r, I h a d a lo t o f e m p a th y fo r m y clie n ts a n d th e ir fa m ilie s, b u t g a v e little th o u g h t to th e v ic tim s o f m y m o s tly g u ilty c lie n ts. A s a p r o s e c u to r, I fo u n d m y s e lf m o tiv a te d b y vic tim a n d p u b lic - s a fe ty c o n c e r n s. A s s e n te n c in g a p p r o a c h e d, m y a tte n tio n tu r n e d to q u e s tio n s lik e, AH o w lik e ly is th is d e fe n d a n t to r e o ffe n AW h a t w ill it ta k e, in te r m s o f p u n is h m e n t o r r e h a b ilita tio n e f fo r ts, to k e e p th e d e fe n d a n t fro m r e o ffe n d in 3 6 E v e n P r o fe s s o r E is in g e r, w h o is g e n e r a lly critic a l o f c o m b in in g e x te r n s h ip s w ith c la s s r o o m in s tru c tio n, re c o g n iz e s th e v a lu e o f a c la s s r o o m c o m p o n e n t u n d e r th e c ir c u m s ta n c e s o f U S D=s C rim in a l C lin ic : T h e v a lu e is p a r tic u la r ly g r e a t w h e n th e c la s s b rin g s to g e th e r s tu d e n ts fr o m o p p o s ite s id e s o f th e s u c h a s p r o s e c u to r s a n d d e fe n d e r s. O fte n, th e s e s tu d e n ts b e c o m e s o c ia liz e d e a r ly in th e w o r k p la c e to d e m o n iz e th e ir o p p o - n e n ts o r to s e e is s u e s s im p lis tic a lly, w h ic h d im in is h e s th e ir a b ilitie s to r e p - r e s e n t c lie n ts e ffe c tiv e ly o r to w o r k c o o p e r a tiv e ly to im p r o v e th e le g a l syste m. D ia lo g in c la s s b e tw e e n e x te r n s fr o m o p p o s in g s id e s c a n b e u s e fu l to e n c o u r a g e b o th to lo o k a t is s u e s m o r e c r itic a lly, fro m th e ir o p p o n e n t=s v a n - ta g e p o in t o r fr o m a s ystem ic p e r s p e c tiv e.

18 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 III. CONCLUSION USD=s Criminal Clinic mixes student prosecutors with student defense attorneys and combines externships with class meetings. Our formula aspires to achieve several pedagogical goals: to give students an overview of criminal litigation by studying its discrete stages in sequence; to promote critical thinking about the criminal justice system; to teach students about advocacy; and to develop students= competency, professionalism and creativity as future lawyers in the criminal justice system. If course evaluations are any indication, USD=s Criminal Clinic is a winning formula. I suspect a synergetic effect. It would be a mistake, however, to read too much into the data. Consumer satisfaction is important, but the evaluations tell us only so much. For example, students evaluating the course are not making a comparative judgment, at least they are not comparing USD=s Criminal Clinic with any other criminal clinic (for example, an externships- or prosecution-only clinic). It is, therefore, invaluable to participate in a symposium of the sort sponsored by the Mississippi Law Journal. The Mississippi Law Journal=s symposium on prosecution clinics provides a forum for learning from each other=s experiences. E is in g e r, s u p r a n o te 1 5, a t A n a n e c d o te m a y b e a p p r o p r ia te h e r e. W e ta k e tw o fie ld trip s in C rim in a l C lin ic I. P rio r to c o n d u c tin g b a il revie w h e a r in g s, s tu d e n ts to u r a c o u n ty p r e tria l d e te n tio n fa c ility. P rio r to c o n d u c tin g s e n te n c in g h e a r in g s, s tu d e n ts to u r th e R. J. D o n o v a n C o rrec tio n a l F a c ility, a s ta te p r is o n lo c a te d in S a n D ie g o C o u n ty. O n th e la tte r fie ld trip, s tu d e n ts o b s e r v e in m a te s in th e ya r d, in m a te s in d iffe r e n t typ e s o f h o u s in g u n its (d o r m s, tw o - p e r s o n c e lls, a d m in is tra tiv e s e g r e g a tio n ), in m a te s in v a r io u s w ork- r e la t e d a c tivitie s a n d in m a te s in a r e h a b ilita tio n p r o g r a m. S tu d e n ts a c tu a lly sit a n d ta lk w ith in m a te s in th e r e h a b ilita tio n p r o g r a m. I h a v e o b s e r v e d a n in te r e s tin g e ffe c t o f th e p r is o n fie ld trip o n th e a b ility o f crim in a l c lin ic s tu d e n ts, fu tu r e p r o s e c u to r s a n d d e fe n s e c o u n s e l a lik e, to e m p a th iz e w ith c r im in a l d e fe n d a n ts. W h e n th e fie ld trip p r e c e d e s th e p le a b a r g a in in g s im u la tio n, th e d e fe n d a n t in P e o p le v. B a ttis to n e te n d s to r e c e iv e m o r e fa v o r a b le p le a b a r g a in s th a n w h e n th e fie ld trip fo llo w s th e s im u la tio n. A n o th e r a n e c d o te : In te r e s tin g ly, b y th e tim e s tu d e n ts w rite th e ir fin a l p a p e r s fo r th e c o u r s e, p r o s e c u tio n e x te r n s a r e s till in c lin e d to p r o s e c u te r a th e r th a n d e fe n d, b u t th e y o fte n r e c o g n iz e th a t crim in a l d e fe n s e a tto r n e y s h a v e a n im p o r ta n t, an d e v e n n o b le, r o le to p la y in th e c r im in a l ju s tic e s ystem.

19 FILE:C:\WP51\74-4\MONTOYA.DTP Jan 01/10/06 Tue 10:20AM 2005] USD CLINIC 1039 Appendix A FINAL WRITING ASSIGNMENT SUBMIT A TYPED, TEN (10) TO FIFTEEN (15) PAGE PAPER THAT ANSWERS THE QUESTIONS SET FORTH BELOW. Writing Assignment Questions 1. What aspects of your legal education best prepared you for your placement? Did any deficiencies in your legal education surface while you were working at your placement? Would any additional subject matter or teaching methodologies have better prepared you for your placement? 2. Would you recommend other students to your placement? Why or why not? How can the placement be improved? 3. What was the tenor of the attorney/client or attorney/witness interactions that you observed? Condescending? Ambivalent? Positive? How so? Give examples. Did the character of these relationships affect the case or attorney in any way? If so, how so? Did you or would you handle these relationships differently? If so, how so and why? 4. What was the tenor of the attorney/opposition counsel interactions that you observed? Hostile? Ambivalent? Friendly? How so? Give examples. Did the character of these relationships affect the way that cases were handled? Affect the attorney? If so, how so? Did you or would you handle these relationships differently? If so, how so and why? 5. What was the tenor of the attorney/judge or attorney/courtroom personnel interactions that you observed? Respectful? Hostile? Friendly? How so? Give examples. Did the character of these relationships affect the case or attorney in any way? If so, how so? Did you or would you handle these relationships differently? If so, how so and why? 6. How did the lawyers at your placement interact with each other? Socially only (they Alawyered meeting only for lunch, etc.)? Professionally only (training sessions, bouncing ideas around with each other, etc.)? Neither? Both? How did this aspect of workplace culture affect the lawyers personally and professionally? Did you or would you handle these relationships differently? If so, how so and why? 7. Describe your supervising attorney's emotional (versus professional) approach to cases? Detached? Zealous? Did the attorney's approach affect the way that cases were handled? Affect the attorney? If so, how so? Did you or would you approach your cases differently? If so, how so and why? 8. Race, gender and social class rightly or wrongly sometimes play a role in human relationships. Did race, gender or social class play any role for you or defendants, witnesses, attorneys or others interacting in the criminal justice system? If so, how so?

20 F IL E : C : \ W P 5 1 \ \ M O N T O Y A.D T P J a n 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 6 T u e 1 0 :2 0 A M M IS S IS S IP P I L A W J O U R N A L [V o l. 7 4 Give examples. 9. What was the prevailing philosophy of practice at your placement? Did this philosophy affect the way that cases were handled or people, including you, the lawyers, defendants, and were treated? If so, how so? Would you be more comfortable with a different philosophy of practice? If so, which one and why? 10. How would you describe the quality of lawyering at your placement? What factors most affected that quality? The individual characteristics of lawyers? Caseload? What would you recommend to improve the quality of lawyering? 11. Describe any patterns of preparation that assisted you and/or the lawyers with whom you worked in anticipating and responding to courtroom events? 12. Describe the case evaluation process at your placement (How were cases evaluated, issues approached, strategy developed and goals set?). 13. Describe any ethical quandaries that arose for you or others at your placement. How were they resolved? Would you have resolved them differently? If so, how so and why? 14. Could you be personally and professionally satisfied working for your placement after graduation? Why or why not? Could you be personally and professionally satisfied working for the opposition (i.e., the defense if you were placed with a prosecution agency or the prosecution if you were placed with a defense agency)? Why or why not? 15. Compare your initial versus final impressions of criminal practice and the criminal justice system.

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