Chapters 48 and 49 Neurons and Nervous Systems

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapters 48 and 49 Neurons and Nervous Systems"

Transcription

1 Biology 120 J. Greg Doheny Chapters 48 and 49 Neurons and Nervous Systems NEURONS: Neurons are special cells that coordinate much of the body s actions. Most higher organisms have a central nervous system (including a brain) that processes information, and causes the body to react to situations with either simple or complicated behaviors. The brain is made mostly of neurons. The sensory cells that relay sensory information (from eyes, ears etc.) to the brain are also neurons (called afferent neurons), and the cells that then control muscle movements and other actions in response to the brain s commands are neurons, too (called efferent neurons; or motor neurons). Thus, neurons play a critical role in determining the actions of the body. A typical neuron (Figure 48.4) is comprised by a cell body (where the nucleus is located), a series of short projections from the body called dendrites, and a long axon. The axon is designed to send signals to other neurons, and the dendrites and cell body are designed to receive signals from other neurons. When a signal is sent down the axon of a neuron, it causes soluble macromolecules called neurotransmitters to be released from the end of the axon, stimulating other neurons. Neurotransmitters are similar to cytokines in that they will stimulate a nearby cell, provided that cell expresses the appropriate receptors. There are several classes of neurotransmitters (see below), and several types of receptors. One type of neuron generally only produces one type of neurotransmitter, but a neuron may have several different types of receptors. Unlike cytokines, however, neurotransmitters are only able to stimulate neurons that are located very close to the end of the axon. The short distance between the end of an axon, and the dendrite or cell body of the cell that it stimulates is called a synapse. Thus, a signal is sent down the axon, and a neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic space, stimulating a target neuron, which may go on to stimulate other neurons in the same way. Neurons literally conduct signals down their axons electronically, like an electrical wire. This electrical conductivity is made possible by charged ions, and a phenomenon called a resting membrane potential (see below). RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL: The fluid just outside of a neuron is usually positively charged relative to the inside, due to active transport channels that transport sodium outside the cell while transporting potassium ions in (Figure 48.7). These channels are collectively called the sodium-potassium pump. The sodium-potassium pump transports three sodium ions outside for every two potassium ions it transports inside. The transport of greater numbers of positively charged ions outside the cell eventually leads to an electrical difference, where the inside of the cell has a net negative charge of about -70 mv (millivolts) relative to the outside. This is called a resting membrane potential, and the cell is said to be polarized. The cell membrane also contains sodium and potassium channels that would let sodium and potassium pass freely through the membrane if open, but these channels are kept closed unless the neuron is activated. 1

2 ACTION POTENTIAL: When a polarized neuron is stimulated by another neuron, the sodium and potassium channels open, allowing sodium and potassium to cross the membrane freely along their concentration gradients. Sodium rapidly flows in, and the inside of the cell quickly goes from being negative (relative to the outside) to positive (Figures and 48.11). This rapid depolarization is conducted down the axon, until it reaches the end of the axon where it causes the release of neurotransmitters (Figure 48.12). SCHWANN CELLS, AND NEURON INSULATION: Some neurons have short axons (like the ones in your brain), while others have extremely long axons (like the ones in your spinal cord). Extremely long axons are generally insulated (like electrical wires) with a layer of insulating material called myelin. Myelin is produced by cells called Schwann cells. Schwann cells literally wrap themselves around the axons of longer neurons (Figure 48.13). TYPES OF NEURONS: There are three basic types of neurons. 1. Sensory Neurons: Also known as afferent neurons. Sensory neurons are present in the sensory organs (eyes, nose, ears, skin). Sensory neurons receive signals from outside, and send the information to the brain. 2. Motor Neurons: Also known as efferent neurons. Motor neurons relay signals from the brain to stimulate muscles. 3. Interneurons: Interneurons neither send signals to, nor receive signals from the brain. They relay signals from one neuron to another. NEURONS vs. NERVES: When many neurons are bundled together into a string-like filament, the filament is called a nerve. This is particularly true of the longer neurons that run down your spinal cord, and to the peripheral parts of your body (ie- the nerves in the ends of your fingers). NEURONS DO NOT DIVIDE OR REGENERATE: Some types of cells are capable of an almost indefinite number of cell divisions. (Bone marrow stem cells, for example.) Neurons, by contrast, will never divide again after birth. We are born with a certain number of neurons, and we never make new ones. (On the contrary, we lose about 100,000 brain cells per day.) Thus, if a neuron is damaged or destroyed, we can t grow another one to replace it. This is why spinal cord injuries (damage to the nerves in the spinal cord) are very serious. Damage to the neurons in the brain may (in some cases) be less serious than damage to neurons in the spine, because the various duties of neurons in the brain can be re-assigned (see neural plasticity, below). TYPES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS: There are several different types of neurotransmitters (Table 48.2), and several different types of receptors present on neurons to receive their signals. Most neurons only produce one type of neurotransmitter, but have several different types of receptors, and can thus be stimulated by several types of neurons. The different neurotransmitters are thought to mediate different functions, especially in the brain. The following are a few examples: 2

3 Acetylcholine: Used for muscle stimulation, learning, and memory formation. Dopamine and Serotonin: Two neurotransmitters that effect mood, attention and learning. Serotonin in particular is thought to be involved in depression. Prozac (an anti-depressant) prevents the uptake of serotonin by neurons). Endorphins: A class of neurotransmitters that act as natural pain killers. They also produce a feeling of euphoria. (For example, when you ve been running for a long time, and it starts to feel good instead of bad, it s because your brain has started to release endorphins to compensate for the discomfort. Some people actually become addicted to running for this reason.) THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM The human nervous system is divided into a central nervous system (CNS) and a peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the PNS consists of everything else (Figure 49.4). THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) THE BRAIN THE BRAIN: The brain is composed of gray matter on the outside, and white matter on the inside (Figure 49.5). Neurons have a grayish colour, but when their axons are insulated by myelin they appear white. Gray matter is made of neurons that have little or no myelin insulation, and white matter is made of neurons that are heavily insulated by myelin, and generally have longer axons. White matter neurons are generally meant to transmit neural signals over long distances. The neurons in the spine, for example, are composed of white matter, as are the inner brain neurons that feed into them. Two large compartments in the brain, called ventricles, are filled with a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid, which is essentially just blood plasma. Cerebrospinal fluid is also present in the spinal cord. THE BRAIN HAS TWO HEMISPHERES: The brain is divided into two nearly-identical halves called the left and right hemispheres (Figure 49.9), which carry out nearly identical functions. The left and right hemispheres of the brain are able to communicate with each other via a large bundle of insulated neurons called the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres. With regards to controlling the body, the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body, and vice versa. Thus, if you have a stroke (where blood flow to a part of the brain is cut off, causing necrosis) to the left side of your brain, you may lose movement on the right side of your body. 3

4 EACH HEMISPHERE OF THE BRAIN IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR SECTIONS (Figure 49.9): 1. CEREBRAL CORTEX The upper most part of the brain is called the cerebral cortex (or the cerebrum), and it is responsible for the highest levels of thinking, including perception, reason, emotions, decision making etc. 2. DIENCEPHALON: The central part of the brain is called the diencephalon. The diencephalon contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and pineal gland. Many sensory neurons that detect how hot or cold we are, how high or low our blood pressure is, how high or low our blood sodium or calcium levels are etc., pass through the thalamus and hypothalamus. The hypothalamus then instructs the pituitary gland to release various hormones to modify these variables. 3. CEREBELLUM: A large structure located just below the posterior of the cerebral cortex is called the cerebellum. The cerebellum helps to coordinate complicated movements, like playing the piano, or walking. Such movements require the complicated coordination of hundreds of different muscles, but we do not actually have to think about moving them all. They just happen. The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating these movements. 4. BRAINSTEM: The brainstem is the lowest, and most primitive part of the brain. The brainstem connects directly to the spinal cord, and controls many of the body s basic functions, such as respiration, heart rate and digestion. We do not think about or control these functions, they just happen automatically. Basic functions, such as heart rate and digestion, which we do not control voluntarily are controlled automatically by what is called the autonomic nervous system (see below). THE CEREBRAL CORTEX IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS: The outermost layer of the brain is called the cerebral cortex (or cerebrum ), is composed of grey matter, and is responsible for most of the higher functions of sensing, thinking, behavior, and decision making (Figures and 49.17). As mentioned above, the cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, which communicate with each other via the corpus callosum. In addition, each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, each of which has a different function. 1. FRONTAL LOBE: The frontal lobe is responsible for concentration, decision making, self-restraint, control of emotions, and other executive functions. The prefrontal cortex (front part of the frontal lobe) is most important for this. It is believed that our sense of self-discipline and self-control is located there; and that people who have trouble controlling their emotions (ie-people who have trouble controlling their anger) have defects in this area. The LEFT frontal cortex is also the location of an area called Broca s Area, which gives us the ability to speak. People who have a stroke that damages Broca s Area lose the ability to speak. (But may regain it later. See plasticity below.) 2. PARIETAL LOBE: Located just posterior to the frontal lobe is responsible for integrating sensory information. 3. OCCIPITAL LOBE: Located posterior to the parietal lobe is responsible for processing visual information. 4. TEMPORAL LOBE: Located laterally (to the side of) and below the parietal and occipital lobes, is responsible for processing auditory (hearing) information. 4

5 THE PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX, THE PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX, AND THE PRECENTRAL SULCUS (Figure 49.17): A sulcus is a large fissure or fold in the brain. The large sulcus that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe is called the precentral sulcus. The primary motor cortex is located just anterior to the sulcus (on the frontal lobe), and is responsible for controlling our voluntary movements (movements we have to think about). (See the map in figure 49.17, and notice how much of our primary motor cortex is dedicated to controlling our face, tongue and hands, relative to how much is dedicated to controlling our feet, for example.) The primary somatosensory cortex is located just posterior to the sulcus (on the parietal lobe), and is dedicated to receiving sensory, touch information. (Again, see the map in Figure and notice how much of our sensory cortex is dedicated to receiving touch information from our face and hands, relative to our feet, for example.) THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX ARE PLASTIC. : The term neural plasticity refers to the fact that if one part of the cerebral cortex is damaged (by a stroke, for example), other parts of the cerebral cortex can eventually be re-programmed to do the same job. (The word plastic means flexible. ) Thus, if a person has a stroke, and Broca s Area is damaged, they will initially lose the ability to speak. But they can eventually re-learn to speak. Similarly, if a right-handed person has a stroke that damages the left Primary Motor Cortex (which controls the right hand), they can often learn how to write again using their left hand. They may even be able to write with their right hand again, if other neurons in their left primary motor cortex are re-assigned. This is not the case with other areas of the brain or CNS. THE SPINAL CORD (Figures 49.4 and 49.8): The brain stem is contiguous (continuous) with the spinal cord, which emerges from the foramen magnum (large hole at the base of the skull). The spinal column is composed of 31 vertebrae, including eight cervical vertebrae (in the neck), 12 thoracic vertebrae (in the thorax), five lumbar vertebrae (in the small of the back), five sacral vertebrae (in the lower back), and the coccyx (the tail bone ). The cervical vertebrae are numbered C1 through C8, the thoracic vertebrae T1 through T12, the lumbar vertebrae L1 through L5, and the sacral vertebrae S1 through S5). A set of afferent and efferent nerves comes out of each vertebra, to service a slice or band of the body called a dermatome. The nerve sets that emerge from each vertebra are named after the vertebra they come out of (cervical nerves C1 through C8, thoracic nerves T1 through T12 and so on). The nerve emerging from the coccyx is called the coccygeal nerve. After these sets of nerves have emerged from the spinal cord, they are no longer considered to be part of the CNS, and are instead considered to be part of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS): The peripheral nervous system consists of all the nerves that are not part of the spinal cord or brain, and includes a set of sensory neurons (afferent neurons), and a set of motor neurons (efferent neurons) emerging from each vertebra. In addition to the sensory and motor neurons, other neurons emerge from the spinal cord which control involuntary bodily functions, like digestion rate, heart rate, bronchial dilation in the lungs, dilation of arteries etc. The nerves that control involuntary bodily functions (bodily 5

6 functions that happen without us having to think about it) are called the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). THE SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (Figure 49.8): The neurons controlling involuntary bodily functions are further divided into what are known as the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of the ANS. The sympathetic division is sometimes called the Fight-or-Flight division, because it modifies bodily functions in a way that are best suited for body activity. (Examples: dilation of pupils, acceleration of heart rate, vasoconstriction [increasing blood pressure], stimulation of release of glucose from liver, inhibition of pancreas, gallbladder [digestive functions].) The parasympathetic division is sometimes called the rest-and-digest division, because it modifies bodily functions in a way that are best suited for body relaxation and recharging. (Examples: constriction of pupils, lowering of heart and breathing rate, stimulation of intestines to digest food, stimulation of pancreas and gallbladder which produce components needed for digestion, vasodilation [lowering blood pressure].) PRACTICE QUESTIONS Short Answer Questions: 1. What do you call sensory neurons that relay sensory information to the brain? 2. What do you call motor neurons that relay signals from the brain to muscles? What is the long shaft that transmits a signal from one neuron to another called? 3. What are the short projections which extend from the body of a neuron, and which are designed to receive signals from other cells called? 4. What do you call the short distance that separates the end of one neuron s axon from the dendrite or cell body of another neuron? 5. For a resting, polarized neuron, is the concentration of potassium higher inside or outside of the cell? 6. For a resting, polarized neuron, is the inside of the cell positively charged or negatively charged relative to the outside? 7. What is the name of the material that insulates the axons of long neurons, and which cells produce it? (2 points) 8. What are the two components of the human CNS? (2 points) 9. What is the area of the brain that gives us the ability to speak called, and where is it located? (2 points) 10. What is the name of the fluid that fills the ventricles of the brain, and is also present in the spinal cord, and what is it derived from? (2 points) 11. Does the left side of the brain control the left or the right side of the body? 12. Where is the speech centre (also known as Broca s Area) located in the brain? 13. Which two parts of the body take up the largest area on the Primary Motor Cortex? (2 points) 6

7 14. Which two parts of the body take up the largest area on the Primary Somatosensory Cortex? (2 points) 15. Some cells in the body are capable of regenerating (ie-dividing) throughout our entire lives. Other cells will divide during development in the womb, but will never divide again once we are born. Give one example of a cell type that is capable of an indefinite number of divisions, and one example of a cell type that never divides again after birth. (2 points) Neurotransmitters: Match the neurotransmitter to the question. A. Acetylcholine B. Dopamine C. Endorphins D. Serotonin 1. Which is blocked by Prozac (an anti-depressant)? 2. Which act anesthetics (pain killers)? 3. Which two are through to be involved in mood and attention? 4. Which generates a sense of euphoria? 5. Which is used by most motor neurons to control muscle movements (among other things)? 6. Which is used in memory formation? PARTS OF THE BRAIN: The brain is divided into the four general sections listed below. In addition, the Cerebrum is further divided into a number of sections. Answer the following questions regarding the various parts of the brain. A. The Cerebrum B. The Frontal Lobe (Cerebrum) C. The Parietal Lobe (Cerebrum) D. The Occipital Lobe (Cerebrum) E. The Temporal Lobe (Cerebrum) F. The Cerebellum G. The Diencephalon H. The Brainstem 1. What is the function of the Pineal Gland, and which part of the brain (listed above) is it located in? 2. Which two parts of the brain (listed above) does the Central Sulcus separate? 3. Where is visual information processed in the brain (from the list above)? 4. We take walking for granted, and it seems easy to us. In reality, it is actually a very complicated activity, requiring a great deal of coordination. (They are only now beginning to build robots that can do it!) Which part of the brain is critical to your ability to walk? 5. Where is auditory information (hearing) processed in the brain (from the list above)? 7

8 6. The hypothalamus and thalamus are critical information centers that are used to determine if we are too hot or too cold, or if our blood pressure is too high or too low, and then correcting these deviations. In which part of the brain (listed above) are the thalamus and hypothalamus located? 7. What is the function of Broca s Area, and which part of the brain is it located in (from the above list)? 8. What is the function of the Medulla Oblongata, and which part of the brain (listed above) is it located in? 9. What is the function of the Pituitary Gland, and which part of the brain (listed above) is it located in? 10. What is the function of the Primary Motor Cortex, and in which part of the brain (listed above) is it located? 11. What is the function of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex, and in which part of the brain (listed above) is it located? 12. In which part of the brain (listed above) is our sense of self-control, and emotional control believed to reside? 13. Does the left hemisphere of the brain control the left or right side of the body? Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System: For each bodily function, state whether it is part of the sympathetic or parasympathetic division of the ANS. A. Dilation of Pupils B. Inhibition of salivary gland activity C. Vasoconstriction D. Constriction of pupils E. Acceleration of heart rate F. Vasodilation G. Inhibition of the pancreas H. Stimulates gall bladder to release bile salts into duodenum I. Stimulation of glucose release from the liver J. Restriction of blood flow to the intestines K. Lowering of heart rate L. Increase activity of salivary glands M. Increases blood flow to the intestines N. Stimulates pancreas O. Inhibition of release of bile salts from the gall bladder P. Stimulation of adrenal medulla Definition Questions: 1. What is a polarized neuron? (5 points) 2. What is a membrane potential? (5 points) 3. What happens when a neuron depolarizes? (5 points) 4. What is Grey Matter? 5. What is White Matter? 8

9 6. What is the Corpus Callosum? 7. What is the Central Sulcus? (5 points) 8. What is the Primary Motor Cortex? (5 points) 9. What is the Primary Somatosensory Cortex? (5 points) Essay Questions: 1. What does the term neural plasticity mean, and which types of neurons does this term refer to, and which types of neurons are not plastic? (20 points) 2. What is the difference between gray matter and white matter? (Be specific, listing more than one cell type.) (10 points) 3. What is the difference between an Afferent and an Efferent neuron? (10 points) 4. What is the Corpus Callosum, and what is its function? (5 points) 5. The words Cerebrum and Cerebellum sound similar, but actually describe very different parts of the brain. What is the difference between the Cerebrum and the Cerebellum? Where is each located, and what does each do? (20 points) 6. What are some examples of executive functions of the brain, and where are they thought to take place? (10 points) 7. What is Broca s Area, where is it located, and what is its function? (10 points) 8. People who run or jog every day often claim that they eventually become addicted to jogging. Can you explain why this might happen? (10 points) Extended Matching: Match the term to the definition. A. Acetylcholine B. Action Potential C. Afferent D. Axon E. Central Sulcus F. Cerebellum G. CNS H. Corpus Callosum I. Dendrite J. Dermatome K. Diencephalon L. Dopamine M. Efferent N. Medulla Oblongata O. Myelin P. Nerve Q. Neurotransmitter R. Occipital S. Parasympathetic T. Resting Potential U. Schwann V. Serotonin W. Sympathetic X. Synapse 1. A short projection from the cell body of a neuron, which is designed to receive signals from other neurons. 2. A division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the fight-or-flight response. 3. The lobe of the cerebral cortex in which visual information in interpreted. 9

10 4. A central structure in the brain which contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and pineal gland. 5. A horizontal slice of the body, which is serviced by a set of afferent and efferent neurons emerging from a spinal vertebra. 6. The division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal column. 7. Part of the brain stem that regulates respiration and heart rate. 8. A large fissure (groove) in the brain that separates the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex from the parietal lobe. 9. A large bundle of insulated neurons that allows the left and right hemispheres of the brain to communicate. 10. A division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for the rest-and-digest response. 11. Name for a bunch of neurons bundled together into a string-like filament. 12. Word that describes a sensory neuron that relays sensory information to the brain. (An neuron ). 13. A large fissure in the brain that separates the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. 14. A neurotransmitter thought to be involved in mood and attention (two possible answers). 15. Term used to describe a neuron that is resting in a polarized state, with a higher concentration of sodium ions outside the cell, causing the inside of the cell to be negatively charged relative to the outside. 16. Word that describes a motor neuron that carries signals from the brain to muscles. (An neuron ) 17. A neurotransmitter whose uptake is blocked by the antidepressant drug Prozac. 18. A neurotransmitter used in muscle stimulation, learning and memory. 19. A membrane that insulates the axons of long neurons. 20. Term used to describe what happens when the sodium and potassium channels of a polarized neuron open up, allowing sodium ions to flow into the cell, and potassium ions to flow out; thus equalizing the charge on each side of the membrane. 21. The name for the short distance between the axon of one neuron and the body or dendrite of another. 22. A brain structure that helps coordinate complicated movements, like walking or playing the piano. 23. Name for the cells that produce myelin. 24. A soluble macromolecule that stimulates neurons. 25. The long shaft of a neuron, down which a signal can be sent to stimulate another neuron. J. Greg Doheny

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head)

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head) Lecture 5 (Oct 8 th ): ANATOMY and FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Lecture Outline 1) Basic Divisions (CNS vs. PNS, Somatic vs. Autonomic) and Directional Terms 2) The Brain (Hindbrain/ Midbrain/ Forebrain)

More information

Diagram 2(i): Structure of the Neuron

Diagram 2(i): Structure of the Neuron Diagram 2(i): Structure of the Neuron Generally speaking, we can divide the nervous system into different parts, according to location and function. So far we have mentioned the central nervous system

More information

Parts of the Brain. Chapter 1

Parts of the Brain. Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Parts of the Brain Living creatures are made up of cells. Groups of cells, similar in appearance and with the same function, form tissue. The brain is a soft mass of supportive tissues and nerve

More information

Chapter 4. The Brain

Chapter 4. The Brain Chapter 4 The Brain The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) receives, processes, interprets and stores info (taste, sound, smell, color etc.) Sends information to muscles, glands and internal organs

More information

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R)

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R) Slide 1: [Film Clip: The Brain #2- Phineas Gage] Integrated Bodily Communications Within Brain (Hemispheres and structures) The remaining Nervous System Endocrine System (Hormonal communication) Our bodies-

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C.

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food

More information

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN

BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN BIOLOGY STUDY PACKET THE BRAIN SC.912.L.14.26 AA Spring 2012 The intent of this packet is to supplement regular classroom instruction, not to replace it. This also supposes that the students have access

More information

Function (& other notes)

Function (& other notes) LAB 8. ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN BRAIN In this exercise you each will map the human brain both anatomy and function so that you can develop a more accurate picture of what s going on in your head :-) EXTERNAL

More information

Lecture One: Brain Basics

Lecture One: Brain Basics Lecture One: Brain Basics Brain Fractured Femur Bone Spinal Cord 1 How does pain get from here to here 2 How does the brain work? Every cell in your body is wired to send a signal to your brain The brain

More information

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System The portion of the nervous system that controls most visceral functions of the body is called the autonomic nervous system. This system helps to control arterial pressure,

More information

Chapter 9 - Nervous System

Chapter 9 - Nervous System Chapter 9 - Nervous System 9.1 Introduction (p. 215; Fig. 9.1) A. The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. 1. Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons. 2. Nerves

More information

The brain structure and function

The brain structure and function The brain structure and function This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding brain tumours. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 5. Contents Introduction

More information

PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY

PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION B Sc COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY (2011 Admission Onwards) I Semester Complementary Course PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY QUESTION BANK 1. are the basic units of

More information

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health Brain Power Counseling and Mental Health TEA COPYRIGHT Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may

More information

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Dr. Chris Doumen Week 7 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology The Brain Central Nervous System TextBook Readings Pages 431 through 435 and 463-467 Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand

More information

THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES

THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES The Brain - made up of a trillion neurons - weighs about 3 lbs - has four principle parts 1. Brain stem - medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain (mesencephalon) 2. Diencephalon

More information

Module 1: The Brain and the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Module 1: The Brain and the Central Nervous System (CNS) Module 1: The Brain and the Central Nervous System (CNS) By the end of this unit, the learner will be able to: Describe the anatomy of the brain and the central nervous system Identify regions of the brain

More information

Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System

Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Systems, Structures, and Cells That Make Up Your Nervous System 1 General Layout of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain (in the skull) Spinal

More information

It s All in the Brain!

It s All in the Brain! It s All in the Brain! Presented by: Mari Hubig, M.Ed. 0-3 Outreach Coordinator Educational Resource Center on Deafness What is the Brain? The brain is a muscle In order to grow and flourish, the brain

More information

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential 2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

More information

Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior

Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior Learning Goals 1. Discuss the nature and basic functions of the nervous system. 2. Explain what neurons are and how they process information. 3. Identify the brain s levels

More information

1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram.

1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram. 2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Sample Tournament Station A: Use the diagram in answering Questions 1-5. 1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions

More information

Basic Brain Information

Basic Brain Information Basic Brain Information Brain facts Your brain weighs about 3lbs, or just under 1.5Kg It has the texture of blancmange Your brain is connected to your spinal cord by the brain stem Behind your brain stem

More information

ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE

ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE and the Action of Nicotine, Cocaine, and Marijuana in the Brain Te a c h e r s G u i d e Films for the Humanities & Sciences Background Information This program, made entirely of

More information

Table of Contents. Neurotra nsmission F act Sh eet Page 2. Neurotransmission Scavenger Hunt Page 4. Brain Parts Fact Sheet Page 6

Table of Contents. Neurotra nsmission F act Sh eet Page 2. Neurotransmission Scavenger Hunt Page 4. Brain Parts Fact Sheet Page 6 Table of Contents Neurotra nsmission F act Sh eet Page 2 Neurotransmission Scavenger Hunt Page 4 Brain Parts Fact Sheet Page 6 Nicotine and the Brain Page 8 Alcohol and the Brain Page 10 Puzzle Pieces

More information

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Course Outline Lecture 1: Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain

More information

Introduction to Animal Systems

Introduction to Animal Systems Human Body Systems Introduction to Animal Systems Recurring Themes in Biology 1. Correlation between structure and function( seen at many levels) 2. Life is organized at many levels from Smallest ----

More information

18. What is limbic system? A. The inner parts of cerebral hemispheres associated with deep structures and from a complex structure. 19.

18. What is limbic system? A. The inner parts of cerebral hemispheres associated with deep structures and from a complex structure. 19. CHAPTER 21 NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION One mark Questions: 1. Name the structural and functional unit of nervous system? A. Neuron. 2. What does central Nervous System consists of? A. Brain and spinal

More information

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling. Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling. Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling Lect02: BOSS Discrete Event Simulator Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy Appendix of Purves et al., 4e Larry Wittie Computer Science, StonyBrook

More information

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).

More information

The Anatomy of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

The Anatomy of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) The Anatomy of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) What is the Spinal Cord? The spinal cord is that part of your central nervous system that transmits messages between your brain and your body. The spinal cord has

More information

The Cranium Connection

The Cranium Connection Your Brain! The brain is the command center of your body. It controls just about everything you do, even when you are sleeping. Weighing about 3 pounds, the brain is made up of many parts that all work

More information

THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY

THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY THE SPINAL CORD. A part of the Central Nervous System The nervous system is a vast network of cells, which carry information in the form

More information

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department B6 Brain & Mind B6 Key Questions How do animals respond to changes in their environment? How is information passed through the nervous system? What can we learn through conditioning? How do humans develop

More information

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment Physiology is the study of function in living matter; it attempts to explain the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for

More information

Best Teaching Practices Conference. Teacher ID: BTPC07_07 SUBJECT: BIOLOGY. Class: X. TOPIC: Exploring our Nervous System

Best Teaching Practices Conference. Teacher ID: BTPC07_07 SUBJECT: BIOLOGY. Class: X. TOPIC: Exploring our Nervous System Best Teaching Practices Conference Teacher ID: BTPC07_07 SUBJECT: BIOLOGY Class: X TOPIC: Exploring our Nervous System OBJECTIVES: Use Information Technology to enable the students to: Explain the general

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that

More information

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below.

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary

More information

Brain Development. Genetic make-up... is not the major determiner

Brain Development. Genetic make-up... is not the major determiner Brain Development Presented by: Linda Alsop SKI-HI Institute Utah State University Genetic make-up... is not the major determiner Early experiences are so powerful that they can completely change the way

More information

PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT

PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT Chapter 2 Systems that control stress arousal Controlling Stress & Tension Girdano, Dusek & Everly Ligands Ligands (amino acid molecules) Biochemicals that carry information Neurohormones

More information

Homework Help Stroke

Homework Help Stroke The Brain & Strokes Your brain is the most complex organ in your body. It is the command centre for everything you do, think, sense and say! It has over 100 billion special nerve cells called neurons.

More information

Adrian Owens Research

Adrian Owens Research *Classic View: Not entirely correct Nervous System Central Nervous System is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System is broken down into a component called the somatic division.

More information

Spine Anatomy and Spine General The purpose of the spine is to help us stand and sit straight, move, and provide protection to the spinal cord.

Spine Anatomy and Spine General The purpose of the spine is to help us stand and sit straight, move, and provide protection to the spinal cord. Spine Anatomy and Spine General The purpose of the spine is to help us stand and sit straight, move, and provide protection to the spinal cord. Normal List Kyphosis The human spine has 7 Cervical vertebra

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,

More information

Slide 1: Introduction Introduce the purpose of your presentation. Indicate that you will explain how the brain basically works and how and where

Slide 1: Introduction Introduce the purpose of your presentation. Indicate that you will explain how the brain basically works and how and where Slide 1: Introduction Introduce the purpose of your presentation. Indicate that you will explain how the brain basically works and how and where drugs such as heroin and cocaine work in the brain. Tell

More information

Spinal Anatomy. * MedX research contends that the lumbar region really starts at T-11, based upon the attributes of the vertebra.

Spinal Anatomy. * MedX research contends that the lumbar region really starts at T-11, based upon the attributes of the vertebra. Spinal Anatomy Overview Neck and back pain, especially pain in the lower back, is one of the most common health problems in adults. Fortunately, most back and neck pain is temporary, resulting from short-term

More information

Reflex Physiology. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi. 2009 Ebneshahidi

Reflex Physiology. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi. 2009 Ebneshahidi Reflex Physiology Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Reflex Physiology Reflexes are automatic, subconscious response to changes within or outside the body. a. Reflexes maintain homeostasis (autonomic reflexes) heart

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM PLEASE LABEL THIS DIAGRAM F G H

NERVOUS SYSTEM PLEASE LABEL THIS DIAGRAM F G H BIOLOGY 12 - THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CHAPTER NOTES The nervous system is our processing system, and the system that keeps us in contact with the outside world. It tells us that we exist, and along with the

More information

Nerve Tissue. Muscle Tissue. Connective Tissue

Nerve Tissue. Muscle Tissue. Connective Tissue Human Body Tissues Levels of Organization 1. Cells 2. = groups of similar cells that perform a 3. Organ = 4. = group of organs Four Major Tissues 1. 2. 3. 4. Epithelial Tissue Nerve Tissue Muscle Tissue

More information

Norepinephrine Effects On the System

Norepinephrine Effects On the System Norepinephrine Effects On the System NE Conversion to Epinephrine in the Circulation Under stress, the increased norepinephrine produced is transmitted throughout the system. This increased level represents

More information

Brain Tumor 101. Shanna Armstrong, RN Neuro Oncology Nurse Clinician UC Brain Tumor Center

Brain Tumor 101. Shanna Armstrong, RN Neuro Oncology Nurse Clinician UC Brain Tumor Center Brain Tumor 101 Shanna Armstrong, RN Neuro Oncology Nurse Clinician UC Brain Tumor Center Objectives Identify the different parts of the brain Describe how each part of the brain works Connect each part

More information

Human Physiology Study Questions-2

Human Physiology Study Questions-2 Human Physiology Study Questions-2 Action potentials: Handout-8, Chapter 8 1. Explain the positive feedback component of an action potential that is, how the opening of one voltage-gated sodium (or calcium)

More information

Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College

Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Sources for figures and content: Eastern Campus Marieb,

More information

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro:

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro: Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret

More information

1 Cornea 6 Macula 2 Lens 7 Vitreous humor 3 Iris 8 Optic disc 4 Conjunctiva 9 Ciliary muscles 5 Sclera 10 Choroid

1 Cornea 6 Macula 2 Lens 7 Vitreous humor 3 Iris 8 Optic disc 4 Conjunctiva 9 Ciliary muscles 5 Sclera 10 Choroid Anatomy and Physiology Quiz 1 Sample Question Answers Use the following table to answer Questions 1 2. 1 Cornea 6 Macula 2 Lens 7 Vitreous humor 3 Iris 8 Optic disc 4 Conjunctiva 9 Ciliary muscles 5 Sclera

More information

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body.

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body. Outline Urinary System Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture 20 Chapter 16 I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system 1

More information

Basic brain information

Basic brain information Basic brain information Brain facts Your brain weighs about 3lbs, or just under 1.5Kg It has the texture of blancmange Your brain is connected to your spinal cord by the brain stem Behind your brain stem

More information

A LIFESPAN OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

A LIFESPAN OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT PURDUE UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE Crawford County A LIFESPAN OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Developed by Carol Judd Description: Brain architecture is a process that begins early in life and continues

More information

Brain Tumors A HANDBOOK FOR THE NEWLY DIAGNOSED

Brain Tumors A HANDBOOK FOR THE NEWLY DIAGNOSED Brain Tumors A HANDBOOK FOR THE NEWLY DIAGNOSED INSURANCE CARD Insurance PART ONE: THE DIAGNOSIS Introduction...3 Where do I start?...5 Types of brain tumor treatments...5 Your healthcare team.................

More information

Related KidsHealth Links. Discussion Questions

Related KidsHealth Links. Discussion Questions Grades 6 to 8 Human Body Series KidsHealth.org/classroom Teacher s Guide This guide includes: Standards Related Links Discussion Questions Activities for Students Reproducible Materials Standards This

More information

PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR, 6/e

PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR, 6/e PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR, 6/e 2007 Neil R. Carlson, University of Massachusetts, Amherst C. Donald Heth, The University of Alberta Harold Miller, Brigham Young University John W. Donahoe, University

More information

About Brain Injury: A Guide to Brain Anatomy Information from http://www.waiting.com, 1997-2002, Becca, Ltd.

About Brain Injury: A Guide to Brain Anatomy Information from http://www.waiting.com, 1997-2002, Becca, Ltd. About Brain Injury: A Guide to Brain Anatomy Information from http://www.waiting.com, 1997-2002, Becca, Ltd. Brain Anatomy Definitions Brainstem: The lower extension of the brain where it connects to the

More information

Background on Brain Injury

Background on Brain Injury CHAPTER 1 Background on Brain Injury In this chapter, you will: Read about Alberta s definition of Acquired Brain Injury and how that affects which supports you will be able to access. Learn about the

More information

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS.

NEURONS NEUROGLIAL CELLS. 1 THE NERVOUS TISSUE Definition: The nervous tissue is an assemblage of cells and supportive elements (materials) in which there is a predominance of cells which are highly specialized in the property

More information

2 Neurons. 4 The Brain: Cortex

2 Neurons. 4 The Brain: Cortex 1 Neuroscience 2 Neurons output integration axon cell body, membrane potential Frontal planning control auditory episodes soma motor Temporal Parietal action language objects space vision Occipital inputs

More information

Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.)

Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) BRAIN ANATOMY Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) The anatomy of the brain is often discussed in terms of either the embryonic scheme or the medical scheme. The embryonic

More information

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003 [EDP 005] UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003 Date: Wednesday 21 st January, 2015 Time: 2.00pm

More information

Functions of the Brain

Functions of the Brain Objectives 0 Participants will be able to identify 4 characteristics of a healthy brain. 0 Participants will be able to state the functions of the brain. 0 Participants will be able to identify 3 types

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes 13-1

Human Anatomy & Physiology Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes 13-1 Human Anatomy & Physiology Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes 13-1 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Somatic Reflexes Spinal cord Spinal nerves Somatic reflexes 13-2 Overview of Spinal Cord Information

More information

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS.

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. 6.1. CONNECTIONS AMONG NEURONS Neurons are interconnected with one another to form circuits, much as electronic components are wired together to form a functional

More information

Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School

Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School Anatomy and Physiology Units and Anatomy and Physiology A Unit 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology (6 days) Essential Question: How do the systems of the human

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Test Eastside Invitational Jan 26, 2013

Anatomy & Physiology Test Eastside Invitational Jan 26, 2013 Class: Date: Anatomy & Physiology Test Eastside Invitational Jan 26, 2013 Disorders Matching Match the following disorders with their description (not all answers will be used) a. Lactose Intolerance g.

More information

General A&P Nervous Tissues, Nerves, Spinal Cord and Reflexes Lab Exercises

General A&P Nervous Tissues, Nerves, Spinal Cord and Reflexes Lab Exercises 1 General A&P Nervous Tissues, Nerves, Spinal Cord and Reflexes Lab Exercises Have someone in your group read the following out loud, while the others read along: In this "Lab Guide", we will be looking

More information

COURSE GUIDE DEGREE. ECTS Type Period Calendar Pre-requisites Total Basic Obligatory Optional 1 er C 2ºC Weeks

COURSE GUIDE DEGREE. ECTS Type Period Calendar Pre-requisites Total Basic Obligatory Optional 1 er C 2ºC Weeks COURSE GUIDE DEGREE DEGREE: MEDICINE ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016 COURSE: FIRST Course Title PHYSIOLOGY: LOCOMOTOR & NERVOUS SYSTEMS ECTS Type Period Calendar Pre-requisites Total Basic Obligatory Optional

More information

Barbara St. Marie, PhD Candidate Nurse Practitioner Supervisor Pain and Palliative Care Fairview Ridges Hospital Minneapolis, MN

Barbara St. Marie, PhD Candidate Nurse Practitioner Supervisor Pain and Palliative Care Fairview Ridges Hospital Minneapolis, MN Barbara St. Marie, PhD Candidate Nurse Practitioner Supervisor Pain and Palliative Care Fairview Ridges Hospital Minneapolis, MN Pain Physiology Objectives: Explain how pain is transmitted through the

More information

CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION Objectives Identify the meaning of 10 or more terms relating to the organization of the body Describe the properties of life Describe the function for the structures of the

More information

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY CENTRE FOR BRAIN REPAIR A layman's account of our scientific objectives What is Brain Damage? Many forms of trauma and disease affect the nervous system to produce permanent neurological

More information

Contact your Doctor or Nurse for more information.

Contact your Doctor or Nurse for more information. A spinal cord injury is damage to your spinal cord that affects your movement, feeling, or the way your organs work. The injury can happen by cutting, stretching, or swelling of the spinal cord. Injury

More information

Transverse Sections of the Spinal Cord

Transverse Sections of the Spinal Cord Transverse Sections of the Spinal Cord The spinal cord is perhaps the most simply arranged part of the CNS. Its basic structure, indicated in a schematic drawing of the eighth cervical segment (Figure

More information

DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN

DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN Introduction The purpose of the sheep brain dissection is to familiarize you with the threedimensional structure of the brain and teach you one of the great methods of studying

More information

Mnemonic Devices for the Biological Psychology Chapter By Michael A. Britt, Ph.D. Psych Test Prep and The Psych Files

Mnemonic Devices for the Biological Psychology Chapter By Michael A. Britt, Ph.D. Psych Test Prep and The Psych Files Mnemonic Devices for the Biological Psychology Chapter By Michael A. Britt, Ph.D. Psych Test Prep and The Psych Files Hi. This is Michael Britt and I developed the mnemonic images contained in this document.

More information

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus

More information

Alcohol and the Adolescent Brain. Ruth Bowles. BS, CPP Executive Director The Rockland Council on Alcoholism and other Drug Dependence, Inc.

Alcohol and the Adolescent Brain. Ruth Bowles. BS, CPP Executive Director The Rockland Council on Alcoholism and other Drug Dependence, Inc. Alcohol and the Adolescent Brain Ruth Bowles. BS, CPP Executive Director The Rockland Council on Alcoholism and other Drug Dependence, Inc. Freedom is that instant between when someone tells you to do

More information

Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths

Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths Research Journal of Educational Sciences ISSN 2321-0508 Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths Abstract

More information

CHAPTER 32 QUIZ. Handout 32-1. Write the letter of the best answer in the space provided.

CHAPTER 32 QUIZ. Handout 32-1. Write the letter of the best answer in the space provided. Handout 32-1 QUIZ Write the letter of the best answer in the space provided. 1. All of the following are signs and symptoms in patients with spinal injuries except A. paralysis. C. hyperglycemia. B. priapism.

More information

Section 1 Understanding brain injury and the brain

Section 1 Understanding brain injury and the brain Section 1 Understanding brain injury and the brain Acquired brain injury (also known as ABI) is damage to the brain that was not present at birth but has occurred since, and which is non-progressive. An

More information

BRAIN storming Copyright, Poliakoff and Bee, 2000

BRAIN storming Copyright, Poliakoff and Bee, 2000 by Ellen Poliakoff and Sally Bee Illustrations by Serena Korda BRAIN storming The 1990 s was hailed as the decade of the brain. We ask, what do we really know about the elusive workings of the grey matter

More information

Thoracic Spine Anatomy

Thoracic Spine Anatomy A Patient s Guide to Thoracic Spine Anatomy 228 West Main, Suite C Missoula, MT 59802 Phone: info@spineuniversity.com DISCLAIMER: The information in this booklet is compiled from a variety of sources.

More information

Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to. women, and is a serious condition that can lead to. significant lifestyle changes.

Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to. women, and is a serious condition that can lead to. significant lifestyle changes. Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to FADE UP TO WIDE SHOT OF FEMALE MODEL WITH TRANSPARENT SKIN. URINARY BLADDER VISIBLE IN PELVIC REGION affect over 16 percent of adults. It affects men

More information

Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Excretory Physiology

Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Excretory Physiology Biology 224 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 8; Lecture 1; Monday Dr. Stuart S. Sumida Excretory Physiology The following ELEVEN slides are review. They will not be covered in lecture, but will be

More information

Learning Objectives for Anatomy & Physiology

Learning Objectives for Anatomy & Physiology Learning Objectives for Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy & Physiology by Visible Body contains 12 units. Below is a listing of each unit, the chapters within it, and the unit s associated learning objectives.

More information

For thousands of years, humans have aspired to create intelligent. The Nervous System CHAPTER. Chapter Concepts

For thousands of years, humans have aspired to create intelligent. The Nervous System CHAPTER. Chapter Concepts CHAPTER 11 The Nervous System Chapter Concepts 11.1 Structures and Processes of the Nervous System Homeostasis is maintained in the human body by the various parts of the nervous system. Neural transmission

More information

Downloadable Reproducible ebooks Sample Pages

Downloadable Reproducible ebooks Sample Pages Downloadable Reproducible ebooks Sample Pages These sample pages from this ebook are provided for evaluation purposes. The entire ebook is available for purchase at www.socialstudies.com or www.writingco.com.

More information

Brain Basics: A Brain in Sync

Brain Basics: A Brain in Sync Brain Basics: A Brain in Sync By: Dr. Robert Melillo The idea of a functional relationship between the left and right sides of the brain is hardly new. In 1949, Canadian neuropsychologist Donald O. Hebb,

More information

Anatomy and Terminology of the Spine. Bones of the Spine (Vertebrae)

Anatomy and Terminology of the Spine. Bones of the Spine (Vertebrae) Anatomy and Terminology of the Spine The spine, also called the spinal column, vertebral column or backbone, consists of bones, intervertebral discs, ligaments, and joints. In addition, the spine serves

More information

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology Learning Activities It is important that you do not lecture all of the time. If you employ a variety of teaching styles, your students will stay focused better and they will find it easier to process the

More information

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS The Great Diseases A collaborative approach to real world science in the classroom Infectious Diseases Neurological Disorders Metabolic Disease Cancer NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS Katherine Malanson and Karina

More information