1 Magnetic dynamics driven by spin current Sergej O. Demokritov University of Muenster, Germany Giant magnetoresistance Spin current Group of NonLinear Magnetic Dynamics
2 Charge current vs spin current Electron: possesses both electric charge and spin (angular momentum) Electronics is based on the flow of charge of electrons. For an electric circuit we need sources of electric current (battery), conductors for electron flow (metallic wire), detectors of the current (lamp) Battery Charge is a scalar. It is conserved.
3 Charge current vs spin current Electron: possesses both electric charge and spin Spintronics is based on the flow of spin of electrons. Do we have sources of spin current (battery), conductors for spin flow, detectors of the spin current (spin-lamp)??
4 Spin-polarized vs pure spin current Electron: possesses both electric charge and spin. Since spin is a vector, we can separate electric and spin currents. Electric current: motion of electrons with disordered spins Spin-polarized current: motion of electrons with ordered spins. Pure spin current: motion of ordered spin without motion of charge.
5 Spin-polarized electric current H I H Spin-up and spin-down electrons equally contribute to the current Non-polarized electric current Symmetry with respect to spinup and spin-down is broken Spin-polarized electric current
6 Spin-polarized electric current Does spin-polarized electric current have advantages?
7 Spin-polarized electric current Does spin-polarized electric current have advantages? YES!!! Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. If electrons are injected in a ferromagnet they can freely move or will be strongly scattered depending on the orientation of their spins with respect to the magnetization
8 Spin-polarized electric current Does spin-polarized electric current have advantages? YES!!! Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. If electrons are injected in a ferromagnet they can freely move or will be strongly scattered depending on the orientation of their spins with respect to the magnetization AP R r R R R r 2 2 P 2r 2R 2rR R 2r R r 2r 2R r R R r r R R r r R
9 Spin-polarized electric current Does spin-polarized electric current have advantages? YES!!! Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. Application: computer hard drives Peter Grünberg Albert Fert The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007 was awarded jointly to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg "for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
10 Spin current between FM and non-magnetic metal T T M NM FM No spin current at the equilibrium T T j S M NM FM Spin current due to magnetization dynamics (spin-pumping) T 1 T 2 j S M NM FM Spin current due to temperature gradient (spin Seebeck effect) T T j S j c M NM FM Spin current caused by charge current (spin Hall effect)
11 Spin current between FM and non-magnetic metal T T M NM FM No spin current at the equilibrium T T j S M NM FM Spin current due to magnetization dynamics (spin-pumping) T 1 T 2 j S M NM FM Spin current due to temperature gradient (spin Seebeck effect) T T j S j c M NM FM Spin current caused by charge current (spin Hall effect)
12 Spin-battery: Spin Hall effect Ordinary Hall effect: separation of particles with positive and negative charges. Spin Hall effect: separation of particles with spin up and down. due to SL Magnetic impurities in normal metal
13 Spin Hall vs inverse spin Hall SHE j s Spin Hall Effect spin current battery j c ISHE j c Spin Hall Effect spin current detector
14 H M S Magnetic dynamics of ferromagnets Static: magnetization is aligned along the magnetic field The dynamic of a ferromagnet: precession of the magnetization around the field. Reduction of the static magnetization. It is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation dm dm m H 0m H dm dt dt where 0 is the Gilbert damping constant (spin-lattice relaxation) m dt Damping is due to transfer of the angular momentum from magnetic system to the lattice. M S M () t If one applies a dynamic magnetic field with a correct frequency, a persistent precession can be achieved. Relaxation of magnetic moment to the lattice is compensated by the torque of the dynamic field
15 Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) By sweeping the magnetic field (frequency of the precession) one can recoird the FMR-line. H Can we control the FMR-line by spin current?
16 Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) By sweeping the magnetic field (frequency of the precession) one can recoird the FMR-line. H Can we control the FMR-line by spin current? YES!!!
17 Test devices Permalloy (Py) disk Disk: Permalloy (Py), 2 m, 5 nm thick Microstrip: Pt, 2.5 m wide, 10 nm thick dc current is applied through the Pt strip. dc current [ + microwave current ] The operation of the device relies on the spin Hall effect (SHE) induced by electrical current in the Pt strip. dc current SHE produces a spin current at the interface with the Py dot, exerting spin transfer torque (STT) on its magnetization. Depending on the direction of the current, spin current either stabilizes or destabilizes the magnetization. SHE originates from spin-orbit scattering resulting in a deflection of conduction electrons with opposite spin orientations in opposite directions.
18 Measurement technique Probing laser light To detect the magnetization dynamics we use micro-focus Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. 1. Probing laser light is focused onto the surface of the magnetic film into a diffraction-limited spot. 2. Light scattered from magnetic excitations is analyzed. dc current [ + microwave current ] Permalloy (Py) disk BLS signal is proportional to the square of the dynamic magnetization at the position of the probing light spot. Available resolutions: 1. Frequency resolution GHz 2. Temporal resolution < 400 ps 3. Spatial resolution < 250/50 nm 4. Wavevector resolution < 10 6 cm Phase resolution
19 Brillouin light scattering process = inelastic scattering of photons from spin waves Stokes anti-stokes scattered photon L q L q L q L incident photon phonon or spin wave q BLS-Zählrate [Counts] Spinwellenfrequenz Frequenzverschiebung [GHz] Conservation laws: Time invariance sc = L In-plane translational invariance q SC q L q
20 Brillouin spectrometer high resolution and contrast PC control - stabilisation - data accumulation and processing - display polarization analyser avalanche photodiode with shutter spatial filters prism FP2 scan direction sample FP1 scanning stage magnetic field objective lens polarization rotator tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer argon ion laser acousto-optic modulator
21 Control of effective damping in FMR Probing light Microwave current + dc The FMR curve recorded without the dc current shows a linewidth of 360 MHz at H=900 Oe. This corresponds to Gilbert damping parameter =0.011, which is close to the standard value =0.008 for Permalloy. BLS Intensity, a.u Frequency, GHz dc=0 FWHM 360 MHz =0.011 BLS Intensity, a.u I=-25 ma Frequency, GHz I=-20 ma I=0 ma I=20 ma I=10 ma Effect of the current Positive current: broadening of the FMR peak and reduction of its amplitude. Negative current: increase of the amplitude and narrowing of the peak.
22 Control of effective damping in FMR Linewidth, GHz Continuous Pulsed I, ma FMR Linewidth The linewidth practically does not depend on whether the current is constant or pulsed (influence of the heating is negligible). Dependence of the linewidth on I can be attributed entirely to the effect of the spin current. Linewidth shows strong variation with current. The effect of the spin current on the damping is not significantly reduced by the presence of the Cu spacer Continuous Pulsed Effective Gilbert damping parameter f 2 ( H 2 M e) The achieved variation of is more than by a factor of I, ma The smallest achieved =0.004 is by a factor of 2 smaller than the standard value for Permalloy.
23 Our ultimate goal: To compensate completely the dynamic damping and to achieve excitation of coherent magnetization dynamics by spin current without application of microwaves
24 Control of magnetic fluctuations Thermally-excited unifrom fluctuations are detected by BLS. BLS spectra exhibit a peak with a Lorentzian shape. I=-25 ma I=25 ma (x2) dc current + microwave current The amplitude of the peak decreases at I>0 and increases at I<0. I=0 (x2) f, GHz I, ma The linewidth varies linearly with current at small I. These behaviors are typical for modification of the effective damping by STT.
25 Control of magnetic fluctuations The integral under the measured peak is proportional to the average fluctuation energy in the mode. At I=-28 ma, the integral intensity increases by more than a factor of 30, and at I=28 ma it decreases by more than a factor of 2. Besides modifying the damping, STT changes the energy of magnetic fluctuations. This phenomenon can be used for effective cooling of a magnetic system and provides practical ways for reduction of thermal noise in magnetic nano-devices. FDT In agreement with the non-equilibrium theory, the inverse integral intensity shows linear dependence on the current. At I=I c =-28 ma the integral intensity is expected to diverge (onset of auto-oscillations). Instead, it saturates and starts to decrease at I<-26 ma. Time-resolved measurements Close to the auto-oscillation onset, the flow of energy into the uniform mode saturates, whereas short-wavelength modes are further enhanced. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, (2011).
26 Auto-oscillations due to spin current dc current I H=900 Oe H Probing spot is positioned in the gap. Spectral BLS intensity is measured for different I. Before the onset of auto-oscillations Spectrum of thermal magnetic fluctuations. With increasing I the fluctuations are enhanced. At I=I c, a new peak appears in the BLS spectrum. Low-frequency modes are enhanced stronger (frequencydependent radiation losses). The intensity of fluctuations diverges as the current approaches a critical value I c 16.1 ma (no saturation). Nature Mater. 11, 1028 (2012).
27 Spin-Hall nano-oscillator After the onset of auto-oscillations Increase of I by 1.3% results in dramatic increase of the intensity of the new peak onset of auto-oscillations Onset of auto-oscillations is accompanied by a decrease in the intensity of thermal fluctuations. The peak rapidly grows and then saturates above 16.3 ma. Electronic measurements with similar devices, PRL (2013): FWHM 5 MHz Oscillation Linewidth is 5 MHz at 7 GHz (T=50 K) proof of high coherence degree Nature Mater. 11, 1028 (2012).
28 Self-localization of the oscillations Auto-oscillation mode dc current I H=900 Oe H To characterize the auto-oscillation mode, we performed two-dimensional mapping of the dynamic magnetization at the frequency of auto-oscillations. We rastered the probing laser spot in the two lateral directions and simultaneously recorded the BLS intensity. Auto-oscillations are localized in a very small area in the gap between the electrodes. The measured spatial distribution is a result of convolution with the instrumental function determined by the shape of the laser spot ( 250 nm). The real size of the auto-oscillation area is less than 100 nm, significantly smaller than the characteristic size of the current localization. The auto-oscillation mode is the nonlinear self-localized spin-wave bullet. Nature Mater. 11, 1028 (2012).
29 Switching using spin current Using spin current one can switch the magnetization Liu et al., Science 336, 555 (2012)
30 Acknowledgement Vladislav E. Demidov, Oleksandr Dzyapko University of Muenster, Germany Sergei Urazhdin Department of Physics, Emery University, Atlanta, USA M. D. Stiles, R. D. McMichael NIST, Gaithersburg, USA V. Tiberkevich, A. Slavin Oakland University, Rochester, USA European Comission
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