5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy"

Transcription

1 5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy Resolution of optical microscope is limited by diffraction. Light going through an aperture makes diffraction pattern. The minimum distance between resolved point objects x of equal intensity approximately amounts to the Airy disk radius r. sin Θ = 1.22 λ D sinθ = For microscopes E.K. Abbe s theory gives r F r F = 1.22λ D D F λ x = N. A. numerical aperture N. A. = n sinθ λ x 2n Airy disk SPM Chapter 5 1

2 5.2. Near-field optics Classical optics deals with far-field regime (λ >> R) of propagating waves (radiation is far from the source). Near-field optics considers optical interaction of light (electromagnetic radiation) emerging from a sub-wavelength aperture or scattered by a sub-wavelength metallic tip or nanoparticle with an object in the immediate vicinity (λ << R). It deals with the evanescent waves which are confined to sub-wavelength distance. Evanescent waves decay exponentially in the far-field region but in the near-field region they allow the surface inspection with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolving power. For visible light ( nm) and the aperture or tip radius lying in sub-wavelength region one can consider near-field regime to be valid for distances below nm. SPM Chapter 5 2

3 5.3. Scanning near-field optical microscopy Various modes SNOM (or NSOM) utilizes near-field interactions. The idea was suggested in [E.H. Synge (1928). "A suggested method for extending the microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region". Phil. Mag. 6: 356] and realised for the first time in 1984 (see Chapter 1). Illumination mode Collection mode Transmission mode Reflection mode SPM Chapter 5 3

4 Share-force approach To control tip-surface separation a so-called share-force feedback technique is typically used. Optical probe is attached to a tuning fork (quartz-crystal resonator). Its oscillations are induced by piezoelectric vibrator and transferred to a probe which oscillated in lateral direction with a few nm amplitude. As the probe approaches the surface, the probe-sample interaction dampens the amplitude and shifts the phase of the resonance (similar as in NC AFM). Change in amplitude and phase are used by the feed back to monitor the distance. SPM Chapter 5 4

5 Near-field optical probes and resolution Requirements: - the spot size determined by the aperture should be as small as possible; - the light intensity at the aperture should be as high as possible. These requirements are well met by optical fibers coated by metal (most often aluminium). Size of a probe apex is typically < 100 nm optical fiber protective layer metal coating Routinely a lateral resolution of < λ / 20 can be achieved For special configuration a resolution as good as < λ / 43 was reported [E.Betzig et al. Science 251 (1991) 1468] SPM Chapter 5 5

6 SNOM applications There is a number of areas where SNOM can contribute. For instance: - study of quantum dots (probing of single Q-dot); - single-molecule spectroscopy; - imaging of biological samples with fluorescent labels; - study of nonlinear optical properties (second and third harmonic generation) Share-force and SNOM images of InAs Q-dots SNOM of organic crystals for two orthogonal light polarisations (0 o and 90 o ) Y. Shen et al. Opt. Lett. 26 (2001) 725. SPM Chapter 5 6

7 5.4. Scanning plasmon near-field optical microscopy This method utilizes surface plasmon excitation in thin metal layer which is ignited by laser radiation at frequency of plasmon resonance. Lateral resolution of 3 nm (λ / 200) was obtained on thin (50 nm) Ag films. STM SPNOM area size is 600x600 nm SPM Chapter 5 7

8 5.5. Use of SNOM for plasmon propagation If there is an array of metal nanoparticles on surface SNOM can be used for their excitation and detection. These arrays can be used as waveguides or more complex devices: switches, couplers, interferometers etc. Plasmon resonance in the NP creates a considerably enhanced external local electric field. For instance, the enhancement can reach factor of 200 for spherical Ag NP with radius less than 20 nm near the plasmon wavelength (410 nm). SPM Chapter 5 8

9 Key Points Resolution of conventional optical microscopy is limited by diffraction to about λ / 2n. Classical optics deals with propagating waves or far-field regime. Near-field optics deals with confined to sub-wavelength distance evanescent waves. In near-field region spatial resolution can be significantly improved. SNOM utilizes near-field interactions using probes with sub-wavelength dimensions. Routine lateral resolution of below λ/20 (or better) can be achieved. SNON is a powerful method to study Q-dots, single molecules, biological objects and non-linear optical properties of nanostructures. Optical resolution on thin metal layers or nanoparticulate materials can be improved up to λ/200. SPM Chapter 5 9

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM) Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopy-limited resolution Two broad classes of techniques

More information

CREOL, College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida

CREOL, College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida OSE6650 - Optical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Optical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Fall 2013 Class 3 slide 1 Challenge: excite and detect the near field Thus far: Nanostructured materials

More information

Near-field optics and plasmonics

Near-field optics and plasmonics Near-field optics and plasmonics Manuel Rodrigues Gonçalves AFM topography 10 Pol. y / (µm) 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 x / (µm) 8 10 nm 60 80 100 120 140 Physik M. Sc. Master Advanced Materials Winter semester

More information

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Saulius Marcinkevičius Optics, ICT, KTH 1 Outline Optical near field. Principle of scanning near field optical microscope

More information

NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY WITH STM AND AFM PROBES

NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY WITH STM AND AFM PROBES Vol. 93 (1997) A CTA PHYSICA POLONICA A No. 2 Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Scanning Probe Spectroscopy and Related Methods, Poznań 1997 NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY

More information

DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review. Denver, Colorado April 17-19, 2007

DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review. Denver, Colorado April 17-19, 2007 DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review Evaluation of Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Film by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy AAT-2-31605-05 Magnus Wagener and George Rozgonyi North Carolina

More information

Basic principles and mechanisms of NSOM; Different scanning modes and systems of NSOM; General applications and advantages of NSOM.

Basic principles and mechanisms of NSOM; Different scanning modes and systems of NSOM; General applications and advantages of NSOM. Lecture 16: Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) Background of NSOM; Basic principles and mechanisms of NSOM; Basic components of a NSOM; Different scanning modes and systems of NSOM; General

More information

Review of NSOM Microscopy for Materials

Review of NSOM Microscopy for Materials Review of NSOM Microscopy for Materials Yannick DE WILDE (dewilde@optique.espci.fr) ESPCI Laboratoire d Optique Physique UPR A0005-CNRS, PARIS, FRANCE Outline : Introduction : concept of near-field scanning

More information

Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale

Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale Outline Background Research Design Detection of Near-Field Signal Submonolayer Chemical Sensitivity Conclusions

More information

Nano Optics: Overview of Research Activities. Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi SENSE, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK

Nano Optics: Overview of Research Activities. Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi SENSE, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK Nano Optics: Overview of Research Activities SENSE, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK Optical characterization techniques: Leakage Radiation Microscopy Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

More information

Optical Microscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit: Imaging Guided and Propagating Fields

Optical Microscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit: Imaging Guided and Propagating Fields Optical Microscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit: Imaging Guided and Propagating Fields M. Selim Ünlü, Bennett B. Goldberg, and Stephen B. Ippolito Boston University Department of Electrical and Computer

More information

From apertureless near-field optical microscopy to infrared near-field night vision

From apertureless near-field optical microscopy to infrared near-field night vision From apertureless near-field optical microscopy to infrared near-field night vision Yannick DE WILDE ESPCI Laboratoire d Optique Physique UPR A0005-CNRS, PARIS dewilde@optique.espci.fr From apertureless

More information

SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY & Dušan Vobornik¹, Slavenka Vobornik²* SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY ¹ NRC-SIMS, 100 Sussex Drive, Rm 2109, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A OR6, Canada 2 Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Faculty

More information

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope Characterisation of Microstructured Optical Fibre Devices.

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope Characterisation of Microstructured Optical Fibre Devices. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope Characterisation of Microstructured Optical Fibre Devices. Christopher Wyndham John Hillman Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

More information

Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy: a Brief Overview

Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy: a Brief Overview Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy: a Brief Overview Serge HUANT Laboratoire de Spectrométrie Physique (SPECTRO) Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble et CNRS Thanks to my former & present collaborators

More information

PHYSICAL METHODS, INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Vol. IV Femtosecond Measurements Combined With Near-Field Optical Microscopy - Artyom A.

PHYSICAL METHODS, INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Vol. IV Femtosecond Measurements Combined With Near-Field Optical Microscopy - Artyom A. FEMTOSECOND MEASUREMENTS COMBINED WITH NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY Artyom A. Astafiev, Semyonov Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Keywords: diffraction limit nearfield scanning

More information

It has long been a goal to achieve higher spatial resolution in optical imaging and

It has long been a goal to achieve higher spatial resolution in optical imaging and Nano-optical Imaging using Scattering Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy Fehmi Yasin, Advisor: Dr. Markus Raschke, Post-doc: Dr. Gregory Andreev, Graduate Student: Benjamin Pollard Department of Physics,

More information

Scanning probe microscopy AFM, STM. Near field Scanning Optical Microscopy(NSOM) Scanning probe fabrication

Scanning probe microscopy AFM, STM. Near field Scanning Optical Microscopy(NSOM) Scanning probe fabrication Scanning probe microscopy AFM, STM Near field Scanning Optical Microscopy(NSOM) Scanning probe fabrication Scanning Probe Microscopy 1986 Binning and Rohrer shared Nobel Prize in Physics for invention.stm

More information

Lecture 20: Scanning Confocal Microscopy (SCM) Rationale for SCM. Principles and major components of SCM. Advantages and major applications of SCM.

Lecture 20: Scanning Confocal Microscopy (SCM) Rationale for SCM. Principles and major components of SCM. Advantages and major applications of SCM. Lecture 20: Scanning Confocal Microscopy (SCM) Rationale for SCM. Principles and major components of SCM. Advantages and major applications of SCM. Some limitations (disadvantages) of NSOM A trade-off

More information

Nano-Spectroscopy. Solutions AFM-Raman, TERS, NSOM Chemical imaging at the nanoscale

Nano-Spectroscopy. Solutions AFM-Raman, TERS, NSOM Chemical imaging at the nanoscale Nano-Spectroscopy Solutions AFM-Raman, TERS, NSOM Chemical imaging at the nanoscale Since its introduction in the early 80 s, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) has quickly made nanoscale imaging an affordable

More information

NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY WITH POINTED PROBES

NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY WITH POINTED PROBES Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2006. 57:303 31 doi: 10.1146/annurev.physchem.56.092503.141236 Copyright c 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved First published online as a Review in Advance on December 16,

More information

Lecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)

Lecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Lecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) General components of SPM; Tip --- the probe; Cantilever --- the indicator of the tip; Tip-sample interaction --- the feedback system; Scanner --- piezoelectric

More information

Fast-scanning near-field scanning optical microscopy. using a high-frequency dithering probe

Fast-scanning near-field scanning optical microscopy. using a high-frequency dithering probe Fast-scanning near-field scanning optical microscopy using a high-frequency dithering probe Yongho Seo and Wonho Jhe * Center for Near-field Atom-photon Technology and School of Physics, Seoul National

More information

Scanning Probe Microscopy

Scanning Probe Microscopy Ernst Meyer Hans Josef Hug Roland Bennewitz Scanning Probe Microscopy The Lab on a Tip With 117 Figures Mß Springer Contents 1 Introduction to Scanning Probe Microscopy f f.1 Overview 2 f.2 Basic Concepts

More information

Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy

Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy VI Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy In recent years, several types of apertureless near-field optical microscopes have been developed 1,2,3,4,5,6,7. In such instruments, light scattered from

More information

Scanning Probe Microscopy

Scanning Probe Microscopy Bert Voigtlander Scanning Probe Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy ^ Springer Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 4 1.2 Introduction

More information

Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy, a Siren Call to Biology

Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy, a Siren Call to Biology Traffic 2001; 2: 797 803 Copyright C Munksgaard 2001 Munksgaard International Publishers ISSN 1398-9219 Review Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy, a Siren Call to Biology Michael Edidin Department

More information

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 49, NO. 1 FEBRUARY 2011 Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures Markus Schmotz, 1, Dominik Gollmer, 1 Florian Habel, 1 Stephen Riedel, 1 and

More information

Optical Characterization of Plasmonic Nanostructures: Near-Field Imaging of the Magnetic Field of Light

Optical Characterization of Plasmonic Nanostructures: Near-Field Imaging of the Magnetic Field of Light Springer Theses Recognizing Outstanding Ph.D. Research Denitza Denkova Optical Characterization of Plasmonic Nanostructures: Near-Field Imaging of the Magnetic Field of Light Springer Theses Recognizing

More information

Surface plasmon nanophotonics: optics below the diffraction limit

Surface plasmon nanophotonics: optics below the diffraction limit Surface plasmon nanophotonics: optics below the diffraction limit Albert Polman Center for nanophotonics FOM-Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam Jeroen Kalkman Hans Mertens Joan Penninkhof Rene de Waele Teun van

More information

Scanning near-field optical microscopy: from single-tip to dual-tip operation. Angela E. Klein

Scanning near-field optical microscopy: from single-tip to dual-tip operation. Angela E. Klein Scanning near-field optical microscopy: from single-tip to dual-tip operation Angela E. Klein Jena 2014 Scanning near-field optical microscopy: from single-tip to dual-tip operation Dissertation zur Erlangung

More information

Large scale scanning probe microscope: Making the shear-force scanning visible

Large scale scanning probe microscope: Making the shear-force scanning visible Large scale scanning probe microscope: Making the shear-force scanning visible E. Bosma, a H. L. Offerhaus, J. T. van der Veen, F. B. Segerink, and I. M. van Wessel Optical Sciences Group, Faculty of Science

More information

Nanoscience Course Descriptions

Nanoscience Course Descriptions Nanoscience Course Descriptions NANO*1000 Introduction to Nanoscience This course introduces students to the emerging field of nanoscience. Its representation in popular culture and journalism will be

More information

Introduction to Optics

Introduction to Optics Second Edition Introduction to Optics FRANK L. PEDROTTI, S.J. Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin Vatican Radio, Rome LENO S. PEDROTTI Center for Occupational Research and Development Waco, Texas

More information

Scanning tunneling microscopy STM. and. atomic force microscopy AFM

Scanning tunneling microscopy STM. and. atomic force microscopy AFM Scanning tunneling microscopy STM and atomic force microscopy AFM Content The components of a scanning probe microscope SPM The scanner Measurement of the distance between surface and tip The cantilever

More information

Preface Light Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Methods

Preface Light Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Methods Preface xi 1 Light Microscopy 1 1.1 Optical Principles 1 1.1.1 Image Formation 1 1.1.2 Resolution 3 1.1.3 Depth of Field 5 1.1.4 Aberrations 6 1.2 Instrumentation 8 1.2.1 Illumination System 9 1.2.2 Objective

More information

Tecniche a scansione di sonda per nanoscopia e nanomanipolazione: SNOM e litografie

Tecniche a scansione di sonda per nanoscopia e nanomanipolazione: SNOM e litografie LS Scienza dei Materiali - a.a. 2007/08 Fisica delle Nanotecnologie part 5.2 Version 6, Nov 2007 Francesco Fuso, tel 0502214305, 0502214293 - fuso@df.unipi.it http://www.df.unipi.it/~fuso/dida Tecniche

More information

Single Defect Center Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy on Graphene

Single Defect Center Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy on Graphene 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Single Defect Center Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy on Graphene J. Tisler, T. Oeckinghaus, R. Stöhr, R. Kolesov, F. Reinhard and J. Wrachtrup 3. Institute

More information

Axial Sensitivity Of A Cracked Probe Of A Scanning Near- Field Optical Microscope

Axial Sensitivity Of A Cracked Probe Of A Scanning Near- Field Optical Microscope Proceedings of the World Congress on New Technologies (NewTech 05) Barcelona, Spain July 5-7, 05 Paper No. 38 Axial Sensitivity Of A Cracked Probe Of A Scanning Near- Field Optical Microscope Yu-Ching

More information

Lecture 6 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) General components of STM; Tunneling current; Feedback system; Tip --- the probe.

Lecture 6 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) General components of STM; Tunneling current; Feedback system; Tip --- the probe. Lecture 6 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) General components of STM; Tunneling current; Feedback system; Tip --- the probe. Brief Overview of STM Inventors of STM The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobel

More information

Terahertz transmission properties of an individual slit in a thin metallic plate

Terahertz transmission properties of an individual slit in a thin metallic plate Terahertz transmission properties of an individual slit in a thin metallic plate J. W. Lee, 1 T. H. Park, 2 Peter Nordlander, 2 and Daniel M. Mittleman 1,* 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

More information

SPM 150 Aarhus with KolibriSensor TM

SPM 150 Aarhus with KolibriSensor TM Surface Analysis Technology Vacuum Components Surface Analysis System Software Computer Technology SPM 150 Aarhus with KolibriSensor TM Technical Notes Using the SPM 150 Aarhus with KolibriSensor TM, SPECS

More information

3D Raman Imaging Nearfield-Raman TERS. Solutions for High-Resolution Confocal Raman Microscopy. www.witec.de

3D Raman Imaging Nearfield-Raman TERS. Solutions for High-Resolution Confocal Raman Microscopy. www.witec.de 3D Raman Imaging Nearfield-Raman TERS Solutions for High-Resolution Confocal Raman Microscopy www.witec.de 01 3D Confocal Raman Imaging Outstanding performance in speed, sensitivity, and resolution with

More information

Optics and Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces

Optics and Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces Vladimir G. Bordo and Horst-Gunter Rubahn Optics and Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces WILEY- VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Contents Preface IX 1 Introduction 1 2 Surfaces and Interfaces 5

More information

Plasmonic Antennas & Metamaterials on Quantum Cascade Lasers

Plasmonic Antennas & Metamaterials on Quantum Cascade Lasers Plasmonic Antennas & Metamaterials on Quantum Cascade Lasers David Austin 1 Supervisor: Luke Wilson 1 Collaborators: Ali Adawi 1, Dmitry Revin 1, Mike Soulby 1, John Cockburn 1 Isaac Luxmoore 2, Qi Jiang

More information

High-resolution 2D plasmonic fan-out realized by subwavelength slit arrays

High-resolution 2D plasmonic fan-out realized by subwavelength slit arrays High-resolution 2D plasmonic fan-out realized by subwavelength slit arrays Qian Wang 1, Jing Bu 2 and X.-C. Yuan 2,* 1 School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang

More information

- particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L. - classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier

- particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L. - classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier Tunnel Effect: - particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L - classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier - quantum mechanically the particle can penetrated

More information

Apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy Using Heterodyne Detection Method

Apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy Using Heterodyne Detection Method Proceedings of the XIth International Congress and Exposition June -5, 8 Orlando, Florida USA 8 Society for Experimental Mechanics Inc Apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy Using Heterodyne

More information

Biophotonics. Basic Microscopy. NPTEL Biophotonics 1

Biophotonics. Basic Microscopy. NPTEL Biophotonics 1 Biophotonics Basic Microscopy NPTEL Biophotonics 1 Overview In this lecture you will learn Elements of a basic microscope Some imaging techniques Keywords: optical microscopy, microscope construction,

More information

Applied Optics and Optical Materials at the Colorado School of Mines

Applied Optics and Optical Materials at the Colorado School of Mines Applied Optics and Optical Materials at the Colorado School of Mines CPIA Annual Meeting 14 November 2007 Charles Durfee Engineering Physics program Applied Optics and Optical Materials Colorado School

More information

Near-field scanning optical microscopy using a super-resolution cover glass slip

Near-field scanning optical microscopy using a super-resolution cover glass slip Near-field scanning optical microscopy using a super-resolution cover glass slip Yu-Hsuan Lin 1,2 and Din Ping Tsai 1,3,4,* 1 Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories,

More information

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Introduction In this experiment we will explore the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to take us into the world of ultrasmall structures. This

More information

Spettroscopia Raman in campo prossimo

Spettroscopia Raman in campo prossimo Spettroscopia Raman in campo prossimo Salvatore Patanè (1) and Pietro G. Gucciardi (2) (1) Dip. di Fisica della Materia e Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, Università di Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina,

More information

Defect studies of optical materials using near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy

Defect studies of optical materials using near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy UCRL-ID-142178 Defect studies of optical materials using near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy M. Yan, J. McWhirter, T. Huser, W. Siekhaus January, 2001 U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory

More information

Microscopic Techniques

Microscopic Techniques Microscopic Techniques Outline 1. Optical microscopy Conventional light microscopy, Fluorescence microscopy, confocal/multiphoton microscopy and Stimulated emission depletion microscopy 2. Scanning probe

More information

Tecniche a scansione di sonda per nanoscopia e nanomanipolazione 2: AFM e derivati

Tecniche a scansione di sonda per nanoscopia e nanomanipolazione 2: AFM e derivati LS Scienza dei Materiali - a.a. 2008/09 Fisica delle Nanotecnologie part 5.2 Version 7, Nov 2008 Francesco Fuso, tel 0502214305, 0502214293 - fuso@df.unipi.it http://www.df.unipi.it/~fuso/dida Tecniche

More information

Acousto-optic modulator

Acousto-optic modulator 1 of 3 Acousto-optic modulator F An acousto-optic modulator (AOM), also called a Bragg cell, uses the acousto-optic effect to diffract and shift the frequency of light using sound waves (usually at radio-frequency).

More information

Non-Contact Vibration Measurement of Micro-Structures

Non-Contact Vibration Measurement of Micro-Structures Non-Contact Vibration Measurement of Micro-Structures Using Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and Planar Motion Analysis (PMA) to examine and assess the vibration characteristics of micro- and macro-structures.

More information

Optics and Image formation

Optics and Image formation Optics and Image formation Pascal Chartrand chercheur-agrégé Département de Biochimie email: p.chartrand@umontreal.ca The Light Microscope Four centuries of history Vibrant current development One of the

More information

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is Extending Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy for Biological Studies Olivia L. Mooren, Elizabeth S. Erickson, Nicholas E. Dickenson, and Robert C. Dunn* University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS Keywords:

More information

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by 12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by rejecting much of the out of focus light via a pinhole. The image is reconstructed serially, i.e. point

More information

A Reflection Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope Technique for Subwavelength Resolution Imaging of Thin Organic Films

A Reflection Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope Technique for Subwavelength Resolution Imaging of Thin Organic Films 5684 J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 5684-5691 A Reflection Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope Technique for Subwavelength Resolution Imaging of Thin Organic Films Kenneth D. Weston and Steven K. Buratto*

More information

APPLIED OPTICS. List of projects Spring - 2012

APPLIED OPTICS. List of projects Spring - 2012 Portland State University A. La Rosa APPLIED OPTICS List of projects Spring - 2012 Smith Aarisa Photoactivatable Push-Pull Fluorophores and their Use in Imaging Single Molecules in Living Cells Photoactivatable

More information

Coaxial Plasmonic Metamaterials for Visible Light M.A. van de Haar

Coaxial Plasmonic Metamaterials for Visible Light M.A. van de Haar Coaxial Plasmonic Metamaterials for Visible Light M.A. van de Haar Summary Optical metamaterials are materials built from sub-wavelength building blocks, and can be designed to have effective optical properties

More information

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

More information

STM and AFM Tutorial. Katie Mitchell January 20, 2010

STM and AFM Tutorial. Katie Mitchell January 20, 2010 STM and AFM Tutorial Katie Mitchell January 20, 2010 Overview Scanning Probe Microscopes Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Contact AFM Non-contact AFM RHK UHV350 AFM/STM

More information

7 Plasmonics. 7.1 Introduction

7 Plasmonics. 7.1 Introduction 7 Plasmonics Highlights of this chapter: In this chapter we introduce the concept of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). We discuss various types of SPP and explain excitation methods. Finally, different

More information

Recent Advances in Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy

Recent Advances in Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy Nano-Optical Imaging Spectroscopy: Recent Advances in Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy Toshiharu Saiki* and Yoshihito Narita** Abstract Current progress in the instrumentation and measurements of

More information

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Photonics Technical Note # 21 Fiber Optics Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Optical fibers are circular dielectric wave-guides that can transport optical energy and information. They have a central core surrounded

More information

Time resolved photoluminescence studies of blue light-emitting diodes (LED)

Time resolved photoluminescence studies of blue light-emitting diodes (LED) APPLICATION NOTE Time resolved photoluminescence studies of blue light-emitting diodes (LED) WITec GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Str. 6, 89081 Ulm, Germany fon +49 (0) 731 140 700, fax +49 (0) 731 140 70 200 info@witec.de,

More information

Tecniche a scansione di sonda per nanoscopia e nanomanipolazione 3: SNOM e litografie

Tecniche a scansione di sonda per nanoscopia e nanomanipolazione 3: SNOM e litografie LS Scienza dei Materiali - a.a. 2009/10 Fisica delle Nanotecnologie part 5.3 Version 7b, Dec 2009 Francesco Fuso, tel 0502214305, 0502214293 - fuso@df.unipi.it http://www.df.unipi.it/~fuso/dida Tecniche

More information

Modern Classical Optics

Modern Classical Optics Modern Classical Optics GEOFFREY BROOKER Department of Physics University of Oxford OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents 1 Electromagnetism and basic optics 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The Maxwell equations 1

More information

CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED

CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED 2.1 Preparation of Pure polymorphic forms Lamivudine polymorphic Form I and Form II drug substances were prepared in Aurobindo Pharma Limited Research

More information

On the way to a multi-task near field optical microscope: Simultaneous STM/SNOM and PSTM imaging

On the way to a multi-task near field optical microscope: Simultaneous STM/SNOM and PSTM imaging A Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5 (1994) 399 AUGUST/OCTOBER/DECEMBER 1994, PAGE 399 Classification Physics Abstracts 42.30. d On the way to a multitask near field optical microscope: Simultaneous STM/SNOM

More information

NSC Dec. 15, Göksel Durkaya. Physics and Astronomy Department, Atlanta, GA,

NSC Dec. 15, Göksel Durkaya. Physics and Astronomy Department, Atlanta, GA, http://www.phy-astr.gsu.edu/gdurkaya/afm NSC 272 - Dec. 15, 2005 Göksel Durkaya Physics and Astronomy Department, Atlanta, GA, 30303 cover Motivation Atomic Force Microscopy Applications What we do Conclusion

More information

F en = mω 0 2 x. We should regard this as a model of the response of an atom, rather than a classical model of the atom itself.

F en = mω 0 2 x. We should regard this as a model of the response of an atom, rather than a classical model of the atom itself. The Electron Oscillator/Lorentz Atom Consider a simple model of a classical atom, in which the electron is harmonically bound to the nucleus n x e F en = mω 0 2 x origin resonance frequency Note: We should

More information

Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions

Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions Sergiusz Patela, Dr Sc Room I/48, Th. 13:00-16:20, Fri. 9:20-10:50 sergiusz.patela@pwr.wroc.pl eportal.pwr.wroc.pl Copying and processing permitted for noncommercial

More information

Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes

Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes Journal of Microscopy, Vol. 202, Pt 1, April 2001, pp. 7±11. Received 28 August 2000; accepted 1 December 2000 Near-field optical microscopy based on microfabricated probes R. ECKERT* 1, J. M. FREYLAND*,

More information

Nanoscale Resolution Options for Optical Localization Techniques. C. Boit TU Berlin Chair of Semiconductor Devices

Nanoscale Resolution Options for Optical Localization Techniques. C. Boit TU Berlin Chair of Semiconductor Devices berlin Nanoscale Resolution Options for Optical Localization Techniques C. Boit TU Berlin Chair of Semiconductor Devices EUFANET Workshop on Optical Localization Techniques Toulouse, Jan 26, 2009 Jan 26,

More information

Scanning near-field optical microscopy with white-light illumination: nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy of resonant systems.

Scanning near-field optical microscopy with white-light illumination: nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy of resonant systems. urrent Microscopy ontributions to dvances in Science and Technology (. Méndez-Vilas, Ed.) Scanning near-field optical microscopy with white-light illumination: nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy of resonant

More information

Imaging Methods: Breath Patterns

Imaging Methods: Breath Patterns Imaging Methods: Breath Patterns Breath / condensation pattern: By cooling a substrate below the condensation temperature H 2 O will condense in different rates on the substrate with the nucleation rate

More information

Edited by. C'unter. and David S. Moore. Gauglitz. Handbook of Spectroscopy. Second, Enlarged Edition. Volume 4. WlLEY-VCH. VerlagCmbH & Co.

Edited by. C'unter. and David S. Moore. Gauglitz. Handbook of Spectroscopy. Second, Enlarged Edition. Volume 4. WlLEY-VCH. VerlagCmbH & Co. Edited by C'unter Gauglitz and David S. Moore Handbook of Spectroscopy Second, Enlarged Edition Volume 4 WlLEY-VCH VerlagCmbH & Co. KGaA IX Volume 4 Section XII Applications 6: Spectroscopy at Surfaces

More information

Microscopy: Principles and Advances

Microscopy: Principles and Advances Microscopy: Principles and Advances Chandrashekhar V. Kulkarni University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United kingdom May, 2014 University of Ljubljana Academic Background 2005-2008: PhD-Chemical Biology

More information

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

More information

Ultralow Threshold On Chip Toroidal Microcavity Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Lasers

Ultralow Threshold On Chip Toroidal Microcavity Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Lasers Ultralow Threshold On Chip Toroidal Microcavity Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Lasers Bumki Min, Sungjee Kim, Koichi Okamoto, Lan Yang, Axel Scherer, Harry Atwater, and Kerry Vahala California Institute of Technology

More information

Measurement Techniques

Measurement Techniques Chapter 3 Measurement Techniques This chapter describes the techniques that were used to measure the contact angles and the surface texture of the prepared surfaces, as well as the high-speed imaging techniques.

More information

Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer Sebastian Volz (Ed.) Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer With 144 Figures and 7 Tables In Collaboration with Remi Carminati, Patrice Chantrenne, Stefan Dilhaire, Severine Gomez, Nathalie Trannoy, and

More information

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Lasers became the first choice of energy source for a steadily increasing number of applications in science, medicine

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation Wave - a traveling disturbance, e.g., displacement of water surface (water waves), string (waves on a string), or position of air molecules (sound waves). [ π λ ] h = h sin (

More information

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Faculty: Prof. Xianfan Xu Email: xxu@ecn.purdue.edu Phone: (765) 494-5639 http://widget.ecn.purdue.edu/~xxu Research Areas: Development

More information

Microscopy Optical Sectioning. Stephen Ross Ph.D. UCSF Principles and Practice Of Light Microscopy May 3 rd, 2010

Microscopy Optical Sectioning. Stephen Ross Ph.D. UCSF Principles and Practice Of Light Microscopy May 3 rd, 2010 Microscopy Optical Sectioning Stephen Ross Ph.D. UCSF Principles and Practice Of Light Microscopy May 3 rd, 2010 Confocal Microscopy In Principle Point Scanning Confocal Spinning Disk Confocal Swept Field

More information

Theory of probing a photonic crystal with transmission near-field optical microscopy

Theory of probing a photonic crystal with transmission near-field optical microscopy PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 58, NUMBER 4 15 JULY 1998-II Theory of probing a photonic crystal with transmission near-field optical microscopy Garnett W. Bryant, Eric L. Shirley, and Lori S. Goldner National

More information

SIGNAL ANALYSIS OF APERTURELESS SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY WITH SUPER- LENS

SIGNAL ANALYSIS OF APERTURELESS SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY WITH SUPER- LENS Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 109, 83 106, 2010 SIGNAL ANALYSIS OF APERTURELESS SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY WITH SUPER- LENS C.-H. Chuang and Y.-L. Lo Department of Mechanical

More information

Methods for determining the sizes of nanoparticles and loading dyes onto nanoparticles. By: Nthabeleng Molupe

Methods for determining the sizes of nanoparticles and loading dyes onto nanoparticles. By: Nthabeleng Molupe Methods for determining the sizes of nanoparticles and loading dyes onto nanoparticles By: Nthabeleng Molupe Introduction Various techniques for detecting, measuring and characterising No method is the

More information

1 Introduction. 1.1 Historical Perspective

1 Introduction. 1.1 Historical Perspective j1 1 Introduction 1.1 Historical Perspective The invention of scanning probe microscopy is considered one of the major advances in materials science since 1950 [1, 2]. Scanning probe microscopy includes

More information

Lab instrumentation. Polarized light microscopy

Lab instrumentation. Polarized light microscopy Polarized light microscopy Polarized light microscopy uses plane-polarized light to analyze structures that are birefringent; unisotropic structures that have two different refractive indices, and capable

More information

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 Microscopy Professor Marc C. Lavoie marc.lavoie@cavehill.uwi.edu MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES MAGNIFY RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST Microscopy 1. Eyepieces 2. Diopter adjustment

More information

Raman spectroscopy Lecture

Raman spectroscopy Lecture Raman spectroscopy Lecture Licentiate course in measurement science and technology Spring 2008 10.04.2008 Antti Kivioja Contents - Introduction - What is Raman spectroscopy? - The theory of Raman spectroscopy

More information

Feedback Control in an Atomic Force Microscope Used as a Nano-Manipulator M. Hrouzek

Feedback Control in an Atomic Force Microscope Used as a Nano-Manipulator M. Hrouzek Feedback Control in an Atomic Force Microscope Used as a Nano-Manipulator M. Hrouzek This paper offers a concise survey of the most commonly used feedback loops for atomic force microscopes. In addition

More information

Fiber optic communication

Fiber optic communication Fiber optic communication Fiber optic communication Outline Introduction Properties of single- and multi-mode fiber Optical fiber manufacture Optical network concepts Robert R. McLeod, University of Colorado

More information