 particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L.  classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier


 Ethan O’Neal’
 4 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Tunnel Effect:  particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L  classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier  quantum mechanically the particle can penetrated the barrier and appear on the other side  then it is said to have tunneled through the barrier examples:  emission of alpha particles from radioactive nuclei by tunneling through the binding potential barrier  tunneling of electrons from one metal to another through an oxide film  tunneling in a more complex systems described by a generalized coordinate varying in some potential phys4.5 Page 1 approximate result:  the transmission coefficient T is the probability of a particle incident from the left (region I) to be tunneling through the barrier (region II) and continue to travel to the right (region III)  depends exponentially on width of barrier L and the difference between the particle kinetic energy and the barrier height (U 0 E) 1/2 and mass of the particle m 1/2 example:  An electron with kinetic energy E = 1 ev tunnels through a barrier with U 0 = 10 ev and width L = 0.5 nm. What is the transmission probability?  the probability is small, even for a light particle and a thin barrier  but it can be experimentally observed and used in devices phys4.5 Page 2
2 sketch of calculation of tunnel rate:  Schrödinger equation outside of barrier (regions I and III)  has solutions same for ψ III  incoming wave reflected wave  transmitted wave  incoming flux of particles with group velocity v I+ phys4.5 Page 3 transmission:  probability T  ratio of flux of transmitted particles to incident particles barrier region:  Schrödinger equation  solution for U > E  exponentially decaying or increasing wave (no oscillations)  does not describe a moving particle  but probability in barrier region is nonzer0 phys4.5 Page 4
3 boundary conditions:  at left edge of well (x = 0)  at right edge of well (X = L)  solve the four equations for the four coefficients and express them relative to A ( A 2 is proportional to incoming flux)  solution phys4.5 Page 5 transmission coefficient:  find A/F from set of boundary condition equations simplify:  assume barrier U to be high relative to particle energy E simplify:  assume barrier to be wide (k 2 L>1)  therefore phys4.5 Page 6
4 transmission coefficient:  T is exponentially sensitive to width of barrier  T can be measured in terms of a particle flow (e.g. an electrical current) through a tunnel barrier  makes this effect a great tool for measuring barrier thicknesses or distances for example in microscopy applications phys4.5 Page 7 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) xenon atoms on a nickel surface 5 nm moving individual atoms around one by one D.M. Eigler, E.K. Schweizer. Positioning single atoms with a STM. Nature 344, (1990) phys4.5 Page 8
5 Nobel Prize in Physics (1986) "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope" "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" Ernst Ruska 1/2 of the prize Federal Republic of Germany FritzHaberInstitut der MaxPlanck Gesellschaft Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany Gerd Binnig 1/4 of the prize Federal Republic of Germany IBM Zurich Research Laboratory Rüschlikon, Switzerland Heinrich Rohrer 1/4 of the prize Switzerland IBM Zurich Research Laboratory Rüschlikon, Switzerland phys4.5 Page 9 Quantum Harmonic Oscillator general properties: examples:  oscillation around an equilibrium position  at a single frequency  linear restoring force  mechanical oscillator, e.g. mass on a spring  electrical oscillator, e.g. LCcircuit  diatomic molecules  lattice vibrations of a crystal mass on a spring electrical oscillator diatomic molecule phys4.5 Page 10
6 equation of motion:  linear restoring force is a prerequisite for harmonic motion  Hooke's law  equation of motion for harmonic oscillator  a general solution  oscillator frequency note:  in many physical systems the restoring force is not strictly linear in the oscillation coordinate for large amplitude oscillations  for small oscillation amplitudes however, the harmonic oscillator is usually a good approximation  Taylor expansion of any force about the equilibrium position phys4.5 Page 11 potential:  potential associated with Hooke's law  U is used when solving the Schrödinger equation for a harmonic oscillator expectations:  only a discrete set of energies will be allowed for the oscillator  the lowest allowed energy will not be E = o but will have some finite value E = E 0  there will be a finite probability for the particle to penetrate into the walls of the potential well Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator: phys4.5 Page 12
7 Solving the harmonic oscillator Schrödinger equation: rewrite: normalize:  these are dimensionless units for the coordinate y and the energy α  the Schrödinger equation thus is given by normalization condition for the solution wave functions ψ: phys4.5 Page 13 energy quantization:  condition on α for normalization  energy levels of the harmonic oscillator  equidistant energy levels  this is a distinct feature of the harmonic oscillator  zero point energy (n = 0, lowest possible energy of the harmonic oscillator) phys4.5 Page 14
8 energy levels in different systems: constant potential x 2 potential 1/r  potential particle in a box harmonic oscillator Hydrogen atom phys4.5 Page 15 harmonic oscillator wave functions:  with Hermite polynomials H n  the classical maximum oscillation amplitude is indicated in the plot by vertical black lines  the particle enters into the classically forbidden regions of amplitudes phys4.5 Page 16
9 comparison of classical to quantum probability densities of position classical: quantum:  largest probability density at the turning points (x = ± a) of the oscillation  in the ground state (n = 0) ψ 2 is largest at theequilibrium position (x = 0)  for increasing n the quantum probability density approaches the classical one  n = 10  the probability for the quantum oscillator to be at amplitudes larger then ± a decreases for increasing n  this is an example of the correspondence principle for large n phys4.5 Page 17 Quantum Harmonic Oscillators Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Cavity QED) two photons one photon atom (green) as a source and probe for single photons no photon mirrors (blue) to contain photon in a cavity (a photon box) standing electromagnetic wave with a single photon Review: J. M. Raimond, M. Brune, and S. Haroche Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 565 (2001) phys4.5 Page 18
10 Cavity QED experimental setup: one result: O: oven as a source of atoms B: LASER preparation stage for atoms C: cavity (photon box) D: atom detector measurement of probability for atom to be in excited state P e versus the time t i spend in cavity atom probes quantum state (number of photons) in the cavity Review: J. M. Raimond, M. Brune, and S. Haroche Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 565 (2001) phys4.5 Page 19 Quantum HO in Electrical Circuits sketch of electrical circuit: electrical harmonic LCoscillator inductor L capacitor C electrical artificial atom many nonequidistantly spaced energy levels one photon no photon phys4.5 Page 20
11 Experiment: Quantum HO in a Circuit the LCoscillator integrated circuit one result: seeing individual photons: artificial atom (blue) LC oscillator (grey) spectrum of artificial atom one line each for 1, 2, 3, photons A. Wallraff, D. Schuster,..., S. Girvin, and R. J. Schoelkopf, Nature (London) 431, 162 (2004) intensity of lines proportional to photon probability phys4.5 Page 21 Photoelectric effect: Intensity two limits: constant frequency different intensities constant intensity?? different frequencies phys4.5 Page 22
Lecture 6 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) General components of STM; Tunneling current; Feedback system; Tip  the probe.
Lecture 6 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) General components of STM; Tunneling current; Feedback system; Tip  the probe. Brief Overview of STM Inventors of STM The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobel
More information thus, the total number of atoms per second that absorb a photon is
Stimulated Emission of Radiation  stimulated emission is referring to the emission of radiation (a photon) from one quantum system at its transition frequency induced by the presence of other photons
More informationNanoelectronics 09. Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics. Quick Review over the Last Lecture
Nanoelectronics 09 Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics 12:00 Wednesday, 4/February/2015 (P/L 006) Quick Review over the Last Lecture ( Field effect transistor (FET) ): ( Drain ) current increases
More informationFLAP P11.2 The quantum harmonic oscillator
F L E X I B L E L E A R N I N G A P P R O A C H T O P H Y S I C S Module P. Opening items. Module introduction. Fast track questions.3 Ready to study? The harmonic oscillator. Classical description of
More informationPhysics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives
Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring
More informationTHE CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN LED AND A MEASUREMENT OF PLANCK S CONSTANT Physics 258/259
DSH 2004 THE CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN LED AND A MEASUREMENT OF PLANCK S CONSTANT Physics 258/259 I. INTRODUCTION Max Planck (18581947) was an early pioneer in the field of quantum physics.
More information5. Scanning NearField Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy
5. Scanning NearField Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy Resolution of optical microscope is limited by diffraction. Light going through an aperture makes diffraction
More informationLecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)
Lecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) General components of SPM; Tip  the probe; Cantilever  the indicator of the tip; Tipsample interaction  the feedback system; Scanner  piezoelectric
More informationInfrared Spectroscopy: Theory
u Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory An important tool of the organic chemist is Infrared Spectroscopy, or IR. IR spectra are acquired on a special instrument, called an IR spectrometer. IR is used
More informationPHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Setup to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.
More informationHow To Understand Light And Color
PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a secondorder
More informationOnline Courses for High School Students 18889726237
Online Courses for High School Students 18889726237 PHYSICS Course Description: This course provides a comprehensive survey of all key areas: physical systems, measurement, kinematics, dynamics, momentum,
More informationAssessment Plan for Learning Outcomes for BA/BS in Physics
Department of Physics and Astronomy Goals and Learning Outcomes 1. Students know basic physics principles [BS, BA, MS] 1.1 Students can demonstrate an understanding of Newton s laws 1.2 Students can demonstrate
More informationMASTER OF SCIENCE IN PHYSICS MASTER OF SCIENCES IN PHYSICS (MS PHYS) (LIST OF COURSES BY SEMESTER, THESIS OPTION)
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN PHYSICS Admission Requirements 1. Possession of a BS degree from a reputable institution or, for nonphysics majors, a GPA of 2.5 or better in at least 15 units in the following advanced
More informationThe rate of change of velocity with respect to time. The average rate of change of distance/displacement with respect to time.
H2 PHYSICS DEFINITIONS LIST Scalar Vector Term Displacement, s Speed Velocity, v Acceleration, a Average speed/velocity Instantaneous Velocity Newton s First Law Newton s Second Law Newton s Third Law
More informationFree Electron Fermi Gas (Kittel Ch. 6)
Free Electron Fermi Gas (Kittel Ch. 6) Role of Electrons in Solids Electrons are responsible for binding of crystals  they are the glue that hold the nuclei together Types of binding (see next slide)
More informationBlackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION
Blackbody Radiation References 1) R.A. Serway, R.J. Beichner: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5 th Edition, Vol. 2, Ch.40, Saunders College Publishing (A Division of Harcourt
More informationIndiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
More informationCHAPTER  1. Chapter ONE: WAVES CHAPTER  2. Chapter TWO: RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS. CHAPTER  3 Chapter THREE: WAVE OPTICS PERIODS PERIODS
BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION, A.P., HYDERABAD REVISION OF SYLLABUS Subject PHYSICSII (w.e.f 201314) Chapter ONE: WAVES CHAPTER  1 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 Transverse and longitudinal waves 1.3 Displacement
More informationPhotons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of:
ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which has more energy, a photon of: 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which
More informationAS COMPETITION PAPER 2008
AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question
More informationLight as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation
The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered
More informationExperiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy
Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions
More informationPhysics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment
Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment 1. The speed of light found by a Michelson experiment was found to be 2.90 x 10 8 m/s. If the two hills were 20.0 km apart, what was the frequency of the
More informationA wave lab inside a coaxial cable
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING Eur. J. Phys. 25 (2004) 581 591 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS PII: S01430807(04)76273X A wave lab inside a coaxial cable JoãoMSerra,MiguelCBrito,JMaiaAlves and A M Vallera
More information1) The time for one cycle of a periodic process is called the A) wavelength. B) period. C) frequency. D) amplitude.
practice wave test.. Name Use the text to make use of any equations you might need (e.g., to determine the velocity of waves in a given material) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes
More informationElectron Orbits. Binding Energy. centrifugal force: electrostatic force: stability criterion: kinetic energy of the electron on its orbit:
Electron Orbits In an atom model in which negatively charged electrons move around a small positively charged nucleus stable orbits are possible. Consider the simple example of an atom with a nucleus of
More information1 Introduction. 1.1 Historical Perspective
j1 1 Introduction 1.1 Historical Perspective The invention of scanning probe microscopy is considered one of the major advances in materials science since 1950 [1, 2]. Scanning probe microscopy includes
More informationCalculating particle properties of a wave
Calculating particle properties of a wave A light wave consists of particles (photons): The energy E of the particle is calculated from the frequency f of the wave via Planck: E = h f (1) A particle can
More informationDoes Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Size
Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple concepts show why the answer is yes. Size Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Relative Absolute What does relative vs. absolute size mean? Why
More informationEnergy Transport. Focus on heat transfer. Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids)
Energy Transport Focus on heat transfer Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids) Conduction Conduction heat transfer occurs only when there is physical contact
More informationName Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics
13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problemsolving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options
More informationLaserinduced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures
CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 49, NO. 1 FEBRUARY 2011 Laserinduced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures Markus Schmotz, 1, Dominik Gollmer, 1 Florian Habel, 1 Stephen Riedel, 1 and
More informationLooking for the Origin of Power Laws in Electric Field Assisted Tunneling
Looking for the Origin of Power Laws in Electric Field Assisted Tunneling H. Cabrera, D.A. Zanin, L.G. De Pietro, A. Vindigni, U. Ramsperger and D. Pescia Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich
More information2. Molecular stucture/basic
2. Molecular stucture/basic spectroscopy The electromagnetic spectrum Spectral region for atomic and molecular spectroscopy E. Hecht (2nd Ed.) Optics, AddisonWesley Publishing Company,1987 Spectral regions
More informationWave Function, ψ. Chapter 28 Atomic Physics. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Line Spectrum
Wave Function, ψ Chapter 28 Atomic Physics The Hydrogen Atom The Bohr Model Electron Waves in the Atom The value of Ψ 2 for a particular object at a certain place and time is proportional to the probability
More informationarxiv:quantph/0604019v1 4 Apr 2006
Recurrence Tracking Microscope Farhan Saif Department of Electronics, QuaidiAzam University, Islamabad 4532, Pakistan. Department of Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. (Dated:
More informationChapter 18: The Structure of the Atom
Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.
More informationPhysical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect
Objectives: PS7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with
More informationPreview of Period 2: Forms of Energy
Preview of Period 2: Forms of Energy 2.1 Forms of Energy How are forms of energy defined? 2.2 Energy Conversions What happens when energy is converted from one form into another form? 2.3 Efficiency of
More informationNumerical Resolution Of The Schrödinger Equation
École Normale Supérieure de Lyon Master Sciences de la Matière 2011 Numerical Analysis Project Numerical Resolution Of The Schrödinger Equation Loren Jørgensen, David Lopes Cardozo, Etienne Thibierge Abstract
More informationBlackbody radiation derivation of Planck s radiation low
Blackbody radiation derivation of Planck s radiation low 1 Classical theories of Lorentz and Debye: Lorentz (oscillator model): Electrons and ions of matter were treated as a simple harmonic oscillators
More informationMain properties of atoms and nucleus
Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom
More informationSize effects. Lecture 6 OUTLINE
Size effects 1 MTX9100 Nanomaterials Lecture 6 OUTLINE Why does size influence the material s properties? How does size influence the material s performance? Why are properties of nanoscale objects
More informationFluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment
Fluid Structure Interaction VI 3 Fluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment J. Hengstler & J. Dual Department of Mechanical and Process
More informationHighlights of Solid State Physics. Man of the Year Nobel Prizes
Highlights of Solid State Physics Man of the Year Nobel Prizes Silicon Technology Moore s Law Gordon Moore Intel Jack Kilby 14 nm 2014 Physics Nobel Prize 2000 Integrated Circuit Electrons in the Conduction
More informationNearfield scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)
Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopylimited resolution Two broad classes of techniques
More informationLecture 3: Optical Properties of Bulk and Nano. 5 nm
Lecture 3: Optical Properties of Bulk and Nano 5 nm The Previous Lecture Origin frequency dependence of χ in real materials Lorentz model (harmonic oscillator model) 0 e  n( ) n' n '' n ' = 1 + Nucleus
More informationEnergy. Mechanical Energy
Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Electromagnetic Radiation Energy Definition of energy Ability to do work Physicist s definition of work Work = force x distance Force acting upon object over distance
More informationHeisenberg Uncertainty
Heisenberg Uncertainty Outline  Heisenberg Microscope  Measurement Uncertainty  Example: Hydrogen Atom  Example: Single Slit Diffraction  Example: Quantum Dots 1 TRUE / FALSE A photon (quantum of
More informationMicroscopie à force atomique: Le mode noncontact
Microscopie à force atomique: Le mode noncontact Clemens Barth barth@crmcn.univmrs.fr CRMCNCNRS, Campus de Lumny, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex09, France La Londe les Maures (France)  2021/03/2007
More informationPHYS 1624 University Physics I. PHYS 2644 University Physics II
PHYS 1624 Physics I An introduction to mechanics, heat, and wave motion. This is a calculus based course for Scientists and Engineers. 4 hours (3 lecture/3 lab) Prerequisites: Credit for MATH 2413 (Calculus
More informationRaman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu)
Introduction Raman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu) The scattering of light may be thought of as the redirection
More informationCambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level
Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level *0123456789* PHYSICS 9702/02 Paper 2 AS Level Structured Questions For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN
More informationAtomic Force Microscopy. Long Phan Nanotechnology Summer Series May 15, 2013
Atomic Force Microscopy Long Phan Nanotechnology Summer Series May 15, 2013 1 World s Smallest Movie 2 Outline What is AFM? How does AFM Work? 3 Modes: Contact mode Non contact mode Tapping mode Imaging
More informationMCQ  ENERGY and CLIMATE
1 MCQ  ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated
More informationUNIT I: INTRFERENCE & DIFFRACTION Div. B Div. D Div. F INTRFERENCE
107002: EngineeringPhysics Teaching Scheme: Lectures: 4 Hrs/week Practicals2 Hrs./week T.W.25 marks Examination Scheme: Paper50 marks (2 hrs) Online 50marks Prerequisite: Basics till 12 th Standard
More informationHeating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds
Lecture 8: Cloud Stability Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds Balance of heating and cooling processes helps to set the temperature in the gas. This then sets the minimum internal pressure in a core
More informationChapter NP5. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 NUCLEAR REACTIONS 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS
Chapter NP5 Nuclear Physics Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS 2.1 ELASTIC SCATTERING 2.2 INELASTIC SCATTERING 2.3 RADIATIVE CAPTURE 2.4 PARTICLE
More informationThree Pictures of Quantum Mechanics. Thomas R. Shafer April 17, 2009
Three Pictures of Quantum Mechanics Thomas R. Shafer April 17, 2009 Outline of the Talk Brief review of (or introduction to) quantum mechanics. 3 different viewpoints on calculation. Schrödinger, Heisenberg,
More informationElectromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing
Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing 1 Atmosphere Anything missing in between? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is radiated by atomic particles at the source (the Sun), propagates through
More informationF en = mω 0 2 x. We should regard this as a model of the response of an atom, rather than a classical model of the atom itself.
The Electron Oscillator/Lorentz Atom Consider a simple model of a classical atom, in which the electron is harmonically bound to the nucleus n x e F en = mω 0 2 x origin resonance frequency Note: We should
More informationActivitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies
Activitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.7x10 10 disintegrations per second.
More informationDO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS
DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.
More information7/3/2014. Introduction to Atomic Force Microscope. Introduction to Scanning Force Microscope. Invention of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
Introduction to Atomic Force Microscope Introduction to Scanning Force Microscope Not that kind of atomic Tien Ming Chuang ( 莊 天 明 ) Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica Tien Ming Chuang ( 莊 天 明 ) Institute
More informationAlevel PHYSICS (7408/1)
SPECIMEN MATERIAL Alevel PHYSICS (7408/1) Paper 1 Specimen 2014 Morning Time allowed: 2 hours Materials For this paper you must have: a pencil a ruler a calculator a data and formulae booklet. Instructions
More informationMolecular Spectroscopy:
: How are some molecular parameters determined? Bond lengths Bond energies What are the practical applications of spectroscopic knowledge? Can molecules (or components thereof) be identified based on differences
More informationIt has long been a goal to achieve higher spatial resolution in optical imaging and
Nanooptical Imaging using Scattering Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy Fehmi Yasin, Advisor: Dr. Markus Raschke, Postdoc: Dr. Gregory Andreev, Graduate Student: Benjamin Pollard Department of Physics,
More informationPotential Energy and Equilibrium in 1D
Potential Energy and Equilibrium in 1D Figures 627, 628 and 629 of TiplerMosca. du = F x dx A particle is in equilibrium if the net force acting on it is zero: F x = du dx = 0. In stable equilibrium
More information2 Absorbing Solar Energy
2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could
More informationAP1 Oscillations. 1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false?
1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false? (A) The displacement is directly related to the acceleration. (B) The
More informationUniversity of California at Santa Cruz Electrical Engineering Department EE145L: Properties of Materials Laboratory
University of California at Santa Cruz Electrical Engineering Department EE145L: Properties of Materials Laboratory Lab 8: Optical Absorption Spring 2002 Yan Zhang and Ali Shakouri, 05/22/2002 (Based
More informationAnalysis of Electromagnetic Propulsion on a TwoElectricDipole System
Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 2, Vol. 83, No. 4, 2000 Translated from Denshi Joho Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi, Vol. J82CI, No. 6, June 1999, pp. 310 317 Analysis of Electromagnetic Propulsion
More informationInteraction of Atoms and Electromagnetic Waves
Interaction of Atoms and Electromagnetic Waves Outline  Review: Polarization and Dipoles  Lorentz Oscillator Model of an Atom  Dielectric constant and Refractive index 1 True or False? 1. The dipole
More informationRaman Spectroscopy. 1. Introduction. 2. More on Raman Scattering. " scattered. " incident
February 15, 2006 Advanced Physics Laboratory Raman Spectroscopy 1. Introduction When light is scattered from a molecule or crystal, most photons are elastically scattered. The scattered photons have the
More informationReview of the isotope effect in the hydrogen spectrum
Review of the isotope effect in the hydrogen spectrum 1 Balmer and Rydberg Formulas By the middle of the 19th century it was well established that atoms emitted light at discrete wavelengths. This is in
More informationD.S. Boyd School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, U.K.
PHYSICAL BASIS OF REMOTE SENSING D.S. Boyd School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, U.K. Keywords: Remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation, wavelengths, target, atmosphere, sensor,
More information3. Electronic Spectroscopy of Molecules I  Absorption Spectroscopy
3. Electronic Spectroscopy of Molecules I  Absorption Spectroscopy 3.1. Vibrational coarse structure of electronic spectra. The Born Oppenheimer Approximation introduced in the last chapter can be extended
More informationThe Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:
The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of
More informationFrom lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?
From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly
More informationv = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to :
PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : Describe and distinguish between progressive longitudinal and transverse waves. With the exception of electromagnetic waves, which do not need a material
More informationAP1 Waves. (A) frequency (B) wavelength (C) speed (D) intensity. Answer: (A) and (D) frequency and intensity.
1. A fire truck is moving at a fairly high speed, with its siren emitting sound at a specific pitch. As the fire truck recedes from you which of the following characteristics of the sound wave from the
More informationChem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems
Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?
More informationLesson 11. Luis Anchordoqui. Physics 168. Tuesday, December 8, 15
Lesson 11 Physics 168 1 Oscillations and Waves 2 Simple harmonic motion If an object vibrates or oscillates back and forth over same path each cycle taking same amount of time motion is called periodic
More informationPlate waves in phononic crystals slabs
Acoustics 8 Paris Plate waves in phononic crystals slabs J.J. Chen and B. Bonello CNRS and Paris VI University, INSP  14 rue de Lourmel, 7515 Paris, France chen99nju@gmail.com 41 Acoustics 8 Paris We
More information6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?
Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 105 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through
More informationChemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light
Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light  Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR).  Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, xrays, microwaves, visible
More informationCandidate Number. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2012
entre Number andidate Number Surname Other Names andidate Signature General ertificate of Education dvanced Level Examination June 212 Physics PHY4/1 Unit 4 Fields and Further Mechanics Section Monday
More informationPhysics 1230: Light and Color
Physics 1230: Light and Color Instructor: Joseph Maclennan TOPIC 3  Resonance and the Generation of Light http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1230 How do we generate light? How do we detect light? Concept
More informationNanoelectronics. Chapter 2 Classical Particles, Classical Waves, and Quantum Particles. Q.Li@Physics.WHU@2015.3
Nanoelectronics Chapter 2 Classical Particles, Classical Waves, and Quantum Particles Q.Li@Physics.WHU@2015.3 1 Electron DoubleSlit Experiment Q.Li@Physics.WHU@2015.3 2 2.1 Comparison of Classical and
More informationThe Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics
The Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics Sumith Doluweera Department of Physics University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 Abstract Nonlinear optics became a very active field of research
More informationHOOKE S LAW AND SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
HOOKE S LAW AND SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION Alexander Sapozhnikov, Brooklyn College CUNY, New York, alexs@brooklyn.cuny.edu Objectives Study Hooke s Law and measure the spring constant. Study Simple Harmonic
More informationState Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.
5 Question 1. [Marks 20] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding
More informationd d Φ * Φdx T(B) Barrier (B ) : Vo = 5, a = 2 Well (W ) : Vo= 5, a = 2 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 ENERGY (E)
Quantum Mechanical Transmission with Absorption S. MAHADEVAN, A. UMA MAHESWARI, P. PREMA AND C. S. SHASTRY Physics Department, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 641105 ABSTRACT Transmission and reflection
More informationScanning NearField Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale
Scanning NearField Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale Outline Background Research Design Detection of NearField Signal Submonolayer Chemical Sensitivity Conclusions
More informationExamples of Uniform EM Plane Waves
Examples of Uniform EM Plane Waves Outline Reminder of Wave Equation Reminder of Relation Between E & H Energy Transported by EM Waves (Poynting Vector) Examples of Energy Transport by EM Waves 1 Coupling
More informationSpectroscopy. Biogeochemical Methods OCN 633. Rebecca Briggs
Spectroscopy Biogeochemical Methods OCN 633 Rebecca Briggs Definitions of Spectrometry Defined by the method used to prepare the sample 1. Optical spectrometry Elements are converted to gaseous atoms or
More informationCandidate Number. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2014
entre Number andidate Number Surname Other Names andidate Signature General ertificate of Education dvanced Level Examination June 214 Physics PHY4/1 Unit 4 Fields and Further Mechanics Section Wednesday
More informationSlide 1 / 26. Inductance. 2011 by Bryan Pflueger
Slide 1 / 26 Inductance 2011 by Bryan Pflueger Slide 2 / 26 Mutual Inductance If two coils of wire are placed near each other and have a current passing through them, they will each induce an emf on one
More informationGRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS
FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing
More information