Learning Target 1: I can describe the basic process of meiosis. Prophase I - Metaphase I - Anaphase I - Telophase I - Cytokinesis - Prophase II -

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1 2 nd 9 Weeks Study Guide! Aren t you excited?? Chapter 10 Learning Target 1: I can describe the basic process of meiosis Remembering meiosis: Meiosis I: interphase - Prophase I - Metaphase I - Anaphase I - Telophase I - Cytokinesis - Meiosis II: interphase Prophase II - Metaphase II - Anaphase II - Telophase II - Learning Target 2: I can indentify and explain Mendal s law of segregation and law of independent assortment Mendal s law of segregation states that during meiosis, the factos that control each trait separate, and only from each pair is/are passed to the offspring. The law of independent assortment states that the inheritance of alleles for one trait is not affected by the inheritance of alleles for a different trait if the genes for the traits are on. Learning Target 3: I can exaplain how the process of meiosis reveals the mechanism behind Mendal s conclusions What is expected after crossing-over occurs? How does crossing over occur?

2 Learning Target 4: I can define and provide an example of the following: genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, codominant, incomplete dominance, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier Define and give an example of each. Genotype - Phenotype - Dominant - Recessive - Codominant - Incomplete Dominance - Homozygous - Heterozygous - Carrier -

3 Chapter 11 Learning Target 1: I can describe the experiments of major scientists in determining the structure of DNA Hershey and Chase experiment: they demonstrated that the carries the information to a new generation Watson and Crick experiment described the of DNA, which is a. Learning Target 2: I can describe the basic structure and function of DNA, mrna, trna, and proteins (replication, transcription, translation). Structure Function DNA mrna trna proteins

4 Transcription - DNA: TAC AAC TTG CTA GAA CAT ATC mrna Translation - mrna AUG CUU CAG GAU UUU AAG UAG trna Learning Target 3: I can use mrna codon charts to determine amino acid sequences To translate into amino acids, I must read the line. AA from the 2 nd mrna line above Learning Target 4: I can use mrna codon charts to determine the effects of mutation (sickle cell anemia is a base substitution) Originial DNA Sequence: TAC ACC TTG GGC ACT Original mrna sequence: UAG UGG AAC CCG UGA Original amino acid sequence: met try asp pro stop Mutated DNA sequence: TAC ACC TTA GCG ACT What will be the mrna sequence? What will be the amino acid sequence? Will there likely be effects? What kind of mutation is this? Define: Point mutation Frameshift mutation

5 Chapter 12 Learning Target 1:I can explain sex-linked patterns of inheritance in regards to the X and Y chromosomes is an example of an X-linked trait. It is carried on the X and can be passed down to the next generation. 1) If a male has hemophilia, does he pass it on to his son? (assume mom does not carry or have the trait). 2) If a male has hemophilia, does he pass it on to his daughter?. Does she then have hemophilia, or is she a carrier? 3) In humans, colorblindness (b) is an example of a sex-linked recessive trait. In this problem, a male with colorblindess marries a family who is not colorblind but carries the (b) allele. Using a Punnett square, determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for their potential offspring. Learning Target 2: I can construct and interpret Punnett square and pedigree charts Construct a pedigree to go along with this family history: Mrs. Snyder can roll her tongue, and so can her husband. However, only the youngest daughter can also roll her tongue. The older daughter cannot. After making the pedigree, shade the people WITH the trait (because it s a dominant trait) and then write the genotypes beneath the people. What is the probability that should we have a 3 rd child (God forbid!) it would roll it s tongue?

6 A cross between a white rooster and a black hen results in 100% blue andalusian offspring. When two of these blue offspring are mated, the probable phenotypic ratio seen in their offspring would be. a. 100% blue b. 75% black, 25% blue c. 75% blue, 25% white d. 25% black, 50% blue, 25% white Learning Target 3: I can infer parental genotypes and phenotypes from offspring data One parent has the blood type A and the other blood type B. what are the genotypes of the parents if they produce children with only blood type AB? Draw a pedigree showing parents without the trait, and 3 children: oldest a boy, middle a boy, and youngest a girl. Shade in the oldest and youngest as having the trait. What are the genotypes of the parents? Is the trait dominant or recessive? Learning Target 4: I can describe the type of inheritance in common disorders (sickle cell anemia, Down s Turner s, PKU) Sickle cell anemia Down syndrome Turner s Syndrome PKU Hemophilia

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