4/30/2015. Example: Step 1: the equations NaOH Na + + OH 2.00M 2.00M 2.00M HNO 3 H + + NO

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1 Example: During an experiment, a student pours 25.0 ml of 1.40 mol/l nitric acid into a beaker that contains 15.0 ml of 2.00 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution. What is the final ph of the solution? Step 1: the equations NaOH Na + + OH 2.00M 2.00M 2.00M HNO 3 H + + NO M 1.40M 1.40M Step 2: mol H + /mol OH mol H + : M =mol/l 1.40 = x/0.0250l x = = mol H+ mol of OH : M =mol/l 2.00 = x/0.0150l x = mol OH Step 3: How much is excess? mol OH mol H + = mol H + Step 4: Concentration in total volume: M = mol/ L = ( mol H + ) ( L L ) = 0.12 mol/l Step 6: calculate ph: Here we have [H + ], so ph = log [0.12] = 0.92 ph= 0.92 otherefore the solution is quite acidic o[h + ] is 0.12 mol/l ofinal ph=0.92 1

2 Strength of Acids and Bases: Chemistry 12 Chapter 14 Key Idea: The strength of an acid is determined by the extent to which it ionizes (its % ionization) NOT the concentration of the acid Strong Acid: A strong acid is an acid that almost completely dissociates. All acid molecules break up to form the ions soluble in water. 2

3 Strong Acid: obinary acids that have a general formula of HX (aq) oex: HBr, HCl, HI, (But not HF [exception]) ooxyacids (acids that contain oxygen atoms) in which the # of oxygen atoms exceeds by 2 or more the # of hydrogen atoms that can be dissociated. oex: H 2 SO 4, HClO 4 Polyprotic acids: Acids that have more than 1 hydrogen atom that dissociates. Example: H 2 SO 4(aq) +H 2 O (l) HSO () 4 (aq) +H 3 O (l) () HSO 4 (aq ) +H 2 O (l) SO 2 4 (aq) +H 3 O (l) H 2 SO 4(aq) >> HSO 4 (aq ) Stronger weaker Polyprotic acids: Ex: H 2 SO 4(aq) +H 2 O (l) HSO 4 (aq) +H 3 O (l) HSO 4 (aq ) +H 2 O (l) SO 2 4 (aq) +H 3 O (l) * Sulfuric acid is a far stronger acid than the hydrogen sulfate ion, because much more energy is required to remove e a proton (H+) from a negatively charged ion. *The strength of a polyprotic acid decreases as the number of hydrogen atoms that have dissociated increases. 3

4 Weak Acid: A weak acid is an acid that only slightly dissociates in a water solution. Only a small percent of acid molecules l donate their hydrogen and most remain the same. The majority of acids are weak! Example: CH 3 COOH 4

5 Comparing: A strong acid essentially ionizes 100%. HCl (g) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) 0.10 mol 0.10 mol 0.10 mol (few molecules) (many ions) A weak acid ionizes very little CH 3 COOH (l) +H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq)+ch 3 COO (aq) 0.10 mol << 0.10 mol << 0.10 mol (many molecules) (few ions) CH 3 COOH has 5% ionization at 25 C Strong and Weak Bases: A strong base almost completely dissociates into its ions All oxides and hydroxides of group 1 and 2 are strong bases. E NaOH KOH Ca(OH) Ex: NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2 5

6 WEAK BASES Weak bases dissociate only slightly in water Most bases are weak Example: NH 3 (1% ionization) NH 3(g) + H 2 O (l) NH + 4 (aq) + OH (aq) 0.10 mol << 0.10 mol << 0.10 mol Electrolytes: Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes and weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes but why?? The more ionization (ions in the solution) the greater the conductivity. Strong acids have lots of charged ions and weak acids have very, very few ions. Experimentally: Distinguishing strong acids from weak acids and strong bases from weak bases: We must compare a strong acid to a weak acid of equal concentration!! 6

7 Experimentally: Therefore, we could compare by: a) use a conductivity apparatus test (light bulb will be brighter for a strong acid). b) react the two acids with a metal like magnesium (stronger acid will react faster, more bubbling as H 2 is formed) c) measure the ph of the solutions using a ph meter or indicators (strong acid has a lower ph) STR RONG WEAK Concentration vs Strength: CONCENTRATED H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - HA A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - HA H + A - H + A - H + A - A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + H + A - H + A - H + A - HA H + A - A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + A - HA A - H + A - H + A - H + A - H + HA HA H + A - HA HA HA + - HA HA HA HA HA H A H + A - HA HA HA HA HA HA HA H + A - HA HA HA HA HA HA + A - HA HA H H + A - HA HA HA HA HA HA HA HA H + A - HA HA H + A - HA HA HA HA HA HA HA H + A - HA HA HA DILUTE H + A - H + A - HA A - H + A - H + A H + A - H + A - H + A - HA H + A - H + A - H + A - H + HA HA HA HA HA HA HA H + A - HA HA HA HA H + A HA H + A HA HA STRONG ACIDS Dissociate nearly 100% HA H 1+ + A - WEAK ACIDS Dissociate very little HA H 1+ + A - Comparing Strengths: *Notice that a stronger acid has a weaker conjugate base, and a stronger base has a weaker conjugate acid. 7

8 Strengths Of Conjugate AcidBase Pairs: The stronger an acid, the weaker is its conjugate base. The stronger a base, the weaker is its conjugate acid. An acidbase reaction is favoured in the direction from the stronger member to the weaker member of each conjugate acidbase pair. The stronger acid and stronger base form the weaker acid and the weaker base, so the direction proceeds in that direction (left) Reactants are favoured in this reaction. Try it: Pg 564 # 10, 11 8

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