Why hydrogen and current status

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1 Why hydrogen and current status Den Haag, 25 March 2010 Presented by Jaco Reijerkerk

2 OVERVIEW Need for sustainable transport Hydrogen technology developments Main messages 2

3 World final energy consumption Non-energy use 9% International maritime 2% Rail 2% Pipeline 2% Other 0% Residential, services and agriculture 36% Transport 28% Air 13% Road passengers 51% Road freight 30% Industry 27% Total: 8085 Mtoe in Mboe/d Transport: 2227 Mtoe in Mboe/d IEA World Energy Outlook

4 Final energy consumption transport by fuel Oil dominant fuel in transport Transport drives economic growth: Biomass 1% Other 4% Mobility of people Mobility of goods; trade Globalization Hence oil fuels economic growth Oil 95% Transport: 2227 Mtoe in Mboe/d IEA World Energy Outlook

5 Car fleet growth Cars per 1000 people: US ~ Europe ~ China ~ India ~ Car stock increase from 650 million in 2005 to 1.4 billion in 2030 (IEA WEO 2008) 5

6 Key challenges Economic growth/wealth strongly dependant on mobility Mobility strongly dependant on finite primary energy (oil) Global increase of energy demand Rising net energy imports (i.e. EU/NL) Global and local emissions related to the use of oil products Climate change 6

7 Relevance CO 2 emissions transport 77

8 8

9 Four ways to reduce oil consumption and mitigate CO 2 emissions from transport Reduce transport demand / Modal shift Improve driving behaviour Improve vehicle efficiency Use low carbon fuels diversify Hydrogen vehicles 9

10 Source: Daimler 10

11 OVERVIEW Need for sustainable transport Hydrogen technology developments Main messages 11

12 Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles HFCVs are electric vehicles Enable zero emission vehicles (locally) Offers prospects for CO2 free/lean mobility Reduces dependence of oil Wide range of road vehicles Passenger cars Vans Small trucks Busses Specialty vehicles 12

13 FC-car development: from prototypes Consumptio on kwh/km Consumption Honda FCX Source: Honda 13

14 to small series Vehicle Honda FCX Clarity Status 2008 Small Series Propulsion Fuel Cell Battery Electric Motor 100 kw Li-ion battery 100 kw (torque 256 Nm) Storage CGH 2 35 MPa (171 l) Performance Range Top speed ~430 km 160 km/h (limited) 50% increase of output density per volume (67% by mass) compared to previous FCX 20% increase of fuel economy (indicative fuel use 26 km/l g.e.) Improved low temperature start-up capability: at -30ºC Begin of limited retail marketing in summer 2008 in Southern California For three years lease term: $600 per month including maintenance and insurance Source: Honda 14

15 Source: Daimler AG 15

16 Source: DOE 16

17 Other examples Sources: Hyundai, Toyota, GM, Volkswagen AG, Ford Motor Company, BMW AG 17

18 Hydrogen refuelling stations Hydrogen refuelling technology Can be integrated in conventional stations Builds upon many years of experience Is proven and safe Is available in US, EU and Asia Works with any hydrogen source or quality Most OEM vehicles require 700 bar SAE refuelling standards 18

19 Examples Linde H2 Center, Munich: 350bar, LH2 OMV, Stuttgart: 350bar, 700bar Shell Tokyo: 350bar Shell, Washington: 350bar and LH2 AGIP, Frankfurt: 350bar, 700bar and LH2 19

20 Demonstration projects show: Fuel Cell cars ready for end customer usage (latest challenge cold start ability solved) Clean Energy Partnership (CEP), Berlin Since cars and 14 buses in daily use 3 fueling stations active in 2010 > km driven & > 5000 fuelings performed Production, supply and fueling of hydrogen feasible and scalable 20

21 Important recent developments Signing of Letter of Understanding for Development and market introduction of Fuel Cell vehicles September 8th 2009 Seven global OEMs covering Japan, Korea, US, France and Germany Anticipated commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) from 2015 onwards Fuel Cell vehicles at a few hundred thousand units over life cycle on a worldwide basis Very first time mutual agreement between OEMs on timing of commercial roll out 21

22 Signing of Memorandum of Understanding for H2 Mobility September 10th in Berlin (10) key stakeholders from industry (OEM, oil, utility & industrial gas) and from public (NOW) Intention to jointly build up hydrogen fueling infrastructure in lead market Germany ( ) 22

23 Hydrogen Refuelling Station Concept Integration in existing refuelling stations as much as possible Basically four options: On-site generation Transport gaseous hydrogen by truck Transport liquid hydrogen by truck Transport gaseous hydrogen by pipeline Considerations: Footprint, flexibility, capex, opex, capacity, modularity, fuel quality, green/clean-h 2, fuel quality, standardisation, car cryo-storage, Our conclusion 23

24 Hydrogen Refuelling Station Concept Supply liquid hydrogen to stations At station: Cryo-storage of liquid hydrogen Dispensing of gaseous hydrogen into cars at bar Pressurisation of hydrogen using cryo-pump Standard unit allowing for <3min refill at two dispensers simultaneously 24

25 Hydrogen Refuelling Station Concept LH NG Reforming Liquefaction Liquid transport Liquid storage Compression Filling 350/700 bar hydrogen refuelling 25

26 Where are we in the transition? Market share Technologies in different phases: Each phase requires other policy measures Long term view and consistent policy needed to attract investments Commercialisation R&D Demonstratie PHEV FCEV BEV 2 nd gen Biofuels/SNG Early markets 1 st gen CNG Biofuels ICE-Hybrids Time 26

27 OVERVIEW Need for sustainable transport Hydrogen technology developments Main messages and conclusions 27

28 Main messages Hydrogen fuel cell cars are zero emission electric vehicles Hydrogen fuel cells offer the possibilty of zero emission propulsion for a wide segment of cars Hydrogen fuel cell cars rapidly approach the stage of market introduction Hydrogen can be integrated in existing refuelling stations Central large scale production of hydrogen with supply of liquid hydrogen to stations seems the most promising hydrogen delivery route 28

29 The THRIVE consortium gratefully acknowledges the Ministerie van Economische Zaken and SenterNovem for their financial support

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