De energievoorziening in 2040;

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1 De energievoorziening in 2040; decentraal, duurzaam en intelligent! Prof. Dr. Ad van Wijk Delft University of Technology Challenge the future

2 There is no energy crisis Energy efficiency world wide is about 2% The sun gives us in one hour more energy than the world consumes in a year Renewable energy is everywhere but dispersed 2

3 Our Car 3

4 Our doorbell 4

5 Internet router 5

6 Looking up not down The Sun gives us EJ per year Earth s albedo reflects back 34% Earth receives 1 2 billion of the sun s energy output th Warms land and water 42% Water Cycle 23% Wind/Ocean Currents 1% Photosynthesis0.023% World wide energy use in 2010 was about 535 EJ 6

7 Traditional energy chain: from source to service Extraction Transport Distribution Energy services Treatment Conversion End-use conversion 7

8 Where do we use energy for? World wide energy consumption % of total Climate (heating, cooling,..) Transport Electricity Other

9 Dutch energy system today Present Electricity Characteristics MW Installed capacity (2010), ½ cogeneration 109 TWh Electricity production Mton CO 2 in 2011, 435 grco 2 /kwh average Heating and cooling 7.2 million houses m 3 gas, 3480 kwh electricity average ton CO 2 per house for heating in Mton CO 2 in 2010 for heating Car transport 8 million cars (end 2010), 7% of time in operation 50 kw average engine rated power total fleet 100 billion car kilometers per year 18.8 Mton CO 2 in 2010, 186 gr/km CO 2 average 0.5 million new cars per year ( in 2011) 80 kw average new engine rated power 9

10 Towards 2040 Energy producing buildings Clean Light Local energy production Offshore sustainable energy The Car as Power Plant 10

11 Energy producing buildings Energy use for heating and cooling our buildings is roughly 25% of all energy. But why do we use energy in our buildings? In winter time it is too cold and we have to heat our buildings In summer time it is too hot and we have to cool our buildings It is not an energy problem it is a storage problem 11

12 The Closed Greenhouse Total control of temperature, humidity and CO 2 levels in a greenhouse Advantages: Produce, not consume, energy re-use of irrigation water 90% reduced use of pesticides 90% increased crop production 25% improved process control 12

13 Heat/cold storage systems open and closed systems Open WKO system Closed WKO system 13

14 Heat/cold storage systems the Netherlands (WKO) Expectation open WKO systems in

15 Clean light Clean light is Daylight Daylight sensors and control Movement sensors and control Energy efficient lights LED is efficient and will change the lighting systems; Very small light source Less heat production Can be integrated in walls, floors, ceilings, but also in products And interactive 15

16 LED street light Philips. Solar Flower LED street lights Schiphol 16

17 LED light in house WI FI conected LED lights to be controlled by IPhone 17

18 Local Energy Production Electricity Biogas electricity and heat production (manure, organic waste, sewage sludge, energy crops Small and medium sized wind turbines Solar Electricity Small hydro power Fuel cell in cars for electricity production Electricity storage in batteries in cars Heat Solar hot water systems Heat and cold sources with heat pump technology Heat and cold storage with heat pump technology Geothermal heat Fuel Biogas, feeding into the gas grid Wood pellet production 18

19 Solar energy cost 19

20 The AC / DC Battle Nikola Tesla 10 July 1856, New York AC Thomas Edison 11 february 1847, West Orange DC 20

21 DC LED light in greenhouse LED light between plants LED electronics not necessary 21

22 Offshore sustainable energy There is more space offshore than onshore, 70% of the world is offshore There are more and better renewable energy sources offshore than onshore The winds are stronger Algae s/sea weed produce 5-10 times as much biomass than onshore crops We have also waves and tidal energy and some others 22

23 Wind energy at North Sea Area km 2 Wind MW Electricity Production Part of North Sea TWh 6% can produce all electricity for North Sea countries (Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and UK) 23

24 24

25 Fuel Cell car 25

26 Fuel cell development; cost and durability Source: US Department of Energy 26

27 Fuel cell cars Hyundai fuel cell car Honda fuel cell car with solar hydrogen fueling station Mercedes fuel cell car 27

28 Car park power plant 28

29 Car Park Power Plant 29

30 Dutch energy system Characteristics Electricity Decentralized solar, wind, biogas cogeneration Centralized wind, wave, biomass plants Huge capacity of decentralized car park power plants Infrastructure smart DC to every appliance. Heating and cooling Houses/buildings well insulated and ventilated Houses/buildings low temperature heating Houses/buildings electric heat pumps Heat/cold sources divers Car transport Electric transport ½ cars with batteries only ½ cars with fuel cell Busses and trucks with fuel cell 30

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