1 Multi-year Expert Meeting on Transport, Trade Logistics and Trade Facilitation Sustainable Freight Transport Systems: Opportunities for Developing Countries October 2015 EGYPT'S POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT by Mr. Essam Hassan Mohamed Ahmed Consultant, Climate Change Central Department Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) This expert paper is reproduced by the UNCTAD secretariat in the form and language in which it has been received. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the view of the United Nations.
2 Egypt s Polices for Sustainable Transport Dr. Eng. Essam Hassan Mohamed AHMED Essam Hassan Mohamed AHMED Consultant Climate Change Central Department Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) Lead Author, WG III, AR5, IPCC
3 Overview Introduction to Mitigation Opportunities for Developing Countries Low Carbon Growth Promote Mitigation and Clean Technology Transportation in Egypt Policies to improve Air Quality Positive Actions in Transportation Sector in Egypt
4 What is Climate Change Mitigation? Mitigation is any actions that cuts net emissions of greenhouse gases by: reducing sources of greenhouse gases Increasing sinks of greenhouse gases Includes but is not limited to technological, political, structural or financial action Source: Wordpress
5 Climate change and temperature
6 Mitigating Greenhouse Gases: A Shared Global Responsibility IPCC projects that global emissions need to be reduced by at least 50% by 2050 to limit temperature increase to 2ºC Developed countries will need to undertake majority of emission reduction Without emission reduction and mitigation in developing countries not possible to meet this goal Egypt Emissions represent almost 0.6% of the Global Emissions Source: Fotolia
8 Source NASA (Clementine)
9 GHG Emissions by Country and Per Capita Annual CO2emissions (in thousands of metric tons) CO2 Emissions Per Capita (metric tons)
10 Mitigation: Opportunities for Developing Countries Access to financing to promote green growth Receive advanced technology from developed countries (technology transfer) Develop capacity to introduce and maintain new technologies Accelerate the path to a green economy and sustainable development Source: UNITAR
11 Co-Benefits Resulting from Mitigation Cost savings through improved energy efficiency Reduction in local air pollution resulting in improved health Enhanced diversity of energy mix and energy supply security Improved local employment, e.g. through decentralized energy production Improved local industrial development
12 Policies aiming at mitigating GHG emissions can provide a broad range of more immediate air pollution benefits to public health in the countries that implement these GHG mitigation measures. Conversely, not acting or postponing actions to reduce GHG emissions will fail to achieve the health benefits
13 Embedding Low Carbon Growth within a Green Economy Greening the economy refers to the process of reconfiguring businesses and infrastructure to deliver better returns on nature, human and economic capital investments Greening the economy results in: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions Extracting and using less natural resources Creating less waste and reducing social disparities
14 Embedding Low Carbon Growth within a Green Economy (cont.) Greening the economy necessitates reshaping and refocusing policies, investments and spending towards: Clean technologies Renewable energies Water services Green transportation Waste management Green buildings and Sustainable agriculture and forests May include sector-specific fiscal stimulus package
15 Policy Instruments to Promote Mitigation and Clean Technology Regulations and standards Taxes and charges Tradable permits for carbon emissions Financial incentives Voluntary agreements Information instruments for the population Funding research in the area
16 Questions to Assess Mitigation Options and New Technology What are the investment costs of introducing the option, both direct and direct? What are the major obstacles to the investment? Is the option consistent with other policy goals (e.g. health goals) What capacities need to be in place to introduce the option? (e.g. institutional capacity, man-power, trainings etc.) Will the option perform well and in a sustainable manner? Is sufficient information available to make an informed choice?
18 Sectors with Mitigation Potential Energy Industry Waste Transport Buildings Agriculture Forestry Source: The Guardian Source: UNITAR
19 Mitigation Options: Transport Efficiency technologies More aerodynamic cars Hybrid motor engines Reduced friction technologies Kinetic energy recovery breaking Alternative fuels Biofuels Electricity Hydrogen (fuel cells) Consumer behavior Buying smaller cars Driving more efficiently Increase share of rail and water transport Infrastructure/policy changes More accessible/ affordable urban public transport More bicycle lanes Fuel taxes Traffic/congestion charges
20 Transportation in Egypt
21 Transportation in Egypt (cont.) Egypt is the largest Arab country, with more than 85 million inhabitants, and is the second most populous country in Africa. Almost 50 per cent of the populations live in urban areas, and the rest in compact rural settlements surrounded by intensively cultivated irrigated land along the River Nile. The transport sector is a major consumer of fossil fuels and therefore contributes a significant share of the country's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In the transport sector was responsible for % of overall energy consumption and about 31.6 million tones of CO2, representing nearly 26 % of the energy-related CO2 emissions (OEP, 2004).
22 The demand for energy in the transport sector has been growing with the population, economic growth. The Transport Sector Development Plan, which covers the years to 2017, includes measures to promote public passenger transport and encourage a modal shift of cargo transport from road to railways and inland waterways. In addition, the government has for many years pursued a policy of gradual liberalization and privatization of the transport sector (EEC, 2005). In the volume of people transported by road had reached nearly billion passenger/km, while freight transport amounted to nearly 43.1 billion tones/km (State Information Service, 2006). For railways, the policy goal is a revitalization of the sector and the development of better service quality by Egyptian National Railways (ENR), which is state-owned and highly subsidized. The rail system delivered 76.1 billion passenger/km in ; while freight was only 4.7 billion tones/km.
23 Egyptian National Railways is presently undertaking significant investment in order to modernize and upgrade the railways and extend its network. Egypt's inland waterways, the River Nile and canals, are severely underutilized for transport. Primarily designed as an irrigation system, in 1995 the inland waterways carried approximately 3.6 million tones of freight, which represented only 3.3 % of the total tones/km transported (EEC, 2005). The energy consumption of freight transportation is rapid growth, 90 % share of all freight, while the opportunities for more energy-efficient rail and inland waterway transport are clearly underutilized. The transport demand is concentrated on a few transport corridors starting from or ending in Cairo; and the transport patterns are influenced by the imbalance between exports and imports (the value of imports being about twice the value of exports in 2002).
25 Policies to improve Air Quality Mitigation options for the transport sector outlined in the first national communication included the following:- Energy efficiency through improvement of vehicle maintenance and tuning-up of vehicle engines. A programme to use compressed natural gas as a vehicle fuel. Reintroduction of electrified railways in intercity and intra-city transport. Intensifying the use of environmentally sound river transport systems. Extending metro lines to newly developed cities. Encouraging private sector participation in financing and managing the new metro lines.
26 Positive Action to Mitigate Transportation Emissions CNG as a transport fuel As part of the national policy to switch from oil to natural gas in all consuming sectors, the use of natural gas as a transportation fuel was endorsed as a means to improve air quality and public health. EEAA-New NG Bus
28 Electrification of railways Historically, Egypt was second to the United Kingdom in introducing railways in the 1880s. Rail plays a vital role in passenger transport in Egypt, with a total share in of about 39%. Most of the rail system operates on gas oil (diesel). A preliminary study on the feasibility of railway electrification was carried out in 1999, using the Cairo Alexandria line as a test case. As Egypt is a net importer of gas oil, which is subsidized by the government for domestic use, and as part of the government's "switching to gas" policy.
29 Cairo underground metro A major step to upgrade Cairo's transport system has been the construction of an underground metro, the first of its kind in Africa and the Middle East. The 63 km underground network links the three governorates comprising Cairo metropolitan region: Cairo, Giza and Qalyoubia. The network comprises two lines: line 1, which was completed in 2000, is 44 km long and currently carries 1.5 million passengers per day; line 2, 19 km long, was completed in 2005 and is now used by 1.2 million passengers per day.
30 Nowadays a third line under implementation, from Cairo International Airport to west of Cairo, The new line, about 33 km in length, will have a design capacity of 2.1 million passengers per day. It is expected to take 13 years to complete. Three additional lines are also envisioned for the year 2022 (Egyptian Tunneling Society, 2004).
31 The National Program for Taxi Replacement In 2008, Egyptian Government stated a new law to assist taxi-owners for replacement their old Taxies over 20 years old are not allowed to operate starting July The first phase implemented from April 2009 to March 2010 through local banks mobilized by the GoE succeeded in replacing over 21,272 taxis, from 35,000 Taxi, that would replace later. Incomes of taxi-owners are expected to increase by 40%, while at least 21,250 jobs are sustained and a further 10,500 direct and 1,000 indirect new jobs will be created in the form of drivers, as well as staff of vehicle factories, car maintenance and car scrapping companies. The project will also lead to a reduction of up to 0.6 million metric tones of CO2 equivalent over a 10 year period.
32 Conclusion The transport sector is a major consumer of fossil fuels and therefore contributes a significant share of Egypt s emissions of air pollutants and GHGs. Transport problems are particularly acute in the Cairo metropolitan area, one of the world's megacities with a population of more than 17 million. GHG mitigation options for the transport sector outlined in Egypt's first national communication to the UNFCCC included a number of policies and measures; Some of which have been highly successful such as improved energy efficiency through vehicle maintenance and tuning-up of vehicle engines, phasing out of leaded gasoline and a programme to encourage the use of CNG as a vehicle fuel.
33 Conclusion (cont.) Others, such as the reintroduction of electrified railways in intercity and intra-city transport, intensifying the use of environmentally sound river transport systems; Extending underground metro lines to newly developed cities and testing electric and hybrid buses, are in need of further development. A new initiative has just started in Egypt to develop an integrated plan to realize a long-term sustainable transport sector. It s aimed to reduce the growth of energy consumption and the related greenhouse gas emissions of the transport sector, while simultaneously mitigating the local environmental and other problems of increasing traffic.
34 For Contact: Essam Hassan Mohamed AHMED; Ph.D CONSULTANT Climate Change Central Department, EEAA Mobile : (+2)
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