The table shows the effect of exercise on the action of one person s heart. Heart rate in beats per minute

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1 ## (a) The table shows the effect of exercise on the action of one person s heart. At rest During exercise Heart rate in beats per minute 7 65 Volume of blood leaving the heart in each beat in cm 3 Heart output in cm 3 per minute (i) Calculate the heart output for this person during exercise. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Answer =... cm 3 per minute () During exercise, more oxygen is carried to the working muscles. Explain why this is helpful during exercise. () (b) Give two other changes in the body that help to increase the amount of oxygen delivered to the working muscles during exercise () (Total 6 marks) Page of 4

2 Q. The diagram shows a small part of a lung. (a) The arrow on the diagram shows the movement of oxygen from the air in the alveolus to cell X. Complete the sentences by drawing a ring around the correct answer. platelet (i) Cell X is a red cell white cell () Oxygen moves from the air in the alveolus into cell X by diffusion filtration respiration () (iii) The substance in cell X that combines with oxygen is called glycogen haemoglobin lactic acid () Page of 4

3 (iv) Cell X does not have a cell membrane cytoplasm a nucleus () (b) On the diagram, draw an arrow to show the movement of carbon dioxide during gas exchange. () (Total 5 marks) Q3. Paula is training for a marathon. When she runs, her heart beats faster than it does when she is resting. Complete the sentences, using words from the box. blood breathe carbon dioxide glucose heat nitrogen oxygen respire When she is running, Paula s muscle activity increases. To do this, her muscle cells... at a faster rate to give her more energy. Her muscles need to be supplied with... and... more quickly. Her heart beats faster to increase the flow of... which carries the products... and... away from her muscles. (Total 6 marks) Page 3 of 4

4 Q4. A student s breathing was monitored before and after vigorous exercise. The student breathed in and out through a special apparatus. The graphs show the changes in the volume of air inside the apparatus. Each time the student breathed in, the line on the graph dropped. Each time the student breathed out, the line went up. Page 4 of 4

5 (a) How many times did the student breathe in per minute: before exercise;... after exercise?... () (b) On each graph, the line A B shows how much oxygen was used. The rate of oxygen use before exercise was 0.5 dm 3 per minute. Calculate the rate of oxygen use after exercise. Rate of oxygen use after exercise =... dm 3 per minute () (c) The breathing rate and the amount of oxygen used were still higher after exercise, even though the student sat down to rest. Why were they still higher? (4) (Total 7 marks) Page 5 of 4

6 Q5. The diagram shows the mean daily input and output of water for an adult. The kidneys keep the water content of the body constant by controlling the volume of water passed out in the urine. (i) Use data from the diagram to calculate the mean daily output of water in urine. Show your working. Answer... cm 3 () Describe how the amount of water in the body is controlled by the kidneys. (3) (Total 5 marks) Page 6 of 4

7 Q6. A student breathed out into an empty breathing bag five times. After breathing out five times the volume of air in the bag was measured. The volume was 3000 cm 3. (a) Complete the following sentences. The air the student breathed in would contain more... than the air the student breathed out. The air the student breathed out would contain more... than the air the student breathed in. () (b) The student then did some exercise for two minutes. The volume breathed out in five breaths was again measured. This time there was 9000 cm 3 of air in the bag. What does this tell you about the effect of exercise on breathing? () (c) (i) Name the chemical process that releases energy when it takes place in the cells of the body.... () Name the substances produced by this process.... and... () Page 7 of 4

8 (iii) Explain as fully as you can why this process has to take place more rapidly during exercise. () (Total 8 marks) Q7. (a) Explain, as fully as you can, why respiration has to take place more rapidly during exercise. () (b) During exercise the process of respiration produces excess heat. Explain how the body prevents this heat from causing a rise in the core (deep) body temperature. (4) (Total 6 marks) Page 8 of 4

9 Q8. The pie chart shows the composition of the air we breathe in. The table shows the composition of the air we breathe out. Carbon dioxide Gas Percentage 5 Nitrogen 80 Oxygen 5 (a) Complete the pie chart below for the composition of the air we breathe out. Remember to label the chart. (3) Page 9 of 4

10 (b) Use the information from the two pie charts to give two differences between the air we breathe in and the air we breathe out. the air we breathe in contains more.... the air we breathe out contains more.... () (c) Name the process in the body which produces carbon dioxide. () (Total 6 marks) Q9. (a) The air you breathe in and the air you breathe out are different. Use the names of gases from this box to complete the three spaces. argon carbon dioxide nitrogen oxygen water vapour Compared to the air you breathe in, the air you breathe out contains: more... more... less... (3) (b) The process of aerobic respiration takes place in your cells. (i) Complete the space in the word equation for this process oxygen carbon dioxide + water () Complete the space to give the main energy transfer which takes place in this process. chemical energy... energy () (iii) What is the name of the organ where oxygen from the air passes to your blood? () Page 0 of 4

11 (c) The athlete is taking part in vigorous exercise. Complete the two spaces in the passage. The cells in our muscles respire anaerobically during vigorous exercise. This results in...debt and the production of... acid. () (Total 8 marks) Q0. (a) (i) The table shows an athlete s breathing rate after the end of a race. The results can be put onto a graph. Three of the points are already plotted. Plot the other points shown in the table. Then draw the graph. Time after end of race (minutes) Breathing rate (litres per second) Page of 4

12 (4) What is the athlete s breathing rate ½ (half) a minute after the end of the race?.. () (b) One of the reasons for breathing is to get rid of carbon dioxide from your body. Choose words from the list to complete the sentences below about how your body does this. blood heart kidneys lungs urine Carbon dioxide gets out of your body from your... The carbon dioxide is carried to this part of your body by your... () (c) The bar charts show what happens in an athlete s muscles when running in two races of different distances. Page of 4

13 (i) Compare what happens in the athlete s muscles when running in the two races. (3) Use the information in the box to explain your answer to (i). () (Total 3 marks) Q. (a) Use words from the box to complete the equation for aerobic respiration. alcohol glucose lactic acid water... + oxygen carbon dioxide +... (+ energy) () Page 3 of 4

14 (b) Some students investigated the effect of temperature on the rate of aerobic respiration in earthworms. The diagram shows the apparatus the students used. When the tap is closed, the bead of liquid moves to the left as the earthworms take in oxygen. The students put the test tube into a water bath at 0 C for 0 minutes. They left the tap open during this time. Why did the students put the test tube in the water bath at 0 C for 0 minutes? Tick ( ) one box. Because the air contains more oxygen at 0 C. Because the air contains less carbon dioxide at 0 C. So the earthworms body temperature would change to 0 C. () (c) The students then: closed the tap started a stopwatch recorded the position of the bead of liquid every minutes for 0 minutes repeated the experiment at 0 C. The graph shows the students results. Page 4 of 4

15 Volume of oxygen taken in =... mm 3 () Time in minutes (i) How much oxygen did the earthworms take in during the 0 minutes at 0 C? Use information from the graph to work out your answer. The earthworms took in this volume of oxygen in 0 minutes. Use your answer from part (c)(i) to calculate how much oxygen the earthworms took in each minute. Volume of oxygen taken in =... mm 3 per minute () (iii) The earthworms took in less oxygen each minute at 0 C than they took in at 0 C. Explain why. () Page 5 of 4

16 (d) When drawing the line on the graph for the experiment at 0 C, the students ignored the reading at 8 minutes. (i) Suggest why they ignored the reading at 8 minutes. () One student suggested they should repeat the experiment twice more at each temperature. How would repeating the experiment improve the investigation? () (Total 0 marks) Page 6 of 4

17 M. (a) (i) for correct answer ignore working or lack of working 65 0 but no answer / wrong answer = mark (ignore extras) any two from: for respiration ignore oxygen debt energy released allow energy produced prevents anaerobic respiration prevents build-up of lactic acid (b) any two from: increased breathing rate(*) increased depth of breathing or deep breathing(*) (*)more breathing is max mark ignore increase in heart rate allow heavier breathing do not allow harder breathing dilation of arteries / vasodilation allow blood vessels dilate do not allow veins / capillaries dilate blood diverted from elsewhere ignore name of organ [6] M. (a) (i) red cell (iii) (iv) diffusion haemoglobin a nucleus Page 7 of 4

18 (b) (on diagram) arrow from any part of blood to air [5] M3. (a) respire blood [6] M4. (a) (before exercise) 9 to and (after exercise) or 3 both correct (b) 0.75 to 0.90 ignore working or lack of working eg or for mark or other suitable figures (c) any four from: still need to remove extra carbon dioxide still need to remove heat / to cool (some) anaerobic respiration (in exercise) lactic acid made (in exercise) oxygen needed to break down lactic acid or suitable reference to oxygen debt lactic acid broken down to CO and water or lactic acid changed into glucose 4 [7] Page 8 of 4

19 M5. (i) = 500 for mark each 3 of filter blood reabsorb water in sufficient quantities to keep body water content constant produce dilute urine if water content of body high/reverse argument any 3 for mark each 3 [5] ## (a) (b) oxygen, carbon dioxide or water (vapour) for mark each idea of more air per breath/deeper breaths for mark (c) (i) respiration for mark carbon dioxide, water for mark each (iii) more energy required, for increased muscular activity for mark each [8] M7. (a) more energy needed, for increased muscular activity for mark each Page 9 of 4

20 (b) increased sweat production, evaporation of sweat cools body, vasodilation OWTTE, more heat loss (by radiation) for mark each 4 [6] M8. (a) plots all correct allow one mark for / correct plots all labels present and correct (in correct proportions) (b) oxygen carbon dioxide (c) respiration do not accept anaerobic respiration [6] M9. (a) more water vapour accept more water more carbon dioxide less oxygen (b) (i) glucose accept carbohydrate(s) accept sugar(s) heat or thermal or internal kinetic Page 0 of 4

21 (iii) lungs accept alveoli / alveolus do not credit air sacs do not credit capillaries both neutral if included with lungs (c) oxygen accept O lactic [8] M0. (a) (i) points correctly plotted all correct gains marks correct gains mark each part of line correctly drawn (i.e. curve + straight line) for mark each part of line 4 3 (or according to plotted graph) litres per second for mark each (b) lungs blood for mark each (c) (i) ideas that energy transferred faster in 00m race carbon dioxide produced faster during 500m race / more carbon dioxide produced for mark each correct reference to twice / half as fast in either / both cases for a further mark 3 Page of 4

22 respiration during 00m race (mainly) anaerobic respiration during 500m race (mainly) aerobic aerobic respiration produced carbon dioxide anaerobic respiration produced / lactic acid for mark each [3] M. (a) LHS glucose RHS water allow H O / H0 (b) so the earthworms body temperature would change to 0 C (c) (i) 56 or 55 or 54 if incorrect answer given accept 60-5 for mark or 60 6 for mark or 60 4 for mark one-tenth of answer to (c)(i) eg 5.5 (at 0 C / lower temperature): lower rate of respiration allow chemical reactions slower or enzymes less active ignore breathing do not allow anaerobic worms less active / worms release less energy / worms use less energy (d) (i) anomalous result / not in line with other data / does not fit the pattern Page of 4

23 more representative / more reliable / can check repeatability / see if get similar values / identify anomalies ignore valid / more fair ignore reproducible ignore to remove anomalies do not accept more accurate or more precise [0] Page 3 of 4

24 Page 4 of 4

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