Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate.

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1 Q. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured the volume of carbon dioxide produced in the experiment. The results are shown on the graph. (a) After how many minutes had all the acid been used up?... minutes () (b) The student wrote this conclusion for the experiment: The reaction gets slower and slower as the time increases. Explain why the reaction gets slower. Your answer should be in terms of particles. () Page of 34

2 (c) A second experiment was carried out at a higher temperature. All other factors were the same. Draw a line on the graph above to show the results that you would expect. () (Total 5 marks) Q. A student heated some blue copper sulphate crystals. The crystals turned into white copper sulphate. (a) The blue copper sulphate had to be heated to change it into white copper sulphate. State whether the reaction was exothermic or endothermic.... Explain your answer. () (b) The word equation for this reaction is shown below. (i) What does the symbol tell you about this reaction? () Page of 34

3 How could the student turn the white powder back to blue? () (Total 3 marks) Q3. (a) Indigestion tablets called antacids can be taken to react with excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach. A student investigated two different antacid tablets labelled X and Y. (i) Both tablets, X and Y, contained calcium carbonate. Give the chemical symbol for each of the three elements in calcium carbonate. (3) Name the gas formed when calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid. () (b) The student first reacted tablet X and then tablet Y, with 00 cm 3 of a hydrochloric acid solution. The student measured the volume of gas produced during the first five minutes. The results are shown in the table. Time in minutes Volume of gas in cm 3 Tablet X Volume of gas in cm 3 Tablet Y Page 3 of 34

4 (i) Draw a graph of the results for tablet Y. (A graph of the results for tablet X has been drawn for you.) (3) Tablet X contains less calcium carbonate than tablet Y. How do the results show this? () (iii) Explain why the rate of reaction slows down for both tablets. () (Total 0 marks) Page 4 of 34

5 Q4. Hydrogen peroxide (H O ) contains the same elements as water (H O). (a) Name the hazard symbol shown by using the correct word from the box. corrosive flammable oxidising toxic () (b) Hydrogen peroxide decomposes in the presence of a catalyst. H O (aq) H O(l) + O (g) (i) Complete the word equation for this chemical reaction. hydrogen peroxide water +... () What does a catalyst do to a chemical reaction? () (Total 3 marks) Page 5 of 34

6 Q5. The apparatus shown in the diagram was used to investigate the rate of reaction of excess marble chips with dilute hydrochloric acid, HCl. Marble is calcium carbonate, formula CaCO 3. The salt formed is calcium chloride, CaCl. (a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction () The following results were obtained from the experiment. Time in minutes Reading on balance in g Page 6 of 34

7 (b) (i) Plot the results and draw a graph on the axes below. (3) Continue the graph you have drawn to show the expected reading after minutes. () (iii) On the axes above, sketch a graph of the result which would be obtained if in a similar experiment the same mass of powdered marble was used instead of marble chips. () (Total 8 marks) Page 7 of 34

8 Q6. A student did two experiments using ammonium chloride. (a) In the first experiment the student heated a small amount of ammonium chloride in a test tube. Two reactions take place in the test tube. Reaction ammonium chloride ammonia + hydrogen chloride (colourless gases) Reaction ammonia + hydrogen chloride ammonium chloride (i) Complete the sentences by crossing out the incorrect word in each box. Reaction takes place at a high low temperature. Reaction takes place at a high low temperature. () Draw a ring around the word which best describes reactions and. combustion displacement oxidation reduction reversible () (iii) Suggest a reason for the mineral wool at the top of the test tube. () Page 8 of 34

9 (b) In the second experiment the student mixed a small amount of ammonium chloride with some water in a beaker. The temperature of the water was measured before and after adding the ammonium chloride. Temperature before adding the ammonium chloride Temperature after adding the ammonium chloride 0 C 6 C Draw a ring around the word which best describes the process which takes place. combustion displacement endothermic exothermic freezing () (Total 4 marks) Q7. Many indigestion tablets contain calcium carbonate as their only active ingredient. Calcium carbonate neutralises some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Two different indigestion tablets, X and Y, were separately reacted with excess hydrochloric acid. The volume of gas given off in each reaction was measured every minute. The results are shown in the graph. Page 9 of 34

10 (i) Which tablet, X or Y, contained most calcium carbonate?... Explain the reason for your answer. () Which tablet, X or Y, reacted faster with hydrochloric acid?... Explain the reason for your answer. () (iii) Explain the shape of the graph for tablet X between 3 and 5 minutes. () (Total 3 marks) Q8. Hydrogen peroxide, H O, is often used as a bleach. It decomposes forming water and oxygen. (a) (i) Write the balanced chemical equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. (3) Give a test for oxygen. Test... Result of test... () (b) The rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at room temperature is very slow. Manganese oxide is a catalyst which can be used to speed up the decomposition. Complete the sentence. A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction. At the end of the reaction, the catalyst is... () Page 0 of 34

11 (c) Two experiments were carried out to test if the amount of manganese oxide, MnO affected the rate at which the hydrogen peroxide decomposed. (i) Complete the diagram to show how you could measure the volume of oxygen formed during the decomposition. () The results are shown in the table. Time in minutes Volume of gas in cm 3 using 0.5 g MnO Volume of gas in cm 3 using.5 g MnO Draw a graph of these results. The graph for 0.5 g MnO has been drawn for you. (3) Page of 34

12 (iii) Explain why the slopes of the graphs become less steep during the reaction () (iv) The same volume and concentration of hydrogen peroxide solution was used for both experiments. What two other factors must be kept the same to make it a fair test? () (Total 5 marks) Q9. Marble chips (calcium carbonate) react with dilute hydrochloric acid. calcium + hydrochloric calcium + carbon + water carbonate acid chloride dioxide A student wanted to find out if the size of the marble chips made a difference to how fast the reaction took place. (a) What readings should she take? () Page of 34

13 (b) She repeated the experiment but this time used the same mass (0g) of large marble chips. In both experiments there was some marble left in the flask when the reaction stopped. These are the results of the two experiments. TIME (minutes) Loss in mass (g), using small chips Loss in mass (g), using large chips (i) Explain the loss in mass in the two experiments. () What difference does the size of the chips make? () (c) A chemical reaction occurs when reacting particles collide with sufficient energy. The reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid is faster if the acid is at a higher temperature. Explain why. (3) (Total 7 marks) Page 3 of 34

14 Q0. Hydrated copper sulphate is a blue solid. When it is heated, white solid anhydrous copper sulphate is made. This is a reversible reaction. hydrated copper sulphate [+ heat energy] (blue) anhydrous copper sulphate + water (white) (a) To make the forward reaction work, the hydrated copper sulphate must be heated all the time. What type of reaction is this? () (b) Anhydrous copper sulphate can be used in a test for water. What two things will happen when water is added to anhydrous copper sulphate? () (Total 3 marks) Q. The diagram shows the apparatus for an experiment. Hydrated copper sulphate crystals were heated. They became anhydrous copper sulphate. (a) Name a suitable piece of equipment to heat tube A. () Page 4 of 34

15 (b) Use words from the box to complete the two spaces in the table. You may use each word once or not at all. black blue orange red purple white Name Colour Hydrated copper sulphate crystals... Anhydrous copper sulphate... () (c) What is the purpose of the ice and water in the beaker? () (d) Drops of a clear, colourless liquid formed on the inside of tube B. (i) Name the liquid. () Explain how the liquid came to be inside tube B. () (e) Anhydrous copper sulphate can be turned into hydrated copper sulphate. What would you need to add? Apart from the change in colour, what could you observe? () (f) Copper sulphate can be made from black copper oxide by reacting it with an acid. Name the acid. () (Total 0 marks) Page 5 of 34

16 Q. A student studied the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. The student mixed 50 cm 3 of a sodium thiosulphate solution and 5 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid in a flask. The flask was placed over a cross. The student timed how long after mixing the cross could no longer be seen. (a) (i) Balance the chemical equation for this reaction. Na S O 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H O(l) + SO (g) + S(s) () What causes the cross to be seen no longer? () (b) A graph of the results is shown. (i) What effect does temperature have on the rate of this reaction? () Page 6 of 34

17 Explain why temperature has this effect on the rate of reaction. () (Total 5 marks) Q3. Calcium tablets are taken to build and maintain strong bones and teeth. (a) These tablets react with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. CaCO 3 ( ) + HCl(aq) CaCl ( ) + H O( ) + CO ( ) (i) Add all these missing state symbols to the balanced chemical equation. () The calcium salt that is formed is absorbed during digestion. What is the name of the calcium salt? () (b) The volume of carbon dioxide produced by one calcium tablet in the stomach can be found as shown. Page 7 of 34

18 The volume of carbon dioxide was recorded every 30 seconds until the reaction stopped. Time in seconds Volume of gas in cm (i) Complete the graph of these results. (3) Describe one way in which this reaction can be made to go faster. () Page 8 of 34

19 (iii) A calculation, using the mass of this tablet, showed that 80 cm 3 of carbon dioxide would be produced if the tablet was pure calcium carbonate. What do the results show about the purity of the tablet? Explain your answer by calculating the purity of this tablet. (3) (Total 0 marks) Q4. Instant cold packs are used to treat sports injuries. One type of cold pack has a plastic bag containing water. Inside this bag is a smaller bag containing ammonium nitrate. The outer bag is squeezed so that the inner bag bursts. The pack is shaken and quickly gets very cold as the ammonium nitrate dissolves in the water. Page 9 of 34

20 (a) One of the statements in the table is correct. Put a tick ( ) next to the correct statement. Statement ( ) The bag gets cold because heat energy is given out to the surroundings. The bag gets cold because heat energy is taken in from the surroundings. The bag gets cold because plastic is a good insulator. () (b) Draw a ring around the word that best describes the change when ammonium nitrate dissolves in water. electrolysis endothermic exothermic () (c) Suggest and explain why the pack is shaken after the inner bag has burst. () (Total 4 marks) Q5. An indigestion tablet contains sodium hydrogencarbonate and citric acid. When the tablet is added to cold water a chemical reaction takes place and there is a lot of fizzing. (a) The formula of the gas that causes the fizzing is CO Name this gas.... () Page 0 of 34

21 (b) This chemical reaction is endothermic. (i) Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the temperature of the solution. Statement Tick ( ) The temperature of the solution will increase. The temperature of the solution will decrease. The temperature of the solution will stay the same. () Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the energy during the reaction. Energy is given out to the surroundings. Energy is taken in from the surroundings. No energy is given out to or taken from the surroundings. Statement Tick ( ) () (Total 3 marks) Q6. Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium carbonate. The word equation for this reaction is: sodium carbonate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + water + carbon dioxide (a) The diagram shows apparatus used by student X to investigate this reaction. (i) Name the piece of apparatus labelled A.. () Page of 34

22 NaCO 3 NaCl Na CO 3 Na Cl Use the Data Sheet to help you choose the correct formula from the list for: sodium carbonate,... sodium chloride.... () (b) The diagram below shows a different apparatus used by student Y to investigate the same reaction. (i) Name the pieces of apparatus labelled B and C. B... C... () Both students X and Y used the same volume of acid concentration of acid temperature mass of sodium carbonate Use information from the diagrams to explain why the reaction that student Y carried out was faster.... () Page of 34

23 (c) The results obtained by student Y were plotted as shown below. (i) Student Y repeated the experiment exactly as before but used warmer acid. This made the reaction faster. On the graph draw a line for this faster reaction. Explain, in terms of particles, why the rate of the reaction is faster when warmer acid is used... (). (3) (Total marks) Page 3 of 34

24 M. (a) 6 accept (b) hydrochloric acid used up / reacted / combined / or fewer particles (of hydrochloric acid) or fewer hydrogen ions owtte accept reactants used up accept less calcium carbonate or smaller surface area of calcium carbonate accept lower concentration / less crowded do not accept atoms / molecules ignore references to energy do not accept references to atoms or molecules fewer collisions owtte independent mark (c) steeper curve initially independent marks levels out at same volume must indicate levelling out if line goes higher than 66 do not award this mark diagonal line only = 0 marks if steeper initially and then crosses the line and finishes correctly, then loses one [5] M. (a) endothermic and because it takes in heat / energy both for one mark (b) (i) reversible reaction (or explanation) add water do not accept cooling or reverse the reaction [3] Page 4 of 34

25 CaCO 3 = marks O not O M3. (a) (i) must be chemical symbol Ca C carbon dioxide must be name (b) (i) points all correct marks one point incorrect mark two points incorrect 0 marks suitable line -narrow neat single curve (iii) not dot to dot reaction with X forms less gas must include X or Y do not penalise for H /O if (a) already penalised do not accept is finished in less time or slower/faster reaction or lower on graph any two from: concentration (of acid) decreases/less reacting particles/molecules not acid/caco 3 runs out/is used up surface area of calcium carbonate decreases not strength of acid decreases less collisions between reacting particles not smaller (amount of) CaCO 3 [0] Page 5 of 34

26 M4. (a) oxidising (b) (i) oxygen ignore any numbers (catalyst) speeds up a (chemical reaction) accept changes the rate (of reaction) [3] M5. (a) CaCO 3 + HC CaC + CO + H O one mark for CO and H O or H CO 3 one mark for balancing the equation (b) (i) linear suitable scale for y axis ± one small square accurate plots deduct one mark for each error plot smooth curve through the points or a line of best fit this mark requires a neat smooth curve curve becomes almost horizontal at or above 68.5 do not credit a straight line reaching 68.5 at mins accept a plot at 68.6 (iii) steeper initial part to curve becoming nearly horizontal between 68.6 and 68.4 g [8] Page 6 of 34

27 M6. (a) (i) high and low both needed for mark (iii) reversible to prevent ammonium chloride / solid / particles escaping idea of a filter do not accept to prevent gases escaping (b) endothermic [4] M7. (i) (Y) more gas / carbon dioxide given off (X) curve / slope steeper accept rises more rapidly / only took 30 seconds (iii) (flat) since calcium carbonate / substrate all used up accept the reaction has stopped / no more gas is being produced [3] M8. (a) (i) H O reactant correct ignore any state symbols H O + O products correct H O H O + O balanced accept correct multiple glowing splint relights accept bursts into flame do not accept a lighted splint burns brighter or faster Page 7 of 34

28 (b) unchanged accept not used up or left (behind) (c) (i) gas syringe or measuring cylinder either with scale drawn or labelled the apparatus as drawn would work correct plotting of points one mark to be deducted for each error best fit graph line drawn (single line drawn) (iii) concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases accept less particles of hydrogen peroxide to collide do not accept hydrogen peroxide gets used up rate of reaction decreases accept reaction gets slower (iv) any two from: temperature pressure division of catalyst or manganese oxide do not accept any other factors [5] M9. (a) ideas that ref to read the balance / read the mass / weight ref to read the stop clock / read the time readings taken at the beginning and end / at regular intervals for mark each Page 8 of 34

29 (b) (i) loss of carbon dioxide (from the flask) } smaller chips give faster reaction / reaction } mark as a whole finishes quicker /dissolved faster [or reverse] } smaller chips have a larger surface area } any for mark each [Allow converse answers] (c) ideas that heating increases the speed / energy / vibration of the (acid) particles / marble particles (acid) particles collide (with marble chips / (particles)) more frequently / more likely to collide reacting particles collide with greater energy / collide faster so particles more likely to react [do not accept react faster ] [Accept atoms, molecules or ions instead of particles in this question] any three for mark each 3 [7] M0. (a) endothermic (reaction) accept thermal decomposition (b) gives out heat (energy) accept exothermic (reaction) turns blue accept goes to hydrated copper sulphate [3] M. (a) Bunsen (burner) accept spirit burner do not credit candle (b) blue white credit () if both colours correct but answers are reversed Page 9 of 34

30 to cool the tube (B) accept answers which anticipate part (d) e.g. to condense the water vapour or gases or vapours (d) (i) water do not credit condensation (Water) vapour from the crystals (from tube A) accept steam or steam from tube A condenses or cools accept turns to (liquid) water (e) add water gets hot or hotter or warm or warmer turns into solution dissolves or the temperature rises or there is an exothermic reaction accept steams or hisses ignore any reference to colour(s) (f) sulphuric acid accept H S0 4 only if correct in every detail [0] M. (a) (i) Na S O 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H O(l) + S(s) + SO (g) (formation of) sulphur accept precipitate or solid produced do not accept goes cloudy or milky (b) (i) heat temperature increased temperature increases (the rate of reaction) or decreased temperature decreases rate of reaction may be gained in part if stated and not implied Page 30 of 34

31 (these ideas may be given in (i)) particles have more kinetic energy accept particles move faster more collisions (so more reactions) more energetic collisions two marks [5] M3. (a) (i) (s) (aq) () (g) or 3 correct mark correct 0 marks calcium chloride (b) (i) points deduct mark for each error to a maximum of marks line accept a single line best fit curve accept reasonable attempt at curve increase temperature or heat accept increase surface area or increase concentration or description (iii) 75% or ¾ not pure mark only 60 cm 3 (instead of 80 cm 3 of gas) or 00 mark 3 [0] M4. (a) the bag gets cold because heat energy is taken in from the surroundings (b) endothermic Page 3 of 34

32 (c) any two from: mix / spread (the ammonium nitrate and water) dissolve faster(*) get cold faster or so the whole bag gets cold(*) (*)allow increase rate or quicker reaction particles collide more or more collisions [4] M5. (a) carbon dioxide must be name do not accept carbon oxide (b) (i) the temperature of the solution will decrease (list principle) energy is taken in from the surroundings (list principle) [3] M6. (a) (i) test tube / boiling tube for mark Na CO 3 NaCl each for mark (b) (i) flask measuring cylinder each for mark used smaller pieces gains mark but larger surface area for reaction gains marks Page 3 of 34

33 (c) (i) steeper line straight line each for mark reaction occurs when particles collide higher temperature, higher speed of particles so harder collisions more frequent collisions any three for mark each 3 [] Page 33 of 34

34 Page 34 of 34

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