# Gas Exchange. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Gas Exchange. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com)"

## Transcription

1 Gas Exchange Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings ( Page 1. Introduction Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries in the lungs, and between the systemic capillaries and cells throughout the body. The diffusion of these gases, moving in opposite directions, is called gas exchange. Page 2. Goals To apply gas law relationships - between partial pressure, solubility, and concentration - to gas exchange. To explore the factors which affect external and internal respiration. Page 3. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Fill out this chart as you work through this page: In order to understand gas exchange, we must first understand the air we breathe. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. The combined pressure of these gases equals atmospheric pressure. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg, which means that the atmosphere pushes a column of mercury to a height of 760 millimeters. Each gas within the atmosphere is responsible for part of that pressure in proportion to its percentage in the atmosphere. Oxygen comprises 20.9% of the atmosphere. The pressure exerted by oxygen is 20.9% of the total pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury, which equals 159 millimeters of mercury. This value is known as the partial pressure of oxygen, and is written as "P" with the subscript "O2". Notice that the partial pressures of the four gases add up to 760 millimeters of mercury, the total atmospheric pressure. This demonstrates Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures, which states that in a mixture of gases, the total pressure equals the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each gas. The partial pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the total gas mixture.

2 Page 4. Effect of High Altitude on Partial Pressures Fill out this chart as you work through this page: Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude. For example, on the top of Mt. Whitney, atmospheric pressure drops to approximately 440 millimeters of mercury. Oxygen still makes up 20.9% of the atmosphere, but the PO2 is 20.9% of 440 millimeters of mercury, or about 92 millimeters of mercury. Compare that to the PO2 at sea level of 159 millimeters of mercury. Lower atmospheric pressure means fewer gas molecules, and therefore fewer oxygen molecules, are available. That explains why you may gasp for breath at high altitudes. As you can see, at high altitudes the partial pressures of all gases are lower than at sea level. Page 5. Henry's Law Within the lungs, oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse between the air in the alveoli and the blood, that is between a gas and a liquid. This movement is governed by Henry's Law, which states that the amount of gas which dissolves in a liquid is proportional to: 1. the partial pressure of the gas 2. the solubility of the gas In this container, the oxygen in the air is at equilibrium with the oxygen in the liquid. At equilibrium, the pressure of the oxygen in the air is the same as in the liquid, with the gas molecules diffusing at the same rate in both directions. If you increase the pressure in the container more oxygen molecules dissolve in the liquid, moving from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure. Diffusion continues until a new equilibrium is reached. This is what happens when oxygen moves from the alveoli into the blood. Now let's look at the diffusion of carbon dioxide. Although both gases are at the same pressure, far more carbon dioxide dissolves in the liquid than oxygen. This occurs because carbon dioxide is much more soluble than oxygen. As stated in Henry's Law, the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide which dissolves is proportional to the partial pressure and the solubility of each gas. ** Now is a good time to go to quiz questions 1-3: Click the Quiz button on the left side of the screen.. Work through questions 1-3. After answering question 3, click the Back to Topic button on the left side of the screen. To get back to where you left off, click on the scrolling page list at the top of the screen and choose "6. Sites of Gas Exchange". Page 6. Sites of Gas Exchange Sites of gas exchange in the body: External Respiration. Blood that is low in oxygen is pumped from the right side of the heart, through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. External respiration occurs within the lungs, as carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli, and oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries. Oxygen-rich blood leaves the lungs and is transported through the pulmonary veins to the left side of the heart.

3 Internal Respiration. From there it is pumped through the systemic circuit to tissues throughout the body. Internal respiration occurs within tissues, as oxygen diffuses from the systemic capillaries into the cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the systemic capillaries. Page 7. Factors Influencing External Respiration Efficient external respiration depends on three main factors: 1. The surface area and structure of the respiratory membrane. The 300 million alveoli, covered with a dense network of pulmonary capillaries, provide an enormous surface area for efficient gas exchange. In addition, the thinness of the respiratory membrane increases efficiency. 2. The partial pressure gradients between the alveoli and capillaries. 3. Efficient gas exchange requires matching alveolar airflow to pulmonary capillary blood flow. Page 8. External Respiration: Partial Pressures Let's see how partial pressure gradients affect gas exchange between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries. Notice that the partial pressures in the alveoli differ from those in the atmosphere. This difference is caused by a combination of several factors: 1. Humidification of inhaled air. As it travels through the respiratory passageways to the alveoli, air is humidified, picking up water molecules. This greatly increases the partial pressure of water. 2. Gas exchange between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries. A continuous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries, changing the partial pressures of both gases. Oxygen diffuses out of the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries and carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli. 3. Mixing of new and old air. Since the alveoli do not completely empty between breaths, the air in the alveoli is a mixture of new air and air remaining from previous breaths. Label this diagram: Page 9. External Respiration: Loading O2 Let's first look at the loading of oxygen into the blood. Each alveolus is surrounded by a network of capillaries. This diagram shows just one alveolus and one capillary. The PO2 of the alveolar air is 104 mm Hg. At rest, the oxygen-poor blood entering the pulmonary capillaries has a PO2 of 40 mm Hg. As blood flows past the alveolus, the PO2 increases.

4 Notice that there is a net diffusion of oxygen along its partial pressure gradient, from the alveolus into the blood, until equilibrium is reached. The PO2 of the oxygen-rich blood has increased to 104 mm Hg. As indicated in the graph, equilibrium is reached rapidly, within the first third of the pulmonary capillary. Label this diagram: Page 10. External Respiration: Unloading CO2 Now let's look at the unloading of carbon dioxide from the blood into the alveolus. The PCO2 of the alveolar air is 40 millimeters of mercury. At rest, the PCO2 of the blood entering the pulmonary capillaries is 45 millimeters of mercury. As blood flows past the alveolus, the PCO2 decreases. Carbon dioxide diffuses along its partial pressure gradient, from the blood into the alveolus, until equilibrium is reached. The PCO2 of the blood has decreases to 40 millimeters of mercury. Equilibrium is reached rapidly, within the first four tenths of the pulmonary capillary.

5 Label this diagram: Page 11. External Respiration O2 and CO2 Exchange Loading oxygen and unloading carbon dioxide occur simultaneously. As you inhale, you replenish oxygen, and as you exhale, you eliminate carbon dioxide. Notice how much smaller carbon dioxide's partial pressure gradient is than oxygen's. As Henry's law states, the number of molecules which dissolve in a liquid is proportional to both the partial pressure and the gas solubility. Since carbon dioxide is very soluble in blood, a large number of molecules diffuse along this small partial pressure gradient. Oxygen, which is less soluble, requires a much larger concentration gradient to provide adequate oxygen to the body. Page 12. Ventilation-Perfusion Coupling: Effect of PO2 The third factor in external respiration is ventilation-perfusion coupling, which facilitates efficient gas exchange. It does this by maintaining alveolar airflow that is proportional to the pulmonary capillary blood flow. When airflow through a bronchiole is restricted, as when blocked by mucus, the resulting low PO2 causes the local arterioles to vasoconstrict. This response redirects the blood to other alveoli which have a higher airflow, and therefore have more oxygen available to be picked up by the blood. In regions with high airflow compared to their blood supply, the resulting high PO2 causes the local arterioles to vasodilate. This brings more blood to the alveoli, allowing the blood to pick up the abundant oxygen. Page 13. Ventilation-Perfusion Coupling: Effect of PCO2 We've seen that during ventilation-perfusion coupling, the arterioles respond to changes in PO2. The bronchioles, on the other hand, respond to changes in PCO2.

6 When airflow through a bronchiole is lower than normal, the PCO2 rises. The bronchioles respond by dilating, thereby eliminating the excess carbon dioxide from the alveoli. When airflow through a bronchiole is high compared to its blood supply, the PCO2 drops. The bronchioles then constrict, reducing the airflow so it is proportional to the local blood flow. Page 14. Predict the Effect of PO2 and PCO2 Assume that ventilation to an alveolar sac is low, due to a small tumor growing in the bronchiole. The PO2 decreases because oxygen is not replenished, and the P CO2 increases, because the carbon dioxide is not eliminated. See if you can predict the response of the arterioles and bronchioles. The low PO2 causes the arterioles to constrict, and the high P CO2 causes the bronchioles to dilate. The airflow and blood flow are now in the proper proportions for optimum gas exchange. Notice that both the arterioles and bronchioles respond simultaneously. Page 15. Internal Respiration During internal respiration: Oxygen diffuses from the systemic capillaries into the cells. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the systemic capillaries. Factors affecting the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during internal respiration: 1. The available surface area, which varies in different tissues throughout the body. 2. Gases diffuse along their partial pressure gradients. 3. The rate of blood flow in a specific tissue. Blood flow in a tissue varies for many reasons, including the tissue's metabolic rate. Recall that during metabolism, cells use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. Page 16. Internal Respiration O2 and CO2 Exchange Label this diagram as you go through this page: The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during internal respiration: In relatively inactive organs, the tissue cells have a PO2 of 40 millimeters of mercury, and a PCO2 of 45 millimeters of mercury. As the blood enters the systemic capillaries, it has a PO2 of 100 millimeters of mercury, and a PCO2 of 40 millimeters of mercury.

8 Quiz Question #6: This question asks you to label a graph of partial pressures vs. time during external respiration. Quiz Question #7: This question asks you to identify the factors that could increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary capillaries. Quiz Question #8: This question asks you to predict what happens during an asthma attack. Study Questions on Gas Exchange: 1. (Page 1.) What four gases are found in the atmosphere? 2. (Page 1.) Each of these gases exerts a pressure, what is the total pressure of all the gases in the atmosphere called? 3. (Page 1.) What is a typical atmospheric pressure at sea level in millimeters of Hg? 4. (Page 1.) What is Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures? 5. (Page 2.) As altitude increases, what happens to the atmospheric pressure? 6. (Page 2.) Oxygen gas makes up 20.9% of the atmosphere at sea level where the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. a. What percentage of oxygen gas is there at a high altitude, where the atmospheric pressure is 440 mm Hg? b. Explain what happens to the partial pressure of oxygen gas at the high altitude. 7. (Page 3.) Henry's Law states that the amount of gas which dissolves in a liquid is proportional to what two factors? 8. (Page 4.) In a container containing water and oxygen gas, some of the oxygen dissolves in the water. When equilibrium is reached, the pressure of the oxygen gas above the water the pressure of oxygen in the liquid. a. is greater than b. is less than c. is equal to 9. (Page 4.) In a container containing water and oxygen gas, some of the oxygen dissolves in the water. When equilibrium is reached, the rate of oxygen gas diffusing into the water the rate of oxygen gas diffusing out of the water. a. is greater than b. is less than c. is equal to

9 10. (Page 4.) In a container containing water and oxygen gas, if you increase the pressure in the container oxygen molecules dissolves in the liquid, moving from a region of pressure. a. more, low to high b. less, low to high c. more, high to low d. less high to low 11. (Page 4.) If you have two closed containers of water and gas at the same pressure and one container contains oxygen gas and the other contains carbon dioxide gas, which of these statements is true? a. Both gases dissolve equally in the water. b. The carbon dioxide gas dissolves in the water to a greater extent than the oxygen gas. c. The oxygen gas dissolves in the water to a greater extent than the carbon dioxide gas. 12. (Page 4.) Which is more soluble in water, carbon dioxide or oxygen? 13. (Page 6.) a. Where do both internal and external respiration occur? b. What happens to oxygen and carbon dioxide during both internal and external respiration? 14. (Page 7.) Efficient external respiration depends on what three main factors? 15. (Page 7.) What two factors account for the surface area and structure of the respiratory membrane allowing for efficient external respiration? 16. (Page 8.) What three factors account for the differences in the partial pressures in the alveoli from those in the atmosphere? 17. (Page 8.) As air travels through the respiratory passageways to the alveoli it is humidified, picking up water molecules. What effect does this have on the partial pressure of water? 18. (Page 8.) As gases are exchanged between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries, what happens to the partial pressures of both gases? 19. (Page 8.) Do the alveoli completely empty between breaths? 20. (Page 9.) The PO2 of the alveolar air is 104 mm Hg. At rest, the oxygen-poor blood entering the pulmonary capillaries has a PO2 of 40 mm Hg. As blood flows past the alveolus, the P O2. a. increases b. decreases 21. (Page 9.) The PO2 of the alveolar air is 104 mm Hg. At rest, the oxygen-poor blood entering the pulmonary capillaries has a PO2 of 40 mm Hg. During external respiration there is a net diffusion of oxygen along its partial pressure gradient, from the alveolus into the blood, until equilibrium is reached. As this occurs, the PO2 of the blood. a. increases to 104 mm Hg b. decreases to 40 mm Hg 22. (Page 9.) During external respiration, oxygen equilibrium is reached of the pulmonary capillary. a. at the end b. within the first half c. within the first third 23. (Page 9.) Fill out this graph to show what happens to the partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary arteries during external respiration:

10 24. (Page 10.) The PCO2 of the alveolar air is 40 millimeters of mercury. At rest, the PCO2 of the blood entering the pulmonary capillaries is 45 millimeters of mercury. As blood flows past the alveolus, the PCO2. a. increases b. decreases 25. (Page 10.) The PCO2 of the alveolar air is 40 millimeters of mercury. At rest, the PCO2 of the blood entering the pulmonary capillaries is 45 millimeters of mercury. During external respiration carbon dioxide diffuses along its partial pressure gradient, from the blood into the alveolus, until equilibrium is reached. As blood flows past the alveolus, the PCO2. a. increases to 45 mm Hg b. decreases to 40 mm Hg 26. (Page 10.) During external respiration, carbon dioxide equilibrium is reached of the pulmonary capillary. a. at the end b. within the last half c. within the first four-tenths 27. (Page 10.) Fill out this graph to show what happens to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the pulmonary arteries during external respiration: 28. (Page 11.) Why does carbon dioxide have a smaller partial pressure gradient than oxygen? 29. (Page 12.) Explain how ventilation-perfusion coupling facilitates efficient gas exchange. 30. (Page 12.) What factor causes vasoconstriction and vasodilation associated with ventilation-perfusion coupling? 31. (Page 13.) How do bronchioles respond to levels of blood gases? 32. (Page 13.) What would cause the PCO2 in the bronchioles to rise? 33. (Page 13.) During ventilation-perfusion coupling, the arterioles respond to changes in and the bronchioles respond to changes in. a. PO2 b. P CO2 34. (Page 14.) Match the following: a. Arterioles constrict b. Arterioles dilate c. Bronchioles constrict d. Bronchioles dilate Low PCO2 Low PO2 High PCO2 High PO2

11 35. (Page 15.) On this diagram, indicate where both internal and external respiration occurs. 36. (Page 15.) On this diagram, indicate where there would be a net movement of oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood. 37. (Page 15.) On this diagram, indicate where there would be a net movement of oxygen out of the blood and carbon dioxide into the blood. 38. (Page 15.) What three factors affect the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during internal respiration? 39. (Page 16.) Why would the rate of blood flow vary within a tissue? 40. (Page 16.) As gases are exchanged between the tissues and systemic capillaries, what happens to the partial pressures of both gases? 41. (Page 16.) The PO2 of the blood entering the systemic capillaries is 100 mm Hg. As blood flows through the systemic capillaries, the PO2. a. increases b. decreases 42. (Page 16.) The PCO2 of the blood entering the systemic capillaries is 40 mm Hg. As blood flows through the systemic capillaries, the PCO2. a. increases b. decreases 43. (Page 16.) The PO2 of the blood entering the systemic capillaries is 100 mm Hg. During internal respiration there is a net diffusion of oxygen along its partial pressure gradient, from the blood into the tissues, until equilibrium is reached. As this occurs, the PO2 of the blood. a. increases to 104 mm Hg b. decreases to about 40 mm Hg 44. (Page 16.) The PCO2 of the blood entering the systemic capillaries is about 40 millimeters of mercury. At rest, the PCO2 of the blood leaving the systemic capillaries is about 45 millimeters of mercury. As blood flow through the systemic capillaries, the PCO2. a. increases b. decreases 45. (Page 16.) During internal respiration carbon dioxide diffuses along its partial pressure gradient until equilibrium is reached. As blood flows through the systemic capillaries, the PCO2. a. increases to about 45 mm Hg b. decreases to about 40 mm Hg

### Gas Exchange Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

Gas Exchange Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) Page 1. Introduction Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse between

### Pulmonary Ventilation

Pulmonary Ventilation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction Pulmonary ventilation, or breathing, is the

### Ventilation Perfusion Relationships

Ventilation Perfusion Relationships VENTILATION PERFUSION RATIO Ideally, each alveolus in the lungs would receive the same amount of ventilation and pulmonary capillary blood flow (perfusion). In reality,

### Kinetic Theory of Gases. 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure. Properties That Describe a Gas. Gas Pressure. Learning Check.

Chapter 6 Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure A gas consists of small particles that move rapidly in straight lines. have essentially no attractive (or repulsive) forces.

### CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1: THE LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Lung cancer affects a life-sustaining system of the body, the respiratory system. The respiratory system is responsible for one of the essential

### 2161-1 - Page 1. Name: 1) Choose the disease that is most closely related to the given phrase. Questions 10 and 11 refer to the following:

Name: 2161-1 - Page 1 1) Choose the disease that is most closely related to the given phrase. a disease of the bone marrow characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells A) meningitis B)

### Determinants of Blood Oxygen Content Instructor s Guide

Determinants of Blood Oxygen Content Instructor s Guide Time to Complete This activity will take approximately 75 minutes, but can be shortened depending on how much time the instructor takes to review

### Evaluation copy. Figure 1

O 2 Extraction by the Lungs Computer 23 Oxygen is required for cell metabolism. During inhalation air is brought into the lungs, where oxygen is extracted. Oxygen passes into the bloodstream at the membrane

### Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3)

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 3) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 27. Effect of Hypoventilation Now let's look at how the

### Circulatory System Review

Circulatory System Review 1. Draw a table to describe the similarities and differences between arteries and veins? Anatomy Direction of blood flow: Oxygen concentration: Arteries Thick, elastic smooth

### What, roughly, is the dividing line between the upper and lower respiratory tract? The larynx. What s the difference between the conducting zone and

What, roughly, is the dividing line between the upper and lower respiratory tract? The larynx. What s the difference between the conducting zone and the respiratory zone? Conducting zone is passageways

### Oxygenation and Oxygen Therapy Michael Billow, D.O.

Oxygenation and Oxygen Therapy Michael Billow, D.O. The delivery of oxygen to all body tissues is the essence of critical care. Patients in respiratory distress/failure come easily to mind as the ones

### Page 1. Introduction The blood vessels of the body form a closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart.

Anatomy Review: Blood Vessel Structure & Function Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The blood vessels

### 1. Our lungs are, essentially, a network of connected that bring

The Respiratory System Webquest http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/lungs-article/ The Breath of Life-National Geographic 1. Our lungs are, essentially, a network

### CHAPTER 5 - BREATHING "THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM"

CHAPTER 5 - BREATHING "THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM" You have read how the blood transports oxygen from the lungs to cells and carries carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. It is the function of the respiratory

### Human Anatomy and Physiology The Respiratory System

Human Anatomy and Physiology The Respiratory System Basic functions of the respiratory system: as a Gas exchange supply oxygen to aerobic tissues in the body and remove carbon dioxide waste product. in-

### Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment

Fourth Grade The Human Body: The Respiratory System Assessment 1a. The brings air in and out of the body. a. respiratory system b. circulatory system 1b. The system is the part of the body responsible

### ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES. (a) 5 correct plots;;; (-1 mark each incorrect plot) 3

QUESTIONSHEET 1 5 correct plots;;; (-1 mark each incorrect plot) 3 (b) 1600/4; = 400 kj; (i mark for correct working if answer incorrect) 2 (c) the more vigorous the activity the more energy used; 1 (d)

### Anatomy and Physiology: Understanding the Importance of CPR

Anatomy and Physiology: Understanding the Importance of CPR Overview This document gives you more information about the body s structure (anatomy) and function (physiology). This information will help

### Water Homeostasis. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Water Homeostasis Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 1. Water Homeostasis The body maintains a balance of water intake

### Chapter 4 Practice Quiz

Chapter 4 Practice Quiz 1. Label each box with the appropriate state of matter. A) I: Gas II: Liquid III: Solid B) I: Liquid II: Solid III: Gas C) I: Solid II: Liquid III: Gas D) I: Gas II: Solid III:

GRADE 11F: Biology 3 Human gas exchange system and health UNIT 11FB.3 9 hours About this unit This unit is the third of six units on biology for Grade 11 foundation. The unit is designed to guide your

### THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK

THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Relative Humidity... 3 Partial Pressure... 4 Saturation Pressure (Ps)... 5 Other Absolute Moisture Scales... 8 % Moisture by Volume (%M

### A. All cells need oxygen and release carbon dioxide why?

I. Introduction: Describe how the cardiovascular and respiratory systems interact to supply O 2 and eliminate CO 2. A. All cells need oxygen and release carbon dioxide why? B. Two systems that help to

### Chapter 1 Dissolved Oxygen in the Blood

Chapter 1 Dissolved Oxygen in the Blood Say we have a volume of blood, which we ll represent as a beaker of fluid. Now let s include oxygen in the gas above the blood (represented by the green circles).

### TRANSPORT OF BLOOD GASES From The Lungs To The Tissues & Back

TRANSPORT OF BLOOD GASES From The Lungs To The Tissues & Back Dr. Sally Osborne Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences University of British Columbia Room 3602, D.H Copp Building 604 822-3421

### Breathing and Holding Your Breath copyright, 2005, Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Breathing and Holding Your Breath copyright, 2005, Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Introduction Everybody breathes all day, every day. Why?

### PULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY

I. Lung volumes PULMONARY PHYSIOLOGY American College of Surgeons SCC Review Course Christopher P. Michetti, MD, FACS and Forrest O. Moore, MD, FACS A. Tidal volume (TV) is the volume of air entering and

### Gas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury

Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.

### Physiology of Ventilation

Physiology of Ventilation Lecturer: Sally Osborne, Ph.D. Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences Email: sosborne@interchange.ubc.ca Useful link: www.sallyosborne.com Required Reading: Respiratory

### 33.1 The Circulatory System

33.1 The Circulatory System Lesson Objectives Identify the functions of the human circulatory system. Describe the structure of the heart and explain how it pumps blood through the body. Name three types

### Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back to the left atria from the left ventricle, blood is pumped

### Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis

Metabolism: Cellular Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis Introduction: All organisms require a supply of energy and matter to build themselves and to continue to function. To get that supply of

### How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Respiratory Organs

How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion Gas is exchanged between respiratory medium and body fluids through diffusion across a respiratory surface To effectively exchange gases, the surface must

### Organism Length SA (m²) Vol. (m³) SA /Vol

All organisms use diffusion to exchange substances such as food, waste, gases and heat with their surroundings. Reminder: the rate at which a substance can diffuse is given by Fick's Law: Rate of diffusion

### Blood vessels. transport blood throughout the body

Circulatory System Parts and Organs Blood vessels transport blood throughout the body Arteries blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart Pulmonary arteries carry the deoxygenated blood from heart

### Our Human Body On-site student activities Years 5 6

Our Human Body On-site student activities Years 5 6 Our Human Body On-site student activities: Years 5-6 Student activity (and record) sheets have been developed with alternative themes for students to

### Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4)

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 5. The newly formed bicarbonate moves into the plasma.

### The Body s Transport System

Circulation Name Date Class The Body s Transport System This section describes how the heart, blood vessels, and blood work together to carry materials throughout the body. Use Target Reading Skills As

### Animals pry energy out of food molecules using the biochemical

53 Respiration Concept Outline 53.1 Respiration involves the diffusion of gases. Fick s Law of Diffusion. The rate of diffusion across a membrane depends on the surface area of the membrane, the concentration

### Airways Resistance and Airflow through the Tracheobronchial Tree

Airways Resistance and Airflow through the Tracheobronchial Tree Lecturer: Sally Osborne, Ph.D. Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences Email: sosborne@interchange.ubc.ca Useful links: www.sallyosborne.com

### Oxygenation. Chapter 21. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing. Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing*

Oxygenation Chapter 21 Anatomy and Physiology of Breathing Inspiration ~ breathing in Expiration ~ breathing out Ventilation ~ Movement of air in & out of the lungs Respiration ~ exchange of O2 & carbon

### Blood Pressure Regulation

Blood Pressure Regulation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction There are two basic mechanisms for regulating

### Pre-lab homework Lab 6: Respiration and Gas exchange

Lab Section: Pre-lab homework Lab 6: Respiration and Gas exchange Name: 1. Name the organs used for gas exchange in each of the following organisms: Humans Fish Insects 2. What are three features common

### Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

### Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange

Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).

### Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

### By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford

By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford Body systems Digestive System Circulatory System Respiratory System Excretory System Immune System Reproductive System Nervous System Muscular System Skeletal System Endocrine

### Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Physiology of the Respiratory System

Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Physiology of the Respiratory System Written by - AH Kendrick & C Newall 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Gross Anatomy of the Lungs, 2.3 Anatomy of the Thorax, 2.4 Anatomy and Histology of the

### 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system

2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system Essential questions What are the functions of the respiratory

### Factors Affecting Blood Pressure. Vessel Elasticity Blood Volume Cardiac Output

Factors that Affect Pressure Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction pressure is affected by several factors:

### CHAPTER 19: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES: 1. Fully explain the process (5 parts of) respiration. 2. Describe the significance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in human cells. 3. Explain the structure and function of mucous membranes that

### ALCOHOL AND BREATH ALCOHOL MEASUREMENT

ALCOHOL AND BREATH ALCOHOL MEASUREMENT There are two means of electronically measuring the breath alcohol concentration. One method is by using an infrared and the other method is a fuel cell. Infrared

### UNIT 3 : MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

BIOLOGY - 2201 UNIT 3 : MAINTAINING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM What happens to your body as you run? Breathing, heart rate, temperature, muscle pain, thirsty... Homeotasis Homeostasis is the process of maintaining

### 12.1: The Function of Circulation page 478

12.1: The Function of Circulation page 478 Key Terms: Circulatory system, heart, blood vessel, blood, open circulatory system, closed circulatory system, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, atrioventricular

### Investigating the Human Body On-site student activities: Years 7-8 Investigating the Human Body On-site student activities Years 7 8

Investigating the Human Body On-site student activities Years 7 8 Student activity (and record) sheets have been developed with alternative themes for students to use as guides and focus material during

### Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

### The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) ** If this is not printed in color, it is suggested you

### CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

CHAPTER 12 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids

### Chapter 16: Circulation

Section 1 (The Body s Transport System) Chapter 16: Circulation 7 th Grade Cardiovascular system (the circulatory system) includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood carries needed substances to the cells

### CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET

Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is

### Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells

Functions of Blood System Transport: to and from tissue cells Nutrients to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as lipoproteins). Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

### Exchange and transport

Exchange and transport Examples of things which need to be interchanged between an organism and its environment include: Respiratory gases Nutrients Excretory products Heat This exchange can take place

### Overview of the Cardiovascular System

Overview of the Cardiovascular System 2 vascular (blood vessel) loops: Pulmonary circulation: from heart to lungs and back) Systemic circulation: from heart to other organs and back Flow through systemic

### Understanding Pulmonary Function Testing. PFTs, Blood Gases and Oximetry Skinny Little Reference Guide

Understanding Pulmonary Function Testing PFTs, Blood Gases and Oximetry Skinny Little Reference Guide INTRODUCTION This brochure is intended to help you understand the meaning of Pulmonary Function Testing,

### Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function.

### Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1

Answers Additional Questions 12.1 1. A gas collected over water has a total pressure equal to the pressure of the dry gas plus the pressure of the water vapor. If the partial pressure of water at 25.0

### GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF OXYGEN THERAPY

SOUTH DURHAM HEALTH CARE NHS TRUST GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF OXYGEN THERAPY AIM To supplement oxygen intake using the appropriate equipment in order to correct hypoxia and relieve breathlessness.

### MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE

MEASURING AND RECORDING BLOOD PRESSURE INTRODUCTION The blood pressure, along with the body temperature, pulse, and respirations, is one of the vital signs. These measurements are used to quickly, easily,

### The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10

Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force

### MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD

MECHINICAL VENTILATION S. Kache, MD Spontaneous respiration vs. Mechanical ventilation Natural spontaneous ventilation occurs when the respiratory muscles, diaphragm and intercostal muscles pull on the

### Paul Clements, SpR in Anaesthetics, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Anaesthetist, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK.

The Physics of Flow Paul Clements, SpR in Anaesthetics, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Anaesthetist, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK. Introduction Flow is defined as the quantity of fluid

### Lab #11: Respiratory Physiology

Lab #11: Respiratory Physiology Background The respiratory system enables the exchange of O 2 and CO 2 between the cells and the atmosphere, thus enabling the intake of O 2 into the body for aerobic respiration

### Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes

: 204 : Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes 27 Respiratory Gaseous Exchange and Elimination of Body Wastes We can live without food for several days but we cannot live without breathing

### Teacher Packs in Experimental Science. Bio Pack 7. Demonstration of Breathing in humans

Teacher Packs in Experimental Science Bio Pack 7 Demonstration of Breathing in humans Pack contents: A. Teachers Guide B. Students Guide C. Assessment- Students sheet D. Extensions to experiment E. Useful

### Compare the physiologic responses of the respiratory system to emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma

Chapter 31 Drugs Used to Treat Lower Respiratory Disease Learning Objectives Describe the physiology of respirations Compare the physiologic responses of the respiratory system to emphysema, chronic bronchitis,

### Your Lungs and COPD. Patient Education Pulmonary Rehabilitation. A guide to how your lungs work and how COPD affects your lungs

Patient Education Your Lungs and COPD A guide to how your lungs work and how COPD affects your lungs Your lungs are organs that process every breath you take. They provide oxygen (O 2 ) to the blood and

### REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST

REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST NOTE: The Unit Test will cover everything we have learned in the Biology Unit, starting from cell structures, cell division, various organ systems, disorders, organ donation,

### Circulation Stations

Circulation Stations This worksheet corresponds with stations around the classrooms. Work in groups of 3 and do the stations in any order. Name: Station 1: Blood smear under a microscope Materials: - Microscope

### Cells, tissues and organs

Chapter 8: Cells, tissues and organs Cells: building blocks of life Living things are made of cells. Many of the chemical reactions that keep organisms alive (metabolic functions) take place in cells.

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### Objectives COPD. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 4/19/2011

Objectives Discuss assessment findings and treatment for: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Bronchitis Emphysema Asthma Anaphylaxis Other respiratory issues Provide some definitions Chronic Obstructive

Advanced Subsidiary GCE Biology F211 Cells, Exchange and Transport - High banded Candidate style answer Introduction OCR has produced these candidate style answers to support teachers in interpreting the

### Human Body Vocabulary Words Week 1

Vocabulary Words Week 1 1. arteries Any of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all parts of the body 2. heart The muscular organ inside the chest that pumps blood through the body

### ANSWERS AND MARK SCHEMES. (a) A - liver; 1 B -brain; 1 C - heart; 1 D - lung; 1 E - kidney; 1. (b) (i) E/kidney; 1. (ii) C/heart; 1.

QUESTIONSHEET 1 A - liver; 1 B -brain; 1 C - heart; 1 D - lung; 1 E - kidney; 1 (b) (i) E/kidney; 1 C/heart; 1 (iii) B/brain; 1 (iv) D/lungs; 1 QUESTIONSHEET 2 (i) artery; 1 eye; 1 (iii) stomach; 1 (iv)

### 13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

### A Fishy Tale. Observing the Circulatory System of a Goldfish with a Compound Light Microscope

A Fishy Tale Observing the Circulatory System of a Goldfish with a Compound Light Microscope A Fishy Tale About this Lesson In this lesson, students will explore a computer animation of the human body

### Pre-requisites: Successful completion of 4th grade science and the 4th grade science assessment.

Throughout each unit, assessments are incorporated into lessons. These assessments are activities that occur within the context of each lesson providing the guidelines for assessing students' progress.

### Introduction to Animals

Introduction to Animals Unity and Diversity of Life Q: What characteristics and traits define animals? 25.1 What is an animal? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Animals are different from other living things

### 1 The diagram shows blood as seen under a microscope. Which identifies parts P, Q, R and S of the blood?

1 1 The diagram shows blood as seen under a microscope. Which identifies parts P, Q, R and S of the blood? 2 The plan shows the blood system of a mammal. What does the part labelled X represent? A heart

### chemicals > transported from outside to in > waste products created > they need to be removed

1 Transport systems chemicals > transported from outside to in > waste products created > they need to be removed Simple organisms Diffusion the free movement of particles in a liquid or a gas down a concentration

### 6 Easy Steps to ABG Analysis

6 Easy Steps to ABG Analysis E-Booklet David W. Woodruff, MSN, RN- BC, CNS, CMSRN, CEN 571 Ledge Road, Macedonia, OH 44056 Telephone (800) 990-2629 Fax (800) 990-2585 1997-2012 Ed4Nurses, Inc. All rights

### GRADE 5 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

GRADE 5 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GRADE: 5 LESSON: 1 THEME: BODY SYSTEMS CONCEPT: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IS ESSENTIAL FOR GETTING OXYGEN INTO AND CARBON DIOXIDE OUT OF THE BODY PREPARATION:

### Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Page 1. Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Page 2. Goals/ What You Need to Know Goals What You Need to Know

Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Hormones

### The Circulatory System. Chapter 17 Lesson 1

The Circulatory System Chapter 17 Lesson 1 Functions of the Circulatory System Your circulatory system maintains an internal environment in which all the cells in your body are nourished. As your heart

### Human Body Systems Project By Eva McLanahan

Human Body Systems Project By Eva McLanahan Students will work in groups to research one of the eleven body systems as found in Holt, Rinehart, and Winston Modern Biology (2002). Research will focus on