# Math Real Analysis I

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1 Math Real Analysis I Solutions to Homework due October 1 In class, we learned of the concept of an open cover of a set S R n as a collection F of open sets such that S A. A F We used this concept to define a compact set S as in which every infinite cover of S has a finite subcover. Question 1. Show that the following subsets S are not compact by finding an infinite cover F that has no finite subcover. Be sure to prove that your infinite cover does indeed have no finite subcover; usually a proof by contradiction is best for these. (a) S = (0, 1) (b) S = (0, ) A complete answer would include the following: (i) providing the infinite cover F; (ii) showing that S A; A F (iii) showing that F has no finite subcover. The best way to do this is to assume, to the contrary, that there exists some finite subcover F. Then, show that S A by finding an x S such that x A. A F A F Solution 1. (a) Let F = {(0, 1 1/n) n Z +, n 2}. First, we will show that (0, 1) (0, 1 1/n). n=2 Let x (0, 1); thus 0 < x < 1. Thus, 1 x > 0. By the Archimedean Property, there exists an n Z + such that 1 < (1 x)n, and thus 1 1/n > x. Thus, since 0 < x < 1 1/n, x (0, 1 1/n). Thus, x (0, 1 1/n). n=2 Next, assume, to the contrary, that F has a finite subcover F. We will find an x (0, 1) such that is not covered by F. Since F is a finite subcover, there exists a largest n such that (0, 1 1/n) F. Since n is the largest such integer, them for all over (0, 1 1/m) F, m n. Since m n, then 1 1/m < 1 1/n. Thus, (0, 1 1/m) (0, 1 1/n). So, A F A (0, 1 1/n). However, 1 1/(n + 1) (0, 1) but 1 1/(n + 1) (0, 1 1/n). Thus, F does not cover (0, 1). 1

2 (b) Let F = {(n, (n + 2)) a N}. First we will show that (0, ) (n, n + 2). n=0 Let x (0, ). Then, x > 0. Since Z + is unbounded, there exists some k Z + such that x < k. Of all of these k, choose the smallest such k (one exists by properties of Z + ). Then, since k Z +, k 1 N. Since k is the smallest k Z such that x < k, then k 1 < x. Furthermore since x < k, then x < k + 1. Thus, x (k 1, k + 1) (n, n + 2). Next, we show that this cover F has no finite subcover F. Assume, to the contrary that it does. Then, by finiteness, there is some largest n such that (n, n + 2) F. Consider the real number n + 3. Notice that n + 3 > 0 and thus n + 3 (0, ). If n + 3 were still covered by F, then there would exist some k N such that n + 3 (k, k + 2). Thus, n + 3 < k + 2 and thus, n < k 1 < k, contradicting that n is the largest such integer such that (n, n + 2) covers S. n=1 Question 2. Let S be a discrete set of R n. Show that S is compact if and only if S is finite. Note: The direction if S is finite, then S is compact does not use the fact that S is discrete; it s true for general finite sets. In proving If S is infinite, then S is non-compact, you will have to produce an infinite cover of S that has no finite subcover; in this direction, discreteness if necessary. Solution 2. First, we prove If S if finite, then S is compact. Write S = {x 1, x 2,... x n }. Let F be a cover of S. Thus, x i A F A. Thus, there exists some A i F such that x i A i. Choosing one A i for each x i produces at most n open sets. Define F to be the finite subcollection F = {A 1,..., A n }. Since each x i A i, we know that n S A i. i=1 Thus, S is compact. Conversely, assume that S is infinite. We will show that S is non-compact. Since S is discrete, each x S is isolated. Thus, for each x S, there exists an ε x > 0 such that B(x; ε x ) S = {x}. Since each of these balls is open, we can define the open cover F = {B(x; ε x )) x S}. Since S is infinite, this F is an infinite open cover. We will show that F has no finite subcover. Assume F is a finite subcollection of F. Then, since F is infinite, there is at least one (in fact, infinitely many) y S such that B(y; ε y ) F. Since for all x S, B(x; ε x ) S = {x}, the only open set in F that contains y is B(y; ε y ). Thus, removing it means that y A F. Thus, F is not a subcover. Thus, F is an open cover of S with no finite subcover. Thus, S is not compact. Question 3. Prove the following theorem about compacts sets in R n.. (a) Show that a finite union of compact sets is compact. (b) Let S be compact and T be closed. Show that S T is compact. (c) Use (b) to quickly show that a closed subset of a compact set is compact. 2

3 (d) Show that the intersection of arbitrarily many compact sets is compact. Solution 3. (a) We prove this using the definition of compactness. Let A 1, A 2,... A n be compact sets. Consider the union n k=1 A k. We will show that this union is also compact. To this end, assume that F is an open cover for n k=1 A k. Since A i n k=1 A k, then F is also a cover for A i. By compactness of A i, there exists a finite subcover F i for A i. Consider F = n i=1 F i. Since each F i is finite, and there are only finitely many such i, F is finite as well. Furthermore, since each F i cover A i, then F covers n k=1 A k. Thus, we have found a finite subcover for the union of our compact sets. Thus, it is compact. (b) Since S is compact, it is closed and bounded by the Heine-Borel Theorem. Since T is also closed, then S T is closed. Since S T S and S is bounded, S T is also bounded. Thus, S T is a closed and bounded set and thus compact. (c) Since S be compact and T S be a closed subset of R n Then, S T = T. By (b), S T = T must be compact. Thus, T is compact. (d) Let G be a collection of compact sets. We will show that A G A is compact. Note that every A G is compact, and thus closed and bounded. Since the intersection of arbitrarily many closed sets is closed, A G A is also closed. Choose any A G. Since A G A A and A is bounded, then A G A is bounded. Thus, A G A is closed and bounded; thus it is compact. In class, we learned that a metric space is a set M along with a distance function d from M M to R satisfying the following properties for all x, y, z M : (i) Positive-definite: d(x, y) 0 and d(x, y) = 0 if and only if x = y. (ii) Symmetry: d(x, y) = d(y, x) (iii) Triangle Inequality: d(x, z) d(x, y) + d(y, z). Question 4. Show that the following sets and distance functions d are indeed metric spaces by verifying that they satisfy the three metric space properties. (a) M = R + with distance function d(x, y) = log(x/y). (b) M = R 2 with its L 1 distance function d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 2, y 2 )) = x 1 x 2 + y 1 y 2. Solution 4. (a) Positive-definite: Since the absolute value function is always non-negative, we have that d(x, y) = log(x/y) 0. If x = y, then d(x, x) = log(x/x) = log 1 = 0. Lastly, assume that d(x, y) = 0. Then, log(x/y) = 0 and thus log(x/y) = 0. The only way for this to occur is if x/y = 1, which is equivalent to x = y. 3

4 Symmetry: d(x, y) = log(x/y) = log x log y = 1 log y log x = log(y/x) = d(y, x). Triangle Inequality: Notice that d(x, z) = log(x/z) = log x log z. Adding and subtracting log y and using the regular triangle inequality, we get that d(x, z) = log x log y + log y log z log x log y + log y log z = d(x, y) + d(y, z). (b) Positive-definite: Since x 1 x 2 0 and y 1 y 2 0, then d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 2, y 2 )) = x 1 x 2 + y 1 y 2 0. Now, assume that (x 1, y 1 ) = (x 2, y 2 ). Then, x 1 x 2 = 0 = y 1 y 2. Thus, d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 2, y 2 )) = x 1 x 2 + y 1 y 2 = 0. Now, assume that d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 2, y 2 )) = 0. Then, x 1 x 2 + y 1 y 2 = 0. Since x 1 x 2 0 and y 1 y 2 0, then it must be true that x 1 y 1 = 0 and x 2 y 2 = 0. Thus, x 1 = x 2 and y 1 = y 2. So, (x 1, y 1 ) = (x 2, y 2 ). Symmetry: Note that d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 2, y 2 )) = x 1 x 2 + y 1 y 2 = x 2 x 1 + y 2 y 2 = d((x 2, y 2 ), (x 1, y 1 )). Triangle Inequality: We begin with d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 3, y 3 )) = x 1 x 3 + y 1 y 3. If we add and subtract x 2 and y 2 into the two absolute values and apply the usual triangle inequality, we get d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 3, y 3 )) = (x 1 x 2 ) + (x 2 x 3 ) + (y 1 y 2 ) + (y 2 y 3 ). x 1 x 2 + x 2 x 3 + y 1 y 2 + y 2 y 3 = x 1 x 2 + y 1 y 2 + x 2 x 3 + y 2 y 3 = d((x 1, y 1 ), (x 2, y 2 )) + d((x 2, y 2 ), (x 3, y 3 )) Question 5. Let M be a non-empty set with metric d. Thus, d satisfies the three metric properties. Let k > 0 and consider the new distance function d given by d (x, y) = k d(x, y). Show that d is also a metric on M by showing it satisfies the three metric properties. Solution 5. First, we show that d is positive definite. Since d is positive definite, then d(x, y) 0 for all x, y M. Multiplying by k > 0, we get that d (x, y) = k d(x, y) 0. Since k 0 and d(x, y) = 0 if and only if x = y, then d (x, y) = k d(x, y) = 0 if and only if x = y. 4

5 Next, we show that d is symmetric. Since d is symmetric, we have that d(x, y) = d(y, x). Thus, d (x, y) = k d(x, y) = k d(y, x) = d (y, x). Last, we show that d satisfies the triangle inequality. Since d is a metric, it satisfies a triangle inequality. So, d(x, z) d(x, y) + d(y, z). Since k > 0, we can multiply through to get d (x, z) = k d(x, z) k d(x, y) + k d(y, z) = d (x, y) + d (y, z). Satisfying all three metric properties, we have that d is a metric on M. Question 6. Let M be a non-empty set with two metrics d 1 and d 2. Thus, d 1 and d 2 both satisfy the three metric properties. Consider the new distance function d given by d (x, y) = d 1 (x, y) + d 2 (x, y). Show that d is also a metric on M by showing that it satisfies the three metric properties. Solution 6. First, we show that d is non-negative. Since d 1 (x, y), d 2 (x, y) 0, then the sum of two non-negative numbers is non-negative. So, d (x, y) = d 1 (x, y) + d 2 (x, y) 0. Since d 1 and d 2 are individually metrics, they have the property that d 1 (x, y) = d 2 (x, y) = 0 if and only if x = y. Thus, if x = y, then d (x, y) = d (x, x) = d 1 (x, x) + d 2 (x, x) = 0. Conversely, if d (x, y) = 0, then d 1 (x, y) + d 2 (x, y) = 0. Since each term is non-negative, the only way for this to occur is if both d 1 and d 2 are zero. However, this occurs if and only if x = y. Next, we will show d is symmetric. Since both d 1 and d 2 are symmetric, then d 1 (x, y) = d 1 (y, x) and d 2 (x, y) = d 2 (y, x). Thus, d (x, y) = d 1 (x, y) + d 2 (x, y) = d 1 (y, x) + d 2 (y, x) = d (y, x). Lastly, we show the triangle inequality holds for d. Since it holds for d 1 and d 2, we have that the following two inequalities hold: d 1 (x, z) d 1 (x, y) + d 1 (y, z) Adding the two inequalities, we get that d 2 (x, z) d 2 (x, y) + d 2 (y, z). d (x, z) = d 1 (x, z) + d 2 (x, z) d 1 (x, y) + d 1 (y, z) + d 2 (x, y) + d 2 (y, z) = d (x, y) + d (y, z). Thus the triangle inequality holds. Satisfying all three metric properties, we have that d is a metric on M. 5

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