Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any.

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1 Algebra 2 - Chapter Prerequisites Vocabulary Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any. P1 p counting(natural) numbers - {1,2,3,4,...} 2. whole numbers - {0,1,2,3...} 3. integers - {...-3, -2,-1,0,1,2,3...} p rational numbers - { a/b a and b are integers with b 0} - numbers that can be written as fractions. 5. irrational numbers - nonterminating, nonrepeating decimals. p real numbers - rational and irrational numbers p number line - a line with units marked off representing the integers and the spaces between representing rational and irrational numbers - a representation of the real numbers. 8. coordinates - numbers corresponding to points on the number line. p is a member of is not a member of is a subset of is not a subset of p Closure property - For any real numbers a and b, a+ b and ab are real numbers. 14. Commutative property - a + b = b + a and ab = ba 15. Associative property - a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c and a(bc) = (ab)c 16. Distributive property - a(b +c) = ab + ac 17. Identity Properties a = a and 1. a = a (zero is the additive identity and 1 is the multiplicative identity)

2 18. Multiplication property of zero - 0. a = Additive inverse property - For any real number a, a + -a = For every nonzero real number a, a. 1/a = 1. 1/a is the reciprocal (multiplicative inverse) of a. p Properties of opposites - a) -1. a = -a b) -(-a) = a c) -(a - b) = b - a 22. relations - symbols that indicate how numbers are related such a <, >, =,, and. 23. Trichotomy property - For any two real numbers a and b, exactly one of the following is true: a< b, a = b, or a > b. p Reflexive property - For any real number a, a = a 25. Symmetric property - For any real numbers a and b, if a = b, then b = a 26. Transitive property - For any real numbers a, b, and c, if a = b and b = c, then a = c. 27. Substitution property - If a = b then a and b may be substituted for one another in any expression involving a or b. 28. Absolute value - the distance of a number a from 0 on the number line. a = { a if a 0 -a if a < 0 p Properties of absolute value: a) a o (absolute value is nonnegative) b) -a = a (additive inverses have the same absolute value) c) a. b = a. b (the absolute value of a product is the product of the absolute values. d) a/b = a / b, b 0 ( the absolute value of a quotient is the quotient of the absolute values.) 30. Distance between two points - Distance is the absolute value of the their difference or d(a,b) = a - b p Arithmetic expression - writing numbers with operation of math. 32. Order of operations - (note - error on lesson - grouping before powers) Grouping symbols Powers Multiplication and division - left to right Addition and subtraction - left to right

3 p ) Algebraic expression (variable expression) - writing numbers and one or more variables with operations of math. p Value of an algebraic expression - value of arithmetic expression when variable is replaced by real numbers. 35. Domain - set of numbers that are allowed to be used for the variable in an algebraic expression. 36. Simplify - find a simpler-looking equivalent expression. 37. term - single number or the product of a number and one or more variables. 38. factor - the individual numbers or variables in a term. 39. coefficient - the product of the remaining factors of any variable part in the term. 40. like terms - two or more terms that contain the same variables with the same exponents. P2 p. 16 1) exponential expression - a n = a. a. a..... a 2) base - in the expression a n, a is the base or factor. 3) exponent - in the expression a n, n is the exponent or power. p negative integral exponents - If a is a nonzero real number and n is a positive integer, a -n = 1 a n p Rules for negative exponents and fractions - If a and b are nonzero numbers and m and n are integers, then (a/b) -m = (b/a) m and a -m = b n b -n a m 6. product rule - a m. a n = a m+n p Zero exponent - If a is nonzero real number, then a 0 = 1 8. Rules for Integral exponents - a) a m a n = a m+n Product rule b) a m = a m-n Quotient rule a n c) (a m ) n = a mn Power of a power (continued)

4 d) (ab) n = a n b n Power of a product rule e) (a/b) n = a n / b n Power of a quotient rule p. 22 9) Scientific notation - a number between 1 and 10 times a power of 10. P3 p nth root - if n is a positive integer and a n = b, then a is the nth root of b. If a 2 = b then a is the square root of b If a 3 = b then a is the cube root of b. 2. Exponent 1/n - if n is a positive even integer and a is positive, then a 1/n is the positive real nth root of a and is called the principal nth root of a. if n is positive and odd and a is real then a 1/n is the real nth root of a if n is positive then 0 1/n = 0 p rational exponents - If m and n are positive integers, then a m/n = (a 1/n ) m provided a 1/n is real. p Rules for rational exponents: a and b are real and r and s are rational, powers are real and no denominators are zero. a) a r a s = a r+s b) a r = a r-s a s c) (a r ) s = a rs d) (ab) r = a r b r e) (a/b) r = a r b r f) (a/b) -r = b r a r g) a -r = b s b -s a r p radical sign - and the exponent 1/n both indicate the nth root. 6. radical - If n is a positive integer and a is a number for which a 1/n is defined, then the expression = a 1/n. If n = 2, the write a rather than a 7. radicand - the number under the radical sign. 8. index - the n of the radical

5 p rule for converting a m/n - if a is real and m and n are integers for which a m/n = ( ) m = 10. rules for radicals - For any positive integer n and real numbers a and b (b= 0) 1. ab = a b - product rule for radicals 2. a = a - quotient rule for radicals b b p perfect nth power - expression where the nth root of a term is free of radicals. 12. perfect square - square root of a number is free of radicals. 13. perfect cube - cube root of a number is free of radicals. 14. simplified form for radicals of index n a) no perfect nth powers as factors of the radicand b) no fractions inside the radical c) no radicals in a denominator p rationalizing the denominator - removing the radical from the denominator by multiplying by a term that makes the denominator a perfect nth power. p like radicals - radical expression with the same index P4 p polynomial - single term or a finite sum of terms 2. polynomial in x - If n is a nonnegative integer and a 0, a 1, a 2,...a n are real numbers, then a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 + a n-2 x n a 1 x + a 0 is a polynomial in a single variable x. 3. constant - single number 4. monomial - a polynomial with only one term

6 5. binomial - a polynomial with two terms 6. trinomial - a polynomial with three terms p leading coefficient - the coefficient of the first term when polynomial is written in decreasing order from left to right. 8. degree of a polynomial in one variable - highest power of the variable in the polynomial 9. zero polynomial - zero 10) linear polynomial - first degree polynomial 11) quadratic polynomial - second-degree polynomial 12) cubic polynomial - third-degree polynomial 13) degree of term with more than one variable - sum of powers of variables 14) degree of polynomial with more than one variable - highest degree of any of its terms. 15) adding and subtracting polynomials - add and subtract like terms p ) multiplying polynomials - multiply each term of the first polynomial by every term of the second polynomial and then combine like terms p ) FOIL - product of two binomials consists of four terms: (a + b) ( c + d) = ac (first terms) + ad (outer terms) + bc (inner terms) + bd (last terms) p ) special products: a) square of a sum - (a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 b) square of a difference - (a - b) 2 = a 2-2ab + b 2 c) product of a sum and a difference - (a+b)(a-b) = a 2 - b 2 p ) conjugates - two expressions with radicals whose product is a rational number p ) division algorithm of polynomials - If the dividend P(x) and the divisor D(x) are polynomials where D(x) is not zero and the degree of P(x) is to the degree of D(x), then there are two polynomials the quotient Q(x) and the remainder R(x), such that P(x) = Q(x) D(x) + R(x) where R(x) = 0 or the degree of R(x) the degree of D(x).

7 p ) value of a polynomial P(x) - number to replace the variable in a polynomial P5 p. 54 1) Factoring out - the process of finding factor that is common to each term and taking it out. 2) Factors - polynomials when multiplied give back the original polynomial 3) Common Factor - a factor that is common to the terms of a polynomial 4) Greatest Common Factor (GCF) - the monomial that includes every number and variable that is a factor of all terms of the polynomial. p. 55 5) Factoring by Grouping - used with a polynomial of 4 terms where the common factors are factored out of the first pair and second pair. p. 56 6) Factoring ax 2 + bx + c with a = 1 Find the two numbers e and f whose product is c and whose sum is b then factor (x + e)(x + f) p. 57 7) Factoring ax 2 + bx + c with a 1 (Split the middle term) a) Find two numbers who sum is b and whose product is ac b) Replace b by the sum of these two numbers c) Factor the resulting four-term polynomial by grouping p. 58 8) Perfect Square Trinomial - trinomial that results from squaring a sum or a difference. 9) Factoring Special Products: a) Difference of two squares a 2 - b 2 = (a + b)(a - b) b) Perfect Square Trinomial a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = (a + b) 2 c) Perfect Square Trinomial a 2-2ab + b 2 = (a - b) 2 p ) Factoring the Difference and Sum of Two Cubes a) Difference of two cubes a 3 - b 3 = (a - b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) b) Sum of two cubes a 3 + b 3 = (a + b)(a 2 - ab + b 2 ) 11) Factoring by Substitution - when a polynomial involves a complicated expression we a) replace the complicated expression by a single variable b) factor the simpler polynomial c) replace the single variable by the complicated expression.

8 p ) Prime (irreducible over the integers) - polynomials that cannot be factored using integral coefficients. 13) Factoring Completely - writing a polynomial as a product of prime polynomials. P6 p. 65 1) rational expression - ratio of two polynomials in which the denominator is not the zero polynomial 2) domain - set of all real numbers that can be used in place of variable 3) Basic principle of rational numbers: If a, b, and c are integers with b 0 and c 0, then ac = bc a b p. 66 4) reduce to lowest terms - divide out all common factors p. 67 5) multiplying rational numbers - If a/b and c/d are rational numbers, then a. c = ac b d bd p. 68 6) dividing rational numbers - If a/b and c/d are rational numbers with c 0, then a c = a. d b d b c 7) build up a denominator - rename a denominator with a larger value by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the same number to get an equivalent fraction. p. 69 8) least common denominator (LCD) - smallest number that is a multiple of all the denominators. Steps: a) factor each denominator completely b) write a product using each factor that appears in a denominator c) for each factor, use the highest power of that factor that occurs in the denominator 9) adding and subtracting rational numbers - If a/b and c/d are rational numbers, then a + c = a + c and a - c = a - c b b b b b b

9 p ) complex fraction - a fraction having rational expression in the numerator, denominator, or both 11) simplifying a complex fraction - multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD of all of the denominators. 12) simplifying complex fractions with negative exponents - a) change all terms to positive powers b) multiply numerator and denominator by LCD of the denominators

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