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1 Note: A standing homework assignment for students in MAT1501 is: let me know about any mistakes, misprints, ambiguities etc that you find in these notes. 1. measures and measurable sets If X is a set, let 2 X denote the power set of X, ie, the collection of all subsets of X. A measure µ on X is defined to be a nonnegative, countably subadditive set function on X, ie, a function µ : 2 X [0, ] such that (1) µ( ) = 0, and µ(a) µ(a i ) whenever A i A i for any finite or countable collection of subsets A i X. Note in particular that the definition implies that µ(a) µ(b) when A B. Remark 1. What we are calling a measure is called an outer measure in many books. Given a measure µ on X, we say that a set A X is µ-measurable if (2) µ(b) = µ(b A) + µ(b \ A) for all B X. To establish that measurability of A, it is only necessary to check that µ(b) µ(b A) + µ(b \ A) for all B, since the opposite inequality follows from the definition of a measure. It is obvious from the definition that X and are measurable, and also that (3) A is µ-measurable = X \ A is µ- measurable. Given a measure µ on X and a subset B X, we define the function µ B : 2 X [0, ]by µ B(A) = µ(b A). It is straightforward to check that µ B is a measure, regardless of whether or notb is measurable. The first theorem of measure theory is Theorem 1. Suppose that µ is a measure on a set X, and {A i } be a sequence of µ-measurable sets. Then i. Both i=1 A i and i=1 A i are µ-measurable. ii. µ( i=1 A i) = lim j µ( j i=1 A i). iii. iv. µ( i=1 A i) = lim j µ( j i=1 A i), as long as the right-hand side is finite. If the sets {A i } are pairwise disjoint, then µ( i=1 A i) = i=1 µ(a i). Sometimes (ii) and (iii) are stated in the form ii. If E 1 E 2... are measurable and E j E, then µ(e) = lim j µ(e j ). iii. If E 1 E 2... are measurable and E j E, then µ(e) = lim j µ(e j ) as long as the right-hand side is finite. sketch of proof. It is straightforward to verify by induction that conclusions (i) and (iv) hold for finite collections of sets. Once this is known, it follows that µ( i=1 A i) j i=1 µ(a i) for every j, which in view of (1) implies that (iv) holds for a countable collection of pairwise disjoint sets as stated. Then (ii) can be deduced from (iv), and (iii) from (ii). To verify (i), it is easiest to note that for 1

2 2 given B X (not necessarily measurable), the function µ B : 2 X [0, ] defined by µ B(A) = µ(b A) is itself a measure; this is not hard to check. Moreover, every µ-measurable set is also µ B-measurable. Using these facts, (i) can be inferred from (ii) and (iii). Conclusion (i) of the theorem, with (3), implies that the collection of µ-measurable sets is a σ-algebra, where we recall the definition: A collection S 2 X is said to be a σ-algebra if, X S, (4) A S = X \ A S, and (5) if A 1, A 2,... S, then i=1 A i S. Clearly, if (4) and (5) hold, then so does (6) if A 1, A 2,... S, then i=1 A i S. It is equally clear that (4) and (6) imply (5). It is not true in general that (5) and (6) imply (4) Exercise 1. Find an example of a set X and a collection S 2 X that satisfies (5) and (6) but not (4). We will often say simply measurable rather than µ-measurable, when there is no hope of confusion. A statement is true µ-a.e. if there exists a set E X such that µ(e) = 0, and the statement is true in X \ E. A measure µ on a set X is said to be regular if for every A X, there exists a measurable B X such that A B and µ(a) = µ(b). In practice, every measure that we encounter will be regular. Also, we note: Lemma 1. Given an arbitrary meausre µ on a space X, there exists a regular measure µ such that if B is any µ-measurable set, then B is µ -measurable, and µ(b) = µ (B). Proof. If we define µ (B) := inf{µ(a) : A µ-measurable, B A}, then it is straightforward to check that µ has the stated properties. Exercise 2. Fill in the missing details in the proof. From the lemma we can see that the question of whether or not a measure is regular has to do with how it behaves on unmeasurable sets, and that a measure µ is regular if µ(b) is as large as possible for every unmeasurable B Regularity is a convenient condition to assume, since for example it allows one to drop the hypothesis of measurability in part iii of Theorem 1. This might, for example, save one from the necessity of verifying measurability in some arguments. But if we are chiefly interested in measurable sets, then the lemma suggests that we need not worry much about regularity. Here is another easy

3 3 Exercise 3. Given any set X containing at least 2 points, construct a measure on X that is not regular. 2. Borel measures We now assume that X is a topological space. (Before long, we will limit our attention to the case when X = R n with the standard topology.) A measure µ on X is Borel if every open set is µ-measurable The Borel σ-algebra is the smallest σ-algebra containing the open set. A set belonging to this σ-algebra is said to be a Borel set. Thus, we could equivalently define a Borel measure to be one for which every Borel subset is measurable. A measure µ is Borel regular if it is Borel and, in addition. for every A X, there exists a Borel B X such that A B and µ(a) = µ(b). (This is not quite the same thing as being both Borel and regular. For example, Borel regular is a very restrictive condition on a topological space X on which the only two open sets are and X.) In practice, every measure that we encounter will be Borel regular. All the remarks made above about regular measures apply with small changes to Borel regular measures. In particular, we have Lemma 2. Given a Borel measure µ on a topological space X, there exists a Borel regular measure µ such that µ(b) = µ (B) for every Borel set B. Proof. Define and then argue as before. µ (B) := inf{µ(a) : A Borel, B A}, 2.1. Caratheodory s criterion. The following theorem gives a beautiful and simple characterization of Borel measures on metric spaces. Theorem 2. (Carathéodory s Criterion) If X is a metric space and µ is a measure on X, then µ is a Borel measure if and only if (7) µ(a B) = µ(a) + µ(b) whenever dist (A, B) > 0. Here dist (A, B) := inf a A,b B d(a, b), where d is the metric on X. Proof. The proof that every Borel measure satisfies (7) is easy. Given A, B such that dist(a, B) = α > 0, let C := a A {x X : d(x, a) < α/2}. Then C is open and hence measurable, and so µ(a B) = µ((a B) C) + µ((a B) \ C) = µ(a) + µ(b). We now assume that (7) holds, and we give the proof of the other implication. It suffices to prove that every closed set is measurable. Let C be a closed set and A an arbitrary set. We must show that µ(a) µ(a C) + µ(a \ C). We may assume that µ(a) is finite, as the above inequality is otherwise obvious. For each j, let C j := {x X : dist(x, C) 1/j}. Then dist (A C, A \ C j ) > 0, and so µ(a) µ((a C) (A \ C j ) = µ(a C) + µ(a \ C j ).

4 4 So it suffices to show that (8) µ(a \ C) lim j µ(a \ C j). To do this, let R j := C j \ C j+1, so that for every j A \ C = (A \ C j ) ( k=ja R k ) (this is where we use the assumption that C is closed). Thus the subadditivity of µ implies that µ(a \ C) µ(a \ C j ) + µ(a R k ) k=j by (1). Thus to prove (8) we only need to show that (9) µ(a R k ) lim k=j N k=1 N µ(a R k ) <. This follows by noting that dist(r j, R k ) > 0 whenever j k 2. Thus for every N N N N µ(a R k ) µ(a R 2k ) + µ(a R 2k 1 ) by (1) k=1 k=1 k=1 = µ( N k=1(a R 2k )) + µ( N k=1(a R 2k 1 )) using (7) 2µ(A) <. Exercise 4. Taking X to be the unit interval, construct a measure µ on X that is not Borel An important family of examples. Hausdorff measure, which we define below, plays a central role in geometric measure theory First, for s 0, let π s/2 ω s := 2 s Γ( s 2 + 1). If I have gotten the formula right, whenever k is an integer, ω k d k is the k-dimensional Lebesgue measure of a Euclidean ball in R k of diameter d (ie, radius d/2.) Let X be a separable metric space. For A X and s, δ > 0 we define { } (10) Hδ(A) s = inf ωs (diam C i ) s : A C i, diam C i δ i. Then s-dimensional Hausdorff measure H s is defined by (11) H s (A) := lim H s δ 0 δ(a) = sup Hδ(A). s We make a number of remarks: Remark 2. The reason we assume that X is separable is to guarantee that, given an arbitrary set A X, it is easy to find countable sequences of sets C i such that A C i. We will in fact chiefly be interested in the case X = R n. δ>0

5 5 Remark 3. It is easy to see that if X = R n with the usual metric, then { } Hδ(A) s = inf ωs (diam C i ) s : A C i, diam C i δ i, C i closed i { } = inf ωs (diam C i ) s : A C i, diam C i δ i, C i open i { } = inf ωs (diam C i ) s : A C i, diam C i δ i, C i convex i. These follow from the fact that for any set C R n, diam(c) = diam( C) = inf{diam(u) : U open, C U} = diam(co C), where co C denotes the convex hull of C. The first two equalities in fact remain valid on any metric space X. Remark 4. Note that the definition of H s makes sense even if X is an infinitedimensional space. In fact it is perfectly reasonable to try to measure finitedimensional subsets of, for example, function spaces such as L 2 (R n ). Remark 5. It is a fact that ω 0 = 1, and taking this for granted, one sees that H 0 is counting measure, which means that { H 0 number of points in A, if finite (A) = + if not. Remark 6. Hδ s is not in general a Borel measure. Remark 7. If X = R n for some n then for all x R n and A R n, and H s (x + A) = H s (A) H s (λa) = λ s H s (A) where x + A = {x + a : a A} and λa = {λa : a ina}. Exercise 5. verify some or all of the above remarks.. Lemma 3. H s is a Borel regular measure. Proof. It is easy to check that H satisfies the hypotheses (7) of Carathéodory s criterion, Theorem 2. Hence H s is a Borel measure. To show that H s is Borel regular, it we must show that given any A X, there exists a Borel set B A such that H s (B) H s (A). Given A X, construct B as follows: first, for every δ > 0 let {Ci δ } be a collection of closed sets such that A Ci δ and ω s (diam Ci δ)s Hδ s (A) + δ. The existence of such a sequence of closed sets follows from Remark 3. Then define B = k=1 i=1 C δ k i for some sequence δ k 0. It is immediate that B is Borel, and also easy to see that H s (B) H s (A). Lemma 4. Suppose that 0 < s < t, and let A be a subset of a separable metric space X. Then if H s (A) <, then H t (A) = 0. if H t (A) > 0, then H s (A) = +.

6 6 The two conclusions of the lemma are easily seen to be equivalent. The redundancy is for emphasis. Proof. If {C i } is any sequence of sets with diam C i < δ for all i and A C i, then ωt (diam C i ) t = ω t (diam C i ) t s (diam C i ) s ω t ω s δ t s ω s (diam C i ) s. It follows that Hδ t ωt (A) ω s δ t s Hδ s (A) This easily implies the conclusions of the lemma. In view of the previous lemma, the following definition makes sense: Definition 1. The Hausdorff dimension of a set A X is dim H (A) := inf{t 0 : H t (A) = 0}. We will later prove that H n = L n on R n, where L n denotes Lebesgue measure. It follows that H s (A) = + if s < n and A is any open set, or more generally any set of positive L n measure approximation properties, Egoroff s Theorem, and Lusin s Theorem for Borel measures. Next we prove some results that are a little technical but very useful. For example, they are needed to prove that Lusin s Theorem (maybe more obviously a useful result) holds for Borel regular measures on metric spaces. We begin with a useful lemma Lemma 5. Assume that X is a metric space, and that S 2 X is a collection of sets containing all the closed sets, and such that if A 1, A 2,... S, then (12) i=1a i S. and i=1 A i S. Then S contains the Borel sets. (Compare Exercise 1.) From the proof one can easily see that the lemma is still true if S is assumed to contain all open sets, rather than all closed sets. Proof. Let S 1 be the smallest family of subsets of S that contains the closed sets and satisfies (12). Then define S 2 := {A X : A S 1 and X \ A S 1 }. Then it is straightforward to check that S 2 is a σ-algebra. Moreover, we claim that S 2 contains all the closed sets. To prove this, we must check that every closed set belongs to S 1, which is immediate, and that every open set belongs to S 1. This is clear, since given an open set U, we can write U = k=1{x U : dist(x, U) 1 k } and the sets on the right-hand side are all closed. Our first result addresses the possibillity of approximating a set from the inside by a closed set.

7 7 Theorem 3. Suppose that µ is a Borel measure on a metric space X. Then for any Borel set E such that µ(e) <, (13) µ(e) = sup {µ(c) : C E, C closed}. If X = R n then in fact µ(e) = sup {µ(k) : K E, K compact}. Proof. Fix a Borel set E. We would like to prove (13). It is convenient to define ν = µ E, so that ν(a) := µ(a E). Then ν(x) < (this is what we gain by considering ν instead of µ), and it suffices to show that (14) ν(a) = sup {ν(c) : C A, C closed}. for every Borel set A X (since then in particular it holds for A = E.) To do this, we will write S to denote the collection of all subsets of A X that satisfy (14). In view of Lemma 5, to prove (14) it suffices to show that S contains every closed set. S is closed with respect to countable union. S is closed with respect to countable intersection. The first of these is clear. For countable unions: fix ε > 0 and assume that A 1, A 2,... belong to S. For each i, by definition of S, we can find a closed set C i such that C i A i, and ν(a i \ C i ) = ν(a i ) ν(c i ) < ε2 i Here and below we use the fact that if C A and C s measurable, then ν(a) = ν(c) + ν(a \ C), which follows directly from the definition of measurability. Then lim N ν( i=1a i \ N i=1c i ) = ν( i=1a i \ i=1c i ) ν(a i \ C i ) Hence there exists some N such that i=1 < ε. ν( i=1a i ) ν( N i=1c i ) = ν( i=1a i \ N i=1c i ) < ε. Since N i=1 C i is a closed subset of i=1 A i and ε is arbitrary, we conclude that i A i belongs to S. For countable intersections: this is similar to countable unions (but actually a little easier.) Exercise 6. supply the details for countable intersections. The exercise completes the proof of (13).

8 8 For X = R n, we write B(R, x) := {y R n : y x < R}. Then if µ(e) < and E is measurable, µ(e) = sup µ(e B(k, 0)) k N = sup sup{µ(c) : C closed, C E B(k, 0)} k N = sup{µ(k) : K compact, K E}. Next we prove a complementary result about approximation from the outside by open sets. Lemma 6. Suppose that µ is a Borel measure on a metric space X, and that E is a Borel set such that (15) E i=1v i, with V i open and µ(v i ) < for all i.. Then (16) µ(e) = inf{µ(o) : O open, E O}. Clearly (16) cannot hold if for example µ(e) < and µ(o) = + for every open set O (such as is the case with s-dimensional Hausdorff measure on R n when s < n.) This example illustrates the necessity for some sort of hypothesis along the lines of (15). Proof. For each V i, we apply the previous theorem to find a closed set C i V i \ E such that µ((v i \ E) \ C i ) < ε2 i. Then we define W = i (V i \ C i ) Clearly W is open, and since W \ E i (V i \ E), we deduce from the choice of C i that µ(w \ E) < ε. We next prove Theorem 4 (Egoroff s Theorem). Let µ be a measure on a space X, and assume that f i, i = 1, 2,... and g are measurable functions on X such that f i g µ almost everywhere. Assume also that A is a µ-measurable subset of X, and that µ(a) <. Then for any ε > 0 there is a µ-measurable set E A such that f j g uniformly on E, µ(a \ E) < ε. We emphasize that the theorem assumes only that X is a set and µ a measure we do not require any additional conditions here. So this is a less deep result that Lusin s Theorem, which follows. Proof. For i, j 1, let E i,j := {x A : f k (x) g(x) < 1 i for all k j}. Then for every i, lim µ(a \ E i,j) = 0 j

9 9 by assumption, and so we can find some J(i) such that We define µ(a \ E i,j(i) ) < ε2 i. E = i=1e i,j(i). Then the definition implies that f j g uniformly on E, since f j g < 1 i on E for j J(i). And µ(a \ E) = µ(a \ i=1e i,j(i) ) = µ( i=1(a \ E i,j(i) )) µ(a \ E i,j(i) ) < ε. Theorem 5 (Lusin s Theorem). Assume that X is a Borel regular measure on a metric space X, that f : X R m is µ-measurable, and that A is a µ-measurable set with µ(a) <. Then for every ε > 0 there exists a closed set C A such that the restriction of f to C is continuous, and µ(a \ C) < ε. Proof. First we note that the general case easily follows from the case m = 1, so we focus on that for simplicity. We may also assume that A is a Borel set, as otherwise we can replace it by a Borel set Ã such that A Ã and µ(a) = µ(ã). Step 1 We now verify f is the characteristic function of a Borel set E satisfies the conclusion of the theorem. (In fact, as the proof shows, this case of Lusin s Theorem is more or less equivalent to Theorem 3, about inner approximation of measurable sets by closed sets.) Indeed, fix ε > 0, and use Theorem 3 to find closed subsets C 0 and C 1 of A E and A\E respectively, such that µ((a E)\C 0 )+µ((a\e)\c 1 ) < ε. Then let C = C 0 C 1. Let us write f C to denote the restriction of f to C. We claim that f C is continuous. It suffices to check that the inverse image by f C of every closed set is closed. Since f C takes on only two values, 0 and 1, we need to check that C 0 = (f C ) 1 {0} and C 1 = (f C ) 1 {1} are both closed in C, and this is immediate. Step 2. It is easy to deduce from Step 1 that a finite linear combination of characteristic functions (ie, a function with finite range) satisfies the conclusion of the theorem. Step 3. One can also check that, given any measurable function f, one can find a sequence f i such that f i f a.e. in A, and each f i has finite range. (we gave a slightly clumsy argument for this in the lecture.) For each such f i, given ε > 0, we can use Step 2 to find a closed set C i such that f i,ci is continuous and µ(a \ C i ) < ε2 i 1. Then every f i is continuous on C i, and µ(a \ C i ) < ε/2. We can further use Egoroff s Theorem to find a closed set C ( C i ) such that f i f uniformly on C, and i=1 µ(a \ C) = µ(a \ ( C i )) + µ(( C i ) \ C) < ε Then f C is a uniform limit of continuous functions, and hence continuous.

10 10 3. measurable functions Note, above we have taken for granted basic facts about measurable functions, such as the definition: If µ is a measure on a set X, then a function f : X R is said to be µ-measurable if f 1 (A) is µ-measurable for every open A R. Of course the same definition makes sense for functions f : X Y where Y is any topological space. We recall without proof the following basic result. Theorem 6. Assume that µ is a measure on a set X. A linear combination of µ-measurable functions is µ-measurable. A product of µ-measurable functions is µ-measurable. if f 1, f 2,... are µ-measurable functions, then so are sup f i, i inf f i, i lim sup f i, i lim inf f i i If particular, if (f i ) is a sequence of µ-measurable functions, and f i f µ a.e., then f is µ-measurable.

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