# Linear Algebra. A vector space (over R) is an ordered quadruple. such that V is a set; 0 V ; and the following eight axioms hold:

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1 Linear Algebra A vector space (over R) is an ordered quadruple (V, 0, α, µ) such that V is a set; 0 V ; and the following eight axioms hold: α : V V V and µ : R V V ; (i) α(α(u, v), w) = α(u, α(v, w)), u, v, w V ; (ii) α(v, 0) = v = α(0, v), v V ; (iii) for each v V there is w V such that α(v, w) = 0 = α(w, v); (iv) α(u, v) = α(v, u), u, v V ; (v) µ(c + d, v) = µ(c, v) + µ(d, v), c, d R, v V ; (vi) µ(c, α(u, v)) = α(µ(c, u), µ(c, v)), c R, u, v V ; (vii) µ(c, µ(d, v)) = µ(cd, v), c, d R, v V ; (viii) µ(1, v) = v, v V. Axioms (i),(ii),(iii) say that (V, 0, α) is an Abelian group. Axiom (iv) says that this group is Abelian. One calls the elements of V vectors. From now on we write u + v for α(u, v) and call this operation vector addition, and we write cv for µ(c, v), with the latter binding more tightly than the former, and call this operation scalar multiplication. If 0 i, i = 1, 2 satisfy Axiom (ii) with 0 there replaced by 0 i, i = 1, 2, respectively, then 0 1 = = 0 2 so this element is unique; we call it the zero element of V. If w i, i = 1, 2 satisfy Axiom (iii) for a given v V with w there replaced by w i, i = 1, 2, respectively, then w 1 = w = w 1 + (v + w 2 ) = (w 1 + v) + w 2 = 0 + w 2 = w 2 so the element w is uniquely determined; we denote it v. We also write u v for u + ( v), u, v V. For any v V we have 0v = 0 + 0v = ( 0v + 0v) + 0v = 0v + (0v + 0v) = 0v + (0 + 0)v = 0v + 0v = 0; that is 0v = 0, v V. 1

2 Example. Suppose S is a nonempty set. Then R S is a vector space where, given f, g R S and c R, we set (f + g)(s) = f(s) + g(s) and (cf)(s) = cf(s), s S. We call these operations pointwise addition and pointwise scalar multiplication, respectively. Example. Since R n = R {1,...,n}, it is a vector space by virtue of the previous Example. Example. R is a vector space where vector addition is addition and where scalar multiplication is multiplication. Example. Suppose V is a vector space and S is a nonempty set. Then V S is a vector space where, given f, g V S and c R, we set (f + g)(s) = f(s) + g(s) and (cf)(s) = cf(s), s S. We call these operations pointwise addition and pointwise scalar multiplication, respectively. Suppose V is a vector space. We say a subset U of V is a linear subspace (of V ) (i) if 0 U; (ii) u + v U whenever u, v U; (iii) cu U whenever c R and u U. Note that (U, 0, α (U U), µ (R U)) is a vector space. Proposition. Suppose V is a vector space and U is a nonempty family of linear subspaces of V. Then U is a linear subspace of V. Remark. If U = then U = and U is problematic. Proof. Simple exercise for the reader. Suppose V and W are vector spaces and L : V W. We say L is linear if (i) L(v + w) = L(v) + L(w) whenever v, w V ; (ii) L(cv) = cl(v) whenever c R and v V. Note that the operations on the left are with respect to V and the operations on the right are with respect to W. We say L carries V isomorphically onto W if L is univalent and rng L = W. We set ker L = {v V : L(v) = 0} and call this subset of V the kernel or null space of L. We let L(V ; W ) be the set of linear maps from V into W. Note that L(V ; W ) is a linear subspace of W V and is therefore a vector space with respect to the operations of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication. Of particular importance is the case when W = R. We set V = L(V ; R) and call this vector space the dual space of V. Suppose ω V and w W. Define ωw : V W by setting Note that ωw is linear. ωw(v) = ω(v)w, v V. Proposition. Suppose V and W are vector spaces and L : V W is linear. Then (i) L(0) = 0; 2

3 (ii) ker L is a linear subspace of V ; (iii) L is univalent if and only if ker L = 0; (iv) rng L is a linear subspace of W. Proof. Simple exercise which for the reader. Suppose V is a vector space and S is a nonempty set. For each f V S we set and call the set the support of f. We let spt f = {s S : f(s) 0} (V S ) 0 = {f V S : spt f is finite}. Note that Remark. V = (V ) 0 =. Suppose V is a vector space and S is a nonempty set. Since V is an Abelian group we know that (V S ) 0 = {f V S : spt f is finite} is a subgroup of the Abelian group V S and that there is one and only group homomorphism : (V S ) 0 V such that (s, v) = v whenever (s, v) S V. It is immediate that (V S ) 0 is a linear subspace of V S. We leave as a straightforward exercise for the reader to prove by induction that is linear. Suppose V is a vector space and S V. In case S we define s : (R S ) 0 V by setting s(f) = s S f(s)s, f (R S ) 0. Note that s is linear because it is the composition of with the linear map (R S ) 0 f (S s f(s)s V ) (V S ) 0. We let { {0} if S =, span S = rng s else and call this linear subspace of V the (linear) span of S. We say S is independent if either S = or S and s is univalent. We say S is dependent if S is not independent. We say S is basis for V if S is independent and V = span S. Evidently, (i) the empty set is independent; (ii) if 0 S then S is dependent; (iii) a superset of a dependent set is dependent; (iv) a subset of an independent set is independent. Proposition. Suppose V is a vector space and S V. Then span S = {U : U is a linear subspace of V and S U}. Proof. If U is a linear subspace of V and S U then span S U. On the other hand, span S is a linear subspace of V and S span S. 3

4 Suppose V is a vector space and U is a family of linear subspaces of V. Let U = span U. Proposition. Suppose V is a vector space and S V. Then S is dependent if and only if there is s 0 S such that s 0 span (S {s 0 }). Proof. Suppose S is dependent. Then S and there is f (R S ) 0 such that f in nonzero and s S f(s)s = 0. For any s 0 spt f we have so that f(s 0 )s 0 + s 0 = 1 f(s 0 ) s S {s 0 } s S {s 0 } f(s)s = 0 f(s) span S {s 0 }. On the other hand, if s 0 S and s 0 span (S {s 0 }) then s 0 = s S {s 0} g(s)s for some g (R S {s0} ) 0. Let f (R S ) 0 be such that f(s) = { 1 if s = s0, g(s) if s S {s 0 }. Then f is nonzero and s S f(s)s = 0 so f ker s. Thus S is dependent. Proposition. Suppose V is a vector space S is an independent subset of V and v V span S. Then S {v} is independent. Proof. Were S {v} dependent there would be c R and f (R S ) 0 such that not both c and f are zero and cv + f(s)s = 0. s S But c 0 since S is independent. Thus which is a contradiction. v = 1 f(s)s span S c s S Corollary. Suppose V is a vector space. Any maximal independent subset of V is a basis for V. Proof. This is immediate. Suppose V is a vector space. Then V has a basis. Proof. Suppose S is a nested family of independent subsets of V. Then S is independent. Thus, by the Hausdorff Maximal Principle, there is a maximal independent subset of V. Remark. Suppose V = span S where S is a finite subset of V. Then S has a maximal independent subset which, by the previous Proposition is a basis for V. Thus, in this case, we can avoid using the Hausdorff Maximal Principle to show that V has a basis. Corollary. Suppose V is a vector space and S is an independent subset of V then S is a subset of a basis for V. Proof. Argue as in the proof of the preceding Corollary that there is a maximal independent subset of V which contains S. Suppose V is a nontrivial vector space and S is a basis for V. We define : S V 4

5 at s S by requiring that s (s(f)) = f(s), f (R S ) 0. One easily verifies that that for any v span S the set {s S : s (v) 0} is finite and that (2) v = s (v)s, v V ; s S simply represent v by s(f) for some f (R S ) 0. If the set S is indexed by the set A we will frequently write s a for s a whenever a A. Suppose V is a vector space and T is a finite independent subset of V. If S span T and card S > card T then S is dependent. Proof. We induct on card T. The Theorem holds trivially in case card T = 0. Suppose card T > 0 and choose t B. Then (3) v = t (v) t + t T { t} t (v)t, v span T. In case t (s) = 0 for all s S we infer from (3) that S span (T { t}) which implies by the inductive hypothesis that S is dependent. So suppose s S and t ( s) 0. Define F : S { s} V by letting F (s) = s t (s) t ( s) s, s S { s}; we infer from (3) and the linearity of t that (4) S span (T { t}). where we have set S = rng F. Suppose F is not univalent. Choose s i S, i = 1, 2, such that s 1 s 2 and F (s 1 ) = F (s 2 ). Then which implies S is dependent. Suppose F is univalent. Then s 1 s 2 t (s 1 s 2 ) s = 0 t ( s) card S = card S 1 > card T 1 = card (T { t}). By (4) and the inductive hypothesis we infer that S is dependent. Thus there is f (R S { s} ) such that f is nonzero and f(s )F (s) = 0. But this implies that so S is dependent. s S { s} s S { s} t ( s S { s} f(s)s f(s)s) s = 0 t ( s) Suppose V is a vector space. Then any two bases have the same cardinality. 5

6 Remark. An infinite basis is not a very useful thing. At least that s my opinion. Proof. This is a direct consequence of the previous Theorem if V has a finite basis. More generally, Suppose A and B are bases for V and B is infinite. Let F be the set of finite subsets of B. Define f : A F by letting By the preceding Theorem we find that f(a) = {b B : b (a) 0}, a A. card {a A : f(a) = F } card F. That card A card B now follows from the theory of cardinal arithmetic. Suppose V is a vector space. We let dim V be the cardinality of a basis for V. We say V is finite dimensional if dim V is finite. Remark. If S is a finite subset of V and span S = V then V is finite dimensional. Corollary. Suppose V is a finite dimensional vector space and S is an independent subset of V. Then card S dim V with equality only if S is a basis for V. Proof. The inequality follows directly from the preceding Suppose card S dim V. Were there v V span S then S {v} would be an independent subset of V with cardinality exceeding dim V. Corollary. Suppose V is finite dimensional and U is a linear subspace of V. Then U is finite dimensional. Proof. Let S be a maximal independent subset of U; such an S exists because any independent subset of V has at most dim V elements. Were there v U span S then S {v} would be an independent subset of U with cardinality exceeding that of S. Corollary. Suppose V and W are vector spaces and L L(V ; W ). Then there are ω V and w W {0} such that L = ωw if and only if dim rng L = 1. Proof. If there are ω V and w W {0} such that L = ωw then {w} is a basis for rng L. Suppose dim rng L = 1. Let w W be such that {w} is a basis for rng L. Then, as L(v) = w (L(v))w for v V we can take ω = w L. Suppose V and W are vector spaces, L : V W is linear and V is finite dimensional. Then rng L is finite dimensional and dim V = dim ker L + dim rng L. Proof. Let A be a basis for ker L. Let B be a maximal independent subset of V containing A and note that B is a basis for V. Note that L (B A) is univalent and that C = {L(v) : v B A} is a basis for rng L. The assertion to be proved follows from that fact that card B = card A + card C. Suppose V is a finite dimensional vector space and B is a basis for V. Then B = {b : b B} is a basis for V which we call the dual basis (to B); the independence of this set is clear and the fact that it spans V follows from the fact that ω = b B ω(b)b, ω V, 6

7 which follows immediately from (2). In particular, dim V = dim V. Remark. The notation is quite effective but must be used with care because of the following ambiguity. Suppose V is a finite dimensional vector space and B i, i = 1, 2 are two different bases for V. Show that if b B 1 B 2 then the v s corresponding to B 1 and B 2 are different if span B 1 {b} = span B 2 {b}. Remark. Suppose S is a nonempty set. We have linear maps R S g ((R S ) 0 f s S f(s)g(s)) (R S ) 0 and (R S ) 0 ω (S s ω(δs )) R S. These maps are easily seen to be linear and inverse to each other. Thus (R S ) 0 is isomorphic to R S. Now suppose S is a basis for the vector space V. Since s carries (R S ) 0 isomorphically onto V we find that V (R S ) 0 R S. Chasing through the above isomorphisms one finds that {b : b B} is independent but, in case S is infinite, does not span V. In fact, V is not of much use when V is not finite dimensional. be the map Let ι : V V V v (V ω ω(v)) V. Evidently, this map is linear and univalent. Now suppose V is finite dimensional. Let B be a basis for V. One easily verifies that ι(b) = b, b B. Thus, since ι carries the basis B to the basis B it must be an isomorphism. It is called the canonical isomorphism from V onto V. Suppose U is a linear subspace of the vector space V. We let and note that U is a linear subspace of V. U = {ω V : ω U = 0} Suppose U is a linear subspace of the finite dimensional vector space V. Then dim U = dim V dim U. Proof. Let B be a basis for U and let C be a basis for V such that B C. Evidently, {b : b C B} U. Moreover, for any ω U we have ω = b c ω(b)b = b C B ω(b)b. Suppose V and W are vector spaces and L : V W is linear. We define L L(W ; V ) 7

8 by letting L (ω) = ω L, ω W. One easily verifies that carries L(V ; W ) linearly into L(W ; V ) and that, under appropriate hypotheses, (i) L = L and (ii) (L M) = M L. The map is called the adjoint. Note that this term is used in the context of inner product spaces in a similar but different way and that it occurs in the theory of determinants in a totally different way. Suppose V and W are finite dimensional vector spaces and L : V W is linear. Then (rng L) = ker L and (ker L) = rng L. Remark. It is evident that the right hand side in each case is contained in the left hand side. Proof. Let C be a basis for rng L and let D be a basis for W containing C. Let A be a subset of V such that {L(v) : v A} = C and note that A is independent. Let B be the union of A with a basis for ker L and note that B is a basis for V. Note that {d : d D C} is a basis for (rng L) and that {b : b A} is a basis for (ker L). For any d D we have L (d ) = b B L (d )(b)b = d (L(b))b b B = d (L(b))b = b B A { b if d = L(b) for some b A, 0 else. Thus {b : b A} is a basis for rng L and {d ; d D C} is a basis for ker L. Suppose V is a finite dimensional vector space. There is one and only one trace L(V ; V ) such that (5) trace (ω(v)) = ω(v), ω V, v V. Moreover, if B is a basis for V then (6) trace L = b (L(b)). b B Proof. Let B be a basis for V. Then the formula in (6) defines a member of L(V ; V ) which satisfies (5). Suppose U and W are subspaces of V. Then dim U + W + dim U W = dim U + dim W. Proof. Let A be a basis for U W. Extend A to a basis B for U and a basis C for W. Verify that A B C is a basis for U + W. 8

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