General Chemistry 1. Proficiencies: 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,1.5,2.2,7.1, 7.2,7.4,7.5,9.2 Competencies: 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4, 1.5,2.1, 2.3,3.2,

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1 General Chemistry 1 This is a laboratory class which meets the requirements for 1 year of Chemistry of Physics for Core 40 and for Academic Honors Diploma. It covers the basic ideas of chemistry including reactions, metric system, bonding, stoichiometry, gases, and solutions. Currently, the book being used is Modern Chemistry, published by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Unit 1: Introduction to Chemistry and Laboratory Work - define Chemistry and its branches - list some careers in which chemistry is necessary - demonstrate the differences between physical and chemical properties - distinguish between solids, liquids, and gases - distinguish a pure substance from a mixture - learn the symbols for the common elements - distinguish between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids - describe and apply the scientific method - name the seven basic SI units - use SI units to measure size, temperature, volume and density - calculate English measurement units into metric units using conversion factors - distinguish between precision and accuracy - use significant figures in calculations - learn the names and uses of the laboratory equipment - learn the safety rules of the lab Labs: Making a Density Column Precision and Accuracy Chemical and Physical Changes Identify the unknown white substance Chapters in Book: 1 and 2 Proficiencies: 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,1.5,2.2,7.1, 7.2,7.4,7.5,9.2 Competencies: 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4, 1.5,2.1, 2.3,3.2, Unit 2: Atomic Structure - summarize the five parts of Dalton's Theory - explain the law of conservation of mass, the law of definite proportions, and the law of multiple proportions in the context of Dalton's Theory - define the atom - list the parts of the atom and describe each - define an isotope, atomic mass, and mass number

2 - determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons given the identity of an isotope - define a mole and molar mass - calculate number of moles using Avagadro's number and molar mass - describe wave theory of light - describe the Bohr model of the atom - describe the quantum model of the atom - compare and contrast Bohr model and quantum model of the atom - determine the electron configuration of any given element using the Aufbau principle, Hund's rule, and Pauli exclusion principle - explain Mendeleev's and Moseley's role in development of the periodic table - use periodic law to determine properties of elements - describe the relationship between the periodic table and electron configurations - define valence electrons - describe trends of properties of atomic radius, ionic radius, electron affinity, ionization energy and electronegativity which occur in the periodic table - compare and contrast periodic properties - define chemical bonding and use electronegativity to determine types of bonds - demonstrate the different types of bonds using Lewis Dot Structures - demonstrate 3D shapes of molecules using VSEPR theory, Molecular Orbital Theory and hybridization. - Associate the shape of a molecule determines its properties such as polarity, solubility, and reactivity Labs: Rutherford experiment simulation Making molecular models Chapters: 3,4,5,6 Proficiencies: 2.3, 3.1, 3.4, 3.7, 6.6, 9.4 Competencies: 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.3 Unit 3: Compounds and Reactions - write oxidation numbers for elements alone and in compounds - write chemical formulas using oxidation numbers - name compounds correctly - write and balance chemical equations - identify chemical equations by type Labs: Types of Reactions Chapters: Sections 1 and 2 of chapter 7, 8

3 Proficiencies: 1.3, 1.2, 3.4, 3.5, 4.5, 6.3, 7.2, 8.6, 8.10, 9.3 Competencies: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4 Unit 4: Redox reactions and electrochemistry - determine the oxidation numbers of all elements in a reaction - balance equations using half-reactions - find the oxidizing agent and reducing agent in a reaction - compare and contrast electrochemical and electrolytic cells Labs: Oxidation and Reduction Making a Voltaic Cell Chapter: 19 Proficiencies: 1.3, 3.5, 6.3 Competencies: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 Unit 5: Determining Chemical Formulas and Stoichiometry - calculate the formula mass and molar mass of a compound - use molar mass to convert between grams and moles - calculate the number of molecules, formula units, or ions in a given amount of a compound - calculate percent composition of a compound - determine an empirical formula from the percent composition or a mass composition - determine a molecular formula from an empirical formula - write mole/mole ratios as conversion factors - calculate the amount of a substance which can be produced from the balanced chemical equation when given initial amount of a substance - find a limiting reactant - calculate percent yield Labs: Determining Empirical Formulas Finding the Stoichiometric Ratio Chapters: 7 section 3, Chapter 9 Proficiencies: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 7.1, 7.2, 7.4, 7.5 Competencies: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 3.2, 3.4

4 Unit 6: Gases - state kinetic molecular theory - compare and contrast a real gas and an ideal gas - describe the properties of gases - define pressure and its units - state the conditions for standard temperature and pressure - calculate pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles using the gas laws - determine the relative rates of effusion using Graham's law and state how this relates to kinetic energy. Chapters: 10, 11 Proficiencies: 1.2, 2.3, 7.1, 7.2, 7.5 Competencies: 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 Unit 7: Liquids, Solids, and Solutions - use kinetic molecular theory to explain change of state - describes the properties of solids and liquids - use equilibrium in change of state - describe the change of state of water - distinguish types of mixtures - describe the factors that affect solubility - express concentration in different ways such as molarity, molality and normality - write equations for the dissociation of ionic compounds in water - identify strong and weak electrolytes - write the net ionic equation for a double replacement reaction - calculate the boiling point elevation and freezing point depression of a solution - describe osmosis and find osmotic pressure Labs: Making Ice Cream Phase Changes Chapters: 12, 13, 14 Proficiencies: 1.2, 1.3,7.1, 7.2, Competencies: , 2.1, , 3.2, 3.3, Unit 8: Acids and Bases - compare and contrast Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowery, and Lewis acids and bases - identify conjugate acids and bases

5 - write neutralization reactions - write the equation for the ionization of water - calculate the ph of a solution - identify weak acids and bases - perform a titration Labs: Determination of ph Titration Proficiencies: 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.4, Competencies: , Unit 9: Themodynamics - define heat, temperature, heat of reaction, combustion, and enthalpy - predict whether a reaction will occur using enthalpy, entropy, and free energy - use the collision theory to describe reaction mechanisms - list factors that determine chemical rate Labs: Determining the Energy of a Walnut Chapter: 17 Proficiencies: 1.3, 1.4, 3.5, 6.3, 7.1, 7.2, 9.1 Competencies: , 2.2, Unit 10: Kinetic and Equilibrium The student will: - write rate laws given experimental data - write an equilibrium equation based on forward and backward reactions - define equilibrium in the kinetic context - calculate the equilibrium constant - use LeChatlier's principle to determine direction of reaction - write equations for acid-base equilibrium and calculate Ka and Kb - write equations for solubility equilibria and calculate Ksp Labs: Iodine Clock Chapter 18 Proficiencies: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2, 9.3 Competencies: , 2.2, 2.3, Unit 11: Nuclear Chemistry - define the types of radioactive decay - define the forces that effect nuclear stability

6 Chapter 22 - calculate the half-life of a given isotope - list uses of radioactivity - compare and contrast fission and fusion Proficiencies: 1.5,2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 6.3, 6.6, 7.1, 7.2, 8.3, 8.7, 8.10 Competencies: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, Unit 12: Organic Chemistry - identify the allotropes of carbon and how differences affect properties - draw structural formulas - identify structural and geometric isomers - name carbon compounds with and without functional groups - describe uses of carbon compounds - describe the four major types of organic reactions - define different types of polymers Labs: Making Slime Chapters: 20 and 21 Proficiencies: 1.3, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6 Competencies: , 2.2, 2.3,

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