Earth s Moon and Solar System Test Prep

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1 Earth s Moon and Solar System Test Prep 1.An observer on Earth determines that the apparent diameter of the Moon as viewed from Earth varies in a cyclic manner. The best explanation for this observation is that the 1 Moon is rotating 2 Moon s orbit is elliptical 3 atmospheric transparency of the Moon changes 4 distance 2.If the distance between the Moon and Earth were double its present distance, the Moon s cycle of phases would occur 1 in reverse order and more slowly 2 in reverse order and more quickly 3 in the same order but more slowly 4 in the same order but more quickly Base your answers to the following 5 questions on the diagram below, which represents the Moon orbiting Earth as viewed from space above the North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight different positions in its orbit. 3.The approximate time required for the Moon to move from position 3 to position 7 is (1) 1 hour (2) 2 weeks (3) 3 months (4) 4 days

2 4.As the Moon changes location from position 2 to position 6, the visible portion of the Moon as observed from Earth 1 decreases, only 2 increases, only 3 decreases, then increases 4 increases, then decreases 5.Which motion causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? 1 rotation of Earth 2 rotation of the Sun 3 revolution of Earth 4 revolution of the Moon 6.Which device when placed on the Moon would provide evidence of Moon rotation? 1 Foucault pendulum 2 seismograph 3 thermometer 4 wind vane 7.When the Moon is in position 2, which phase would be visible to an observer in New York State?

3 Base your answers to the following 2 questions using the Earth Science Reference Tables, the map below, and your knowledge of Earth science. Letters A through F are locations on Earth s surface. 8.An observer at location C sees a full Moon at its highest point in the sky. When the observation is being made at location C, at which other location would it be impossible for a second observer also to see the full Moon? (1) A (2) B (3) F (4) D 9.When solar time at location E is 12 noon, solar time at location A is closest to (1) 6 a.m. (2) 8 a.m. (3) 12 noon (4) 4 p.m. 10.Which planet is approximately 20 times farther from the Sun than Earth is? 1 Jupiter 2 Saturn 3 Uranus 4 Neptune

4 11.Which event takes the most time? (1) one revolution of Earth around the Sun (2) one revolution of Venus around the Sun (3) one rotation of the Moon on its axis (4) one rotation of Venus on its axis 12.Compared to the Jovian planets in our solar system, Earth is (1) less dense and closer to the Sun (2) less dense and farther from the Sun (3) more dense and closer to the Sun (4) more dense and farther from the Sun The diagram below shows a satellite in four different positions as it revolves around a planet. 13.Which graph best represents the changes in this satellite s orbital velocity as it revolves around the planet?

5 14.Compared to the surface temperature and luminosity of massive stars in the Main Sequence, the smaller stars in the Main Sequence are (1) hotter and less luminous (2) hotter and more luminous (3) cooler and less luminous (4) cooler and more luminous Base your answers to the following 3 questions on the diagram below, which shows the Moon s orbit around Earth. Four positions of the Moon are represented by letters A, B, C, and D. Earth s North Pole is labeled. The shaded areas on Earth and the Moon represent night. 15.What motion of the Moon results in the Moon phases as viewed from Earth?

6 16.A total solar eclipse sometimes occurs when the Moon is at position A. Explain why a total solar eclipse does not occur every time the Moon is at position A. 17State one season that begins when the line separating day and night passes through Earth s North Pole, as shown in this diagram. 18.Which object in our solar system has the greatest density? (1) Jupiter (2) Earth (3) the Moon (4) the Sun 19.Which sequence of Moon phases could be observed from Earth during a 2-week period? 20.What is the main reason that the gravitational attraction between Earth and the Moon changes each day? (1) Earth s axis is tilted at (2) Earth s rotational speed varies with the seasons.

7 (3) The Moon has an elliptical orbit. (4) The Moon has a spherical shape. The diagram below shows the equipment used to demonstrate a Foucault pendulum. 21.In the demonstration, a student swings the weight hanging in the pail and then spins the stool. The stool represents (1) the revolving Earth (2) the rotating Earth (3) the Coriolis effect (4) convection currents 22.Which list shows stars in order of increasing temperature? (1) Barnard s Star, Polaris, Sirius, Rigel (2) Aldebaran, the Sun, Rigel, Procyon B (3) Rigel, Polaris, Aldebaran, Barnard s Star (4) Procyon B, Alpha Centauri, Polaris, Betelgeuse 23.Most scientists believe the Milky Way Galaxy is (1) spherical in shape (2) 4.6 billion years old (3) composed of stars revolving around Earth (4) one of billions of galaxies in the universe Base your answers to the following 4 questions on the graph below, which shows two conditions responsible for the formation and composition of some planets in our solar system. The distances of Earth and Neptune from the Sun, in astronomical units (AU), are shown beneath the horizontal axis. (1 AU = million kilometers). The plotted line on this graph shows the relationship between a planet s distance from the Sun and the inferred temperature at its formation. The regions within the graph indicate the composition of planets formed within these zones.

8 24.According to the graph, Neptune was mainly composed of which material at the time of its formation? 25.Saturn is located 9.5 AU from the Sun. State the approximate temperature at which Saturn formed. 26.State the relationship between a planet s distance from the Sun and the temperature at which that planet formed. The diagrams below represent photographs of Venus at four different positions in its orbit, as taken from Earth. 27.What is Jupiter s distance from the Sun, in astronomical units? Express your answer to the nearest tenth.

9 28.At which position is Venus closest to Earth? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 29.The force of gravity between two objects is greatest when 1 masses are small and the objects are close together 2 masses are small and the objects are far apart 3 masses are large and the objects are close together 4 masses are large and the objects are far apart The diagram below represents a Foucault pendulum swinging freely for 8 hours. 30.The pendulum appears to change its direction of swing because of Earth s 1 tectonic plate movement

10 2 force of gravity 3 rotation 4 revolution 31.Which planet s orbit is most nearly circular? 1 Earth 2 Venus 3 Neptune 4 Pluto 32.Which list of three planets and Earth s Moon is arranged in order of increasing equatorial diameter? (1) Earth s Moon, Pluto, Mars, Mercury (2) Pluto, Earth s Moon, Mercury, Mars (3) Mercury, Mars, Earth s Moon, Pluto (4) Mars, Mercury, Pluto, Earth s Moon The diagram below represents a Foucault pendulum swinging freely for 8 hours. 33.The Foucault pendulum appears to gradually change its direction of swing due to Earth s (1) orbit around the Sun (2) curved surface (3) tilted axis (4) spin on its axis The diagram below represents the Moon in its orbit, as viewed from above Earth s North Pole. Position 1 represents a specific location of the Moon in its orbit.

11 34.Which phase of the Moon will be seen from Earth when the Moon is at position 1? 35.Which object is closest to Earth? (1) the Sun (2) Venus (3) the Moon (4) Mars The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth, as viewed from space above Earth s North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight positions in its orbit.

12 36.Spring ocean tides occur when the difference in height between high tide and low tide is greatest. At which two positions of the Moon will spring tides occur on Earth? (1) 1 and 5 (2) 2 and 6 (3) 3 and 7 (4) 4 and 8 37.Which sequence correctly lists the relative sizes from smallest to largest? (1) our solar system, universe, Milky Way Galaxy (2) our solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe (3) Milky Way Galaxy, our solar system, universe (4) Milky Way Galaxy, universe, our solar system The diagram below represents a swinging Foucault pendulum. 38.This pendulum will show an apparent change in the direction of its swing due to Earth s

13 (1) curved surface (2) tilted axis (3) rotation (4) revolution The diagram below shows Earth s orbit around the Sun and different positions of the Moon as it travels around Earth. Letters A through D represent four different positions of the Moon. 39.An eclipse of the Moon is most likely to occur when the Moon is at position (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D

14 Base your answers to the following 3 questions on the diagram below, which has lettered arrows showing the motions of Earth and the Moon. 40.These lettered arrows represent motions that are (1) noncyclic and unpredictable (2) noncyclic and predictable (3) cyclic and unpredictable (4) cyclic and predictable 41.Which two motions are completed in about the same amount of time? (1) A and B (2) B and C (3) C and D (4) A and D 42.Which lettered arrow represents the motion that causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? (1) A (2) B

15 (3) C (4) D Base your answers to the following 5 questions on the two diagrams below. Diagram I shows the orbits of the four inner planets. Black dots in diagram I show the positions in the orbits where each planet is closest to the Sun. Diagram II shows the orbits of the six planets that are farthest from the Sun. The distance scale in diagram II is different than the distance scale in diagram I. 43.On diagram I below, place the letter W on Mars orbit to represent the position of Mars where the Sun s gravitational force on Mars would be weakest.

16 44.On diagram II below, circle the names of the two largest Jovian planets. 45.How long does it take the planet Uranus to complete one orbit around the Sun? Units must be included in your answer. 46.Describe how the orbits of each of the nine planets are similar in shape. 47.Pluto s orbital speed is usually slower than Neptune s orbital speed. Based on diagram II, explain why Pluto s orbital speed is sometimes faster than Neptune s orbital speed.

17 48.Which diagram best represents a portion of the heliocentric model of the solar system? [S = Sun, E = Earth, and M = Moon] The diagram below represents a planet revolving in an elliptical orbit around a star. 49.As the planet makes one complete revolution around the star, starting at the position shown, the gravitational attraction between the star and the planet will 1 decrease, then increase 2 increase, then decrease 3 continually decrease 4 remain the same

18 Locations A and B are 600 kilometers apart on the equator of a planet s spherical moon. When the Sun is directly over point B, a shadow is cast by a pole at point A as shown below. 50.According to Eratosthenes method, the circumference of the moon would be calculated as (1) 2,400 km (2) 3,300 km (3) 5,400 km (4) 10,800 km 51.Which model of a planet s orbit best represents the actual eccentricity of the orbit of Mars? [Models are drawn to scale.]

19 52.Which member of the solar system has an equatorial diameter of 3.48 x 10 3 kilometers? 1 Moon 2 Earth 3 Sun 4 Pluto 53.As measured by an observer on Earth over the course of a year, the apparent diameter of the Moon will 1 decrease, only 2 increase, only 3 remain the same 4 vary in a cyclic manner 54.An object s weight at sea level at 90 North latitude is slightly more than the weight of the same object at sea level at 0 latitude. Which statement about Earth can best be inferred from this evidence? 1 Earth s orbit is slightly elliptical. 2 Earth s axis is tilted 23½ to the plane of its orbit. 3 Earth s shape is slightly bulged at the Equator. 4 Earth rotates counterclockwise as viewed from above the Equator. The diagram below represents Earth.

20 55.Which diagram best represents Mars, drawn to the same scale? Base your answers to the following five questions on the Earth Science Reference Tables, the diagram below, and your knowledge of Earth Science. The diagram represents the orbits of four planets and Halley s Comet. The period of revolution is shown for the comet. The orbit positions of Halley s Comet are shown for the years 1910, 1948, and 1986.

21 56.The solar system model shown in the diagram is best classified as 1 geocentric 2 heliocentric 3 topographic 4 lunar 57.At which of these points in its orbit does Halley s Comet have the greatest orbital velocity? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 58.The period of time each of these planets takes to orbit the Sun depends on its average 1 distance from the Sun 2 equatorial diameter 3 density 4 rate of rotation 59.Halley s Comet should be nearest the Sun again during the year (1) 2024 (2) 2040 (3) 2062 (4) Which graph best represents the gravitational attraction between the Sun and Halley s Comet from 1910 to 1986?

22 The diagram below represents the construction of a model of an elliptical orbit of a planet traveling around a star. The focal point and the center of the star represent the foci of the orbit. 61.The eccentricity of this orbit is approximately (1) 1.3 (2) 0.8 (3) 0.5 (4) Which description of change is most closely associated with ocean tides and moon phases?

23 1 cyclic and predictable 2 cyclic and unpredictable 3 noncyclic and predictable 4 noncyclic and unpredictable 63.Which graph best represents the relationship between the gravitational attraction of two objects and their distance from each other? 64.To an observer on Earth, how many degrees does the Sun appear to move across the sky in 4 hours? (1) 96 (2) 60 (3) 48 (4) 4 65.Which statement best explains why the angle of insolation received at any Earth location changes in a cyclic pattern throughout the year? 1 The Sun s orbit around Earth is an ellipse. 2 Earth s orbit around the Sun is an ellipse. 3 The Sun rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around Earth. 4 Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.

24 Base your answers to the following five questions on the Earth Science Reference Tables, the diagram below, and your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram shows a portion of the solar system. 66.Which scale diagram best compares the size of Earth with the size of Venus? 67.Which of the following planets has the lowest average density? 1 Mercury 2 Venus 3 Earth 4 Mars 68.The actual orbits of the planets are 1 elliptical, with Earth at one of the foci 2 elliptical, with the Sun at one of the foci 3 circular, with Earth at the center 4 circular, with the Sun at the center 69.Mercury and Venus are the only planets that show phases when viewed from Earth because both Mercury and Venus 1 revolve around the Sun inside Earth s orbit 2 rotate more slowly than Earth does 3 are eclipsed by Earth s shadow 4 pass behind the Sun in their orbit

25 70.Which graph best represents the relationship between a planet s average distance from the Sun and the time the planet takes to revolve around the Sun? 71.Compared to Earth s solar system, the universe is inferred to be (1) younger and larger (2) younger and smaller (3) older and larger (4) older and smaller 72.Terrestrial planets move more rapidly in their orbits than the Jovian planets because terrestrial planets are (1) rotating on a tilted axis (2) more dense (3) more massive (4) closer to the Sun 73.Which event is a direct result of Earth s revolution? (1) the apparent deflection of winds (2) the changing of the Moon phases (3) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky (4) the daily rising and setting of the Sun 74.The cyclic rise and fall of ocean tides on Earth is primarily caused by Earth s rotation and the (1) temperature differences in ocean currents (2) revolution of Earth around the Sun (3) direction of Earth s planetary winds (4) gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun 75.The apparent change in direction of a swinging Foucault pendulum is the result of the (1) rotation of Earth (2) revolution of Earth (3) tilt of Earth s axis (4) shape of Earth s orbit

26 76.The diagram below shows the average distance between the Sun and Earth drawn to a scale of 1 centimeter = 100,000,000 kilometers. Using this same scale, place a small dot representing Jupiter along the line to indicate how far Jupiter would be from the Sun, and label the dot Jupiter. 77.The same side of the Moon always faces Earth because the (1) Moon s period of rotation is longer than its period of revolution around Earth (2) Moon s period of rotation is shorter than its period of revolution around Earth (3) Moon rotates once as it completes one revolution around Earth (4) Moon does not rotate as it completes one revolution around Earth 78.The diagrams below represent Earth s ocean tides at four different positions of the Moon. Which diagram shows the Moon position that will produce the highest high tides and the lowest low tides? (The diagrams are not drawn to scale.)

27 Base your answers to the following two questions on the diagram below, which shows the Moon, Earth, and the Sun s rays as viewed from space. Letter A indicates a certain position of the Moon in its orbit. 79.Which diagram correctly shows the direction of Earth s rotation and revolution? 80.Which diagram represents the phase of the Moon, as seen by an observer on Earth, when the Moon is located at position A in its orbit?

28 Base your answers to the following three questions on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science. A Newly Discovered Planet Scientists studying a Sun-like star named Ogle-Tr-3 discovered a planet that is, on the average, 3.5 million kilometers away from the star s surface. The planet was discovered as a result of observing a cyclic decrease in the brightness of Ogle-Tr-3 every 28.5 hours. The changing brightness is the result of the planet blocking some of the starlight when it is between Ogle-Tr-3 and Earth. This observation allowed scientists to find not only the planet, but also to determine the planet s mass and density. The mass has been calculated to be approximately 159 times the mass of Earth. The planet is only 20% as dense as Jupiter. Scientists think that this low density is the result of being very close to Ogle-Tr Compared to the period of revolution of Mercury and Venus, this newly discovered planet s period of revolution is (1) shorter than both Mercury s and Venus (2) longer than both Mercury s and Venus (3) shorter than Mercury s but longer than Venus (4) longer than Mercury s but shorter than Venus 82.The density of the discovered planet has been estimated to be approximately (1) 5.5 g/cm 3 (2) 2.0 g/cm 3 (3) 1.3 g/cm 3 (4) 0.3 g/cm 3 83.The planet was discovered when it passed between Earth and the star Ogle-Tr-3. Which event in our solar system results from a similar type of alignment of the Moon between Earth and the Sun? (1) summer solstice (2) winter solstice (3) solar eclipse (4) lunar eclipse The diagram below represents the Sun s rays striking Earth and the Moon. Numbers 1 through 4 represent positions of the Moon in its orbit around Earth.

29 84.The highest tides on Earth occur when the Moon is in positions (1) 1 and 3 (2) 2 and 4 (3) 3 and 2 (4) 4 and 1 Base your answers to the following three questions on the diagram below, which shows the inferred internal structure of the four terrestrial planets, drawn to scale. 85.How are the crusts of Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Earth similar in composition?

30 86.Identify the two planets that would allow an S-wave from a crustal quake to be transmitted through the core to the opposite side of the planet. 87.Explain why the densities of these terrestrial planets are greater than the densities of the Jovian planets. 88.Which planet of our solar system has the most eccentric orbit? 1 Venus 2 Earth 3 Saturn 4 Pluto 89.Which diagram shows a planet with the least eccentric orbit?

31 Base your answers to the following five questions on the Earth Science Reference Tables, the diagram below, and your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents a model of the Earth-Moon system as viewed from above the North Pole. The numbers 1 through 8 represent positions on the Moon as it revolves around Earth. The parts of the diagram lettered A through D show how the Moon s phases appear to an observer in New York State.

32 90.The time required for the Moon to complete one cycle of phases is about one 1 day 2 week 3 month 4 year 91.As the Moon s phase changes from first quarter to last quarter, the visible portion of the Moon as observed from Earth will 1 decrease, only 2 increase, only 3 decrease, then increase 4 increase, then decrease 92.Which motion causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? 1 rotation of Earth 2 revolution of Earth 3 rotation of the Moon 4 revolution of the Moon 93.Which Moon phase appears highest in the sky at midnight to an observer on Earth? 1 full moon 2 new moon 3 first quarter

33 4 last quarter An observer in New York State sees a crescent phase of the moon, as shown below. 94.At which position is the Moon when this crescent phase is observed? 1 position 6 2 position 2 3 position 8 4 position 4 Base your answers to the following five questions on the Earth Science Reference Tables, the data tables below, and your knowledge of Earth science. Table 1 shows average planetary distance from the Sun in

34 astronomical units (AU) and average orbital speed in kilometers per second (km/sec) for the nine planets in our solar system. Neptune s average orbital speed has been deliberately left blank. Table 2 lists the five largest asteroids and their average distance from the Sun in astronomical units. A blank graph is provided for student use. 95.If the planets were all on the same side of the Sun, which line best shows the correct spacing between the inner planets and their distances from the Sun at a scale of 1 centimeter = 0.1 AU? [The Sun and planets are represented by points of identical sizes, but distances between them are drawn to scale.] 96.Which graph correctly shows the relationship between a planet s average distance from the Sun and the planet s average orbital speed?

35 97.The average orbital speed of Neptune is approximately (1) 21.0 km/sec

36 (2) 7.2 km/sec (3) 5.2 km/sec (4) 4.0 km/sec 98.The asteroids shown in table 2 are located between the orbits of 1 Mercury and Venus 2 Earth and Mars 3 Mars and Jupiter 4 Neptune and Pluto 99..Based on its distance from the Sun, which asteroid probably has the greatest average orbital speed? 1 Vesta 2 Juno 3 Pallas 4 Hygiea Base your answers to the following five questions on the data table below, which shows the percentage of the lighted side of the Moon visible from Earth for the first fourteen days of July On what July date listed in the table did the Moon appear as shown below? 101.What motion of the Moon causes the percentage of the lighted side of the Moon visible from Earth to change from July 1 to July 14?

37 102.A full Moon phase was observed on July 14. On what day in August was the next full Moon phase observed? 103.The diagram below shows the orbit of the Moon around Earth. Place an X on the orbit to show where the Moon was in its orbit on July 14, Why are the phases of the Moon considered to be cyclic? 105.Which planet s orbit around the Sun is most nearly circular? (1) Mercury (2) Neptune (3) Pluto (4) Venus Base your answers to the following three questions on the reading passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The Blue Moon A Blue Moon is the name given to the second full moon in a calendar month. Because there are roughly 29.5 days between full moons, it is unusual for two full moons to fit into a 30 or 31 day month (and impossible to fit into a 28 or 29 day month, so February can never have a Blue Moon). The saying Once in a Blue Moon means a rare occurrence, and predates the current astronomical use of the term, which is quite recent. In fact, Blue Moons are not all that rare, on average there will be one Blue Moon every 2.5 years. After 1999, the next Blue Moons will be in November 2001; July 2004; and June The last one before 1999 was in July The term Blue Moon is believed to have originated in 1883 after the eruption of Krakatoa. The volcano put so much dust in the atmosphere that the Moon actually looked blue in color. This was so unusual that the term once in a Blue Moon was coined. The Blue Moon David R. Williams

38 nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/blue_moon.html 106.Explain why a Blue Moon never occurs during the month of February. 107.What is the greatest number of full-moon phases, visible from Earth, that are possible in a span of 1 year? 108.In the space provided below, draw the relative positions of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun, as viewed from space, so that a full-moon phase would be visible to an observer on Earth. Label Earth, the Moon, and the Sun in your drawing. 109.One complete cycle of the phases of the Moon takes approximately one (1) day (2) week (3) month (4) year The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth.

39 110.An observer on Earth could see a solar eclipse when the Moon is at position (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 11.Which planet would float if it could be placed in water? (1) Mercury (2) Earth (3) Saturn (4) Pluto The diagram below is a constructed ellipse. F1 and F2 are the foci of the ellipse. 112.The eccentricity of this constructed ellipse is closest to the eccentricity of the orbit of which planet? (1) Mercury (2) Earth (3) Saturn (4) Pluto

40 Base your answers to the following three questions on the graph below, which shows the water levels of ocean tides measured in Boston, Massachusetts, for a 2-day period.

41 113.The graph shows that high tides at Boston occur approximately every (1) 3.5 hours (2) 6.0 hours (3) 12.5 hours (4) 16.0 hours 114.If the trends shown by the graph continue, which statement best describes the next low tide at Boston that is expected to occur on Wednesday? (1) It will occur about 3 a.m. with a 0.4-meter water level. (2) It will occur about 6 a.m. with a 0.6-meter water level. (3) It will occur about 9 p.m. with a 2.6-meter water level. (4) It will occur about 10 p.m. with a 2.8-meter water level. 115.The gravitational pull of the Moon has the greatest influence on the water levels of Earth s ocean tides. If the distance between the Moon and Earth were to decrease steadily for the week following the time shown on the graph, which water-level changes would be expected to occur? (1) High tides would get higher and low tides would get lower. (2) High tides would get lower and low tides would get higher. (3) Both high tides and low tides would get higher. (4) Both high tides and low tides would get lower. 116.Earth s orbital velocity is slowest on July 5 because (1) the Moon is closest to Earth (2) Earth s distance from the Sun is greatest (3) Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are located along a straight line in space (4) the highest maximum temperatures occur in the Northern Hemisphere 117.Three planets that are relatively large, gaseous, and of low density are (1) Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn (2) Venus, Jupiter, and Neptune (3) Mars, Jupiter, and Uranus (4) Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus 118.Which diagram sequence correctly shows the order of Moon phases, as viewed from Earth, for a period of 1 month? [Note that some phases have been omitted.]

42 The diagram below shows the relative positions of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth when an eclipse was observed from Earth. Positions A and B are locations on Earth s surface. 119.Which statement correctly describes the type of eclipse that was occurring and the position on Earth where this eclipse was observed? (1) A lunar eclipse was observed from position A. (2) A lunar eclipse was observed from position B. (3) A solar eclipse was observed from position A. (4) A solar eclipse was observed from position B. Base your answers to the following two questions on the diagram below, which shows the orbit of planet D around the star Upsilon Andromedae. The dashed lines show where the paths of the first four planets of our solar system would be located if they were going around Upsilon Andromedae instead of the Sun. All distances are drawn to scale.

43 120.Describe the eccentricity of planet D s orbit relative to the eccentricities of the orbits of the planets shown in our solar system. 121.Describe the changes in gravitational force between planet D and the star Upsilon Andromedae during one complete orbit around the star. Be sure to describe where the force is greatest and where the force is least. The photographs below show the Moon and Earth as viewed from space. It is inferred that Earth had many impact craters similar to those shown on the Moon.

44 122.Describe one process that has destroyed many of the impact craters that once existed on Earth. 123.Name one region of the United States that is likely to experience a major damaging earthquake. Explain why an earthquake is likely to occur in that region. 124.A cycle of Moon phases can be seen from Earth because the (1) Moon s distance from Earth changes at a predictable rate (2) Moon s axis is tilted (3) Moon spins on its axis (4) Moon revolves around Earth 125.Which graph best represents the relative periods of rotation of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars?

45

46 126.The diagram provided below represents the Sun and Earth as viewed from space on a certain date. a Using a symbol for the Moon of approximately this size draw the position of the Moon on the diagram provided below at the time when the full-moon phase is observed from Earth. b Draw an arrow on the diagram provided below that shows the Earth motion that causes surface ocean currents and surface winds to curve (Coriolis effect). 127.Which statement correctly compares the size, composition, and density of Neptune to Earth? (1) Neptune is smaller, more gaseous, and less dense. (2) Neptune is larger, more gaseous, and less dense. (3) Neptune is smaller, more solid, and more dense. (4) Neptune is larger, more solid, and more dense. 128.State the general relationship between a planet s distance from the Sun and the time a planet takes to complete one orbit around the Sun.

47 Base your answers to the following three questions on the diagram provided below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram shows the Sun, Earth, and the Moon s orbit around Earth as viewed from space. 129.On the diagram provided above, draw a circle of approximately this size to represent the Moon s position in its orbit when a solar eclipse is viewed from Earth. 130.Approximately how many complete revolutions does the Moon make around Earth each month? 131.Explain why solar eclipses do not occur every time the Moon revolves around Earth. 132.The motion of a Foucault pendulum provides evidence of (1) the Sun s rotation (2) the Sun s revolution (3) Earth s rotation (4) Earth s revolution 133.The time required for the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases when viewed from Earth is approximately (1) 1 day

48 (2) 1 week (3) 1 month (4) 1 year 134.Which planet has an orbital eccentricity most like the orbital eccentricity of the Moon? (1) Pluto (2) Saturn (3) Mars (4) Mercury 135.Which sequence correctly shows the relative size of the nine planets of our solar system?

49 136.The diagram provided below shows the Sun, the Moon, and Earth in line with one another in space. On the diagram, draw two dots ( ) on the surface of Earth to indicate the locations where the highest ocean tides are most likely occurring.

50 137.Which planet is approximately thirty times farther from the Sun than Earth is? (1) Jupiter (2) Saturn (3) Uranus (4) Neptune 138.Which object is located at one foci of the elliptical orbit of Mars? (1) the Sun (2) Betelgeuse (3) Earth (4) Jupiter 139.Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered (geocentric) and Sun-centered (heliocentric) models of our solar system? (1) the Moon (2) Venus (3) the Sun (4) Polaris 140.Predictable changes in the direction of swing of a Foucault pendulum provide evidence that (1) Earth is tilted on its axis (2) Earth rotates on its axis (3) Earth s orbit is slightly elliptical (4) Earth s magnetic poles reverse over time The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth as viewed from space above the North Pole. The Moon

51 is shown at eight different positions in its orbit. 141.At which two positions of the Moon is an eclipse of the Sun or Moon possible? (1) 1 and 5 (2) 2 and 6 (3) 3 and 7 (4) 4 and Which planet takes more time to complete one rotation on its axis than to complete one revolution around the Sun? (1) Mercury (2) Venus (3) Mars (4) Jupiter Which observation provides the best evidence that Earth rotates? (1) The position of the planets among the stars changes during the year. (2) The location of the constellations in relationship to Polaris changes from month to month. (3) The length of the shadow cast by a flagpole at noontime changes from season to season. (4) The direction of swing of a freely swinging pendulum changes during the day. Which planet has an orbit with an eccentricity most similar to the eccentricity of the Moon s orbit around Earth? (1) Earth (2) Jupiter (3) Pluto (4) Saturn

52 Base your answers to the following four questions on the graph below, which shows the maximum altitude of the Moon, measured by an observer located at a latitude of 43 N during June in a particular year. The names and appearance of the four major Moon phases are shown at the top of the graph, directly above the date on which the phase occurred. What was the maximum altitude of the Moon on June 22? (1) 40 (2) 43 (3) 46 (4) 50

53 Which diagram best represents the Moon s phase observed on June 11? Which city is closest in latitude to the location where these observations were made? (1) Binghamton (2) New York City (3) Albany (4) Syracuse Which terms describe both the changes in the maximum altitude of the Moon and the changes in the Moon s phases over a period of several years? (1) cyclic and predictable (2) cyclic and unpredictable (3) noncyclic and predictable (4) noncyclic and unpredictable How do Jupiter s density and period of rotation compare to Earth s? (1) Jupiter is less dense and has a longer period of rotation. (2) Jupiter is less dense and has a shorter period of rotation. (3) Jupiter is more dense and has a longer period of rotation. (4) Jupiter is more dense and has a shorter period of rotation.

54 What is represented by the diagram below? (1) changing phases of the Sun (2) changing phases of the Moon (3) stages in an eclipse of the Sun (4) stages in an eclipse of the Moon Base your answers to the following three questions on the diagram provided below, which shows a model of the orbital path of Earth and the partial orbital path of Jupiter around the Sun. A partial orbit of another celestial object, labeled object A, is also shown. Celestial object A is a natural object that is part of our solar system. [All distances are measured to scale from the center of the Sun in this model.] a On the diagram provided below, place an X to represent the position of Mars at the properly scaled distance from the Sun in this model. b On the diagram provided below, starting at your plotted position of Mars, draw a scale model of Mars orbital path. Be careful to show the correct shape of the orbit.

55 Identify what type of solar-system object is most probably represented by celestial object A. State one reason why determining the exact orbital path and period of revolution of celestial object A might be important to the continued existence of life on Earth.

56 The diagram below shows the Moon in different positions as it revolves around Earth, as observed from above the North Pole (NP). Which image correctly represents the Moon at position 8, as observed from Earth? The Sun s position in space is best described as the approximate center of (1) a constellation (2) the universe (3) the Milky Way galaxy (4) our solar system Compared to Pluto, Mercury moves more rapidly in its orbit because Mercury (1) is larger (2) is more dense (3) is closer to the Sun (4) has a more elliptical orbit The diagram below represents two planets in our solar system drawn to scale, Jupiter and planet A.

57 Planet A most likely represents (1) Earth (2) Venus (3) Saturn (4) Uranus The passage of the Moon into Earth s shadow causes a (1) lunar eclipse (2) solar eclipse (3) new Moon (4) full Moon Base your answers to the following two questions on the data table below. The data table provides information about the Moon, based on current scientific theories. Which statement is supported by the information in the table? (1) The Moon was once a comet. (2) The Moon once had saltwater oceans. (3) Earth is 4.5 billion years older than the Moon. (4) Earth was liquid rock when the Moon was formed. Which Moon feature is an impact structure? (1) crater (2) maria plain

58 (3) terrae highland (4) mantle The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth as viewed from above the North Pole. Beginning with the Moon at position X (the new-moon phase), which sequence of Moon phases would be seen by an observer on Earth during 1 month?

59 The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? (1) Earth (2) Sun (3) Moon (4) Polaris Compared to the average density of the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars), the average density of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) is (1) less (2) greater (3) the same

60 Base your answers to the following three questions on the data table below, which shows one cycle of equinoxes and solstices for the northern hemispheres of several planets in the solar system and the tilt of each planet s axis. Data for the planets are based on Earth s time system. State the length, in years, of the spring season on Uranus. Describe the relationship between a planet s distance from the Sun and the length of a season on that planet. Identify two factors that cause seasons on Earth.

61 The diagram below shows the positions of the Moon and the Sun at sunset during an evening in New York State. Points A, B, C, and D represent positions along the western horizon. At sunset on the following evening, the Moon will be located at position (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D Base your answers to the following three questions on the information, data table, and diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Astronomers have discovered strong evidence for the existence of three large extrasolar (outside our solar system) planets that orbit Upsilon Andromedae, a star located 44 light years from Earth. The three planets are called planet B, planet C, and planet D. Some of the information gathered about these three new planets is shown in the table below. The period of revolution for planet C has been deliberately left blank.

62 The diagram below compares a part of our solar system to the Upsilon Andromedae planetary system. Planet distances from their respective star and the relative size of each planet are drawn to scale. [The scale for planet distances is not the same scale used for planet size.] Planet D s diameter is 10 times greater than Earth s diameter. What planet in our solar system has a diameter closest in size to the diameter of planet D? As planet B travels in its orbit, describe the change in orbital velocity of planet B as the distance between Upsilon Andromedae and planet B decreases. If our solar system had a planet located at the same distance from the Sun as planet C is from Upsilon Andromedae, what would be its approximate period of revolution?

63 Base your answers to the following two questions on the diagram of the ellipse below. Calculate the eccentricity of the ellipse to the nearest thousandth. State how the eccentricity of the given ellipse compares to the eccentricity of the orbit of Mars.

64 Earth s Moon and Solar System Test Prep Teacher Answer Key Guide 1.An observer on Earth determines that the apparent diameter of the Moon as viewed from Earth varies in a cyclic manner. The best explanation for this observation is that the 2 Moon s orbit is elliptical 2.If the distance between the Moon and Earth were double its present distance, the Moon s cycle of phases would occur 3 in the same order but more slowly 3.The approximate time required for the Moon to move from position 3 to position 7 is (2) 2 weeks 4.As the Moon changes location from position 2 to position 6, the visible portion of the Moon as observed from Earth 4 increases, then decreases 5.Which motion causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? 4 revolution of the Moon 6.Which device when placed on the Moon would provide evidence of Moon rotation? 1 Foucault pendulum 7.When the Moon is in position 2, which phase would be visible to an observer in New York State?

65 8.An observer at location C sees a full Moon at its highest point in the sky. When the observation is being made at location C, at which other location would it be impossible for a second observer also to see the full Moon? (4) D 9.When solar time at location E is 12 noon, solar time at location A is closest to (2) 8 a.m. 10.Which planet is approximately 20 times farther from the Sun than Earth is? 3 Uranus 11.Which event takes the most time? (1) one revolution of Earth around the Sun 12.Compared to the Jovian planets in our solar system, Earth is (3) more dense and closer to the Sun 13.The diagram below shows a satellite in four different positions as it revolves around a planet. Which graph best represents the changes in this satellite s orbital velocity as it revolves around the planet? 14.Compared to the surface temperature and luminosity of massive stars in the Main Sequence, the smaller stars in the Main Sequence are (3) cooler and less luminous 15.What motion of the Moon results in the Moon phases as viewed from Earth? Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: revolution The Moon orbits Earth. The Moon travels around Earth. 16.A total solar eclipse sometimes occurs when the Moon is at position A. Explain why a total solar eclipse does not occur every time the Moon is at position A. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: The Moon s shadow misses Earth. The Moon orbits in a different plane than Earth. The Moon s orbit is tilted. The Moon s shadow does not reach Earth.

66 17.State one season that begins when the line separating day and night passes through Earth s North Pole, as shown in this diagram. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: spring fall autumn 18.Which object in our solar system has the greatest density? (2) Earth 19.Which sequence of Moon phases could be observed from Earth during a 2-week period? 20.What is the main reason that the gravitational attraction between Earth and the Moon changes each day? (3) The Moon has an elliptical orbit. 21.The diagram below shows the equipment used to demonstrate a Foucault pendulum. In the demonstration, a student swings the weight hanging in the pail and then spins the stool. The stool represents (2) the rotating Earth 22.Which list shows stars in order of increasing temperature? (1) Barnard s Star, Polaris, Sirius, Rigel 23.Most scientists believe the Milky Way Galaxy is (4) one of billions of galaxies in the universe 24.According to the graph, Neptune was mainly composed of which material at the time of its formation? frozen gases 25.Saturn is located 9.5 AU from the Sun. State the approximate temperature at which Saturn formed. Any value from 150 K to 200 K 26.State the relationship between a planet s distance from the Sun and the temperature at which that planet formed. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: As distance from the Sun increases, temperature decreases. There is an inverse relationship between distance and temperature. 27.What is Jupiter s distance from the Sun, in astronomical units? Express your answer to the nearest tenth. 5.2 AU 28.The diagrams below represent photographs of Venus at four different positions in its orbit, as taken from Earth. At which position is Venus closest to Earth? (1) A

67 29.The force of gravity between two objects is greatest when 3 masses are large and the objects are close together 30.The diagram below represents a Foucault pendulum swinging freely for 8 hours. The pendulum appears to change its direction of swing because of Earth s 3 rotation 31.Which planet s orbit is most nearly circular? 2 Venus 32.Which list of three planets and Earth s Moon is arranged in order of increasing equatorial diameter? (2) Pluto, Earth s Moon, Mercury, Mars 33.The diagram below represents a Foucault pendulum swinging freely for 8 hours. The Foucault pendulum appears to gradually change its direction of swing due to Earth s (4) spin on its axis 34.The diagram below represents the Moon in its orbit, as viewed from above Earth s North Pole. Position 1 represents a specific location of the Moon in its orbit. Which phase of the Moon will be seen from Earth when the Moon is at position 1? 35.Which object is closest to Earth? (3) the Moon 36.The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth, as viewed from space above Earth s North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight positions in its orbit. Spring ocean tides occur when the difference in height between high tide and low tide is greatest. At which two positions of the Moon will spring tides occur on Earth? (1) 1 and 5 37.Which sequence correctly lists the relative sizes from smallest to largest? (2) our solar system, Milky Way Galaxy, universe 38.The diagram below represents a swinging Foucault pendulum. This pendulum will show an apparent change in the direction of its swing due to Earth s (3) rotation 39.The diagram below shows Earth s orbit around the Sun and different positions of the Moon as it travels around Earth. Letters A through D represent four different positions of the Moon. An eclipse of the Moon is most likely to occur when the Moon is at position (2) B 40.These lettered arrows represent motions that are

68 (4) cyclic and predictable 41.Which two motions are completed in about the same amount of time? (3) C and D 42.Which lettered arrow represents the motion that causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? (4) D 43.On diagram I below, place the letter W on Mars orbit to represent the position of Mars where the Sun s gravitational force on Mars would be weakest. The letter W should be placed within the area shown below indicated by the bracket. Also allow credit if a symbol other than W is used. Example response: 44.On diagram II below, circle the names of the two largest Jovian planets. Circle only Saturn and Jupiter. Both planets must be circled to receive credit.

69 Example response: 45.How long does it take the planet Uranus to complete one orbit around the Sun? Units must be included in your answer. 84 years or 84.0 years. Correct units must be included in the answer. 46.Describe how the orbits of each of the nine planets are similar in shape. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: The orbits are elliptical or oval shaped. The orbits are nearly circular. 47.Pluto s orbital speed is usually slower than Neptune s orbital speed. Based on diagram II, explain why Pluto s orbital speed is sometimes faster than Neptune s orbital speed. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: Sometimes Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune is. Part of Pluto s orbit is sometimes located within Neptune s orbit. 48.Which diagram best represents a portion of the heliocentric model of the solar system?

70 49.The diagram below represents a planet revolving in an elliptical orbit around a star. As the planet makes one complete revolution around the star, starting at the position shown, the gravitational attraction between the star and the planet will 1 decrease, then increase 50.According to Eratosthenes method, the circumference of the moon would be calculated as (4) 10,800 km 51.Which model of a planet s orbit best represents the actual eccentricity of the orbit of Mars? [Models are drawn to scale.] 52.Which member of the solar system has an equatorial diameter of 3.48 x 10 3 kilometers? 1 Moon 53.As measured by an observer on Earth over the course of a year, the apparent diameter of the Moon will 4 vary in a cyclic manner 54.An object s weight at sea level at 90 North latitude is slightly more than the weight of the same object at sea level at 0 latitude. Which statement about Earth can best be inferred from this evidence? 3 Earth s shape is slightly bulged at the Equator. 55.The diagram below represents Earth. Which diagram best represents Mars, drawn to the same scale? 56.The solar system model shown in the diagram is best classified as 2 heliocentric 57.At which of these points in its orbit does Halley s Comet have the greatest orbital velocity?

71 (4) D 58.The period of time each of these planets takes to orbit the Sun depends on its average 1 distance from the Sun 59.Halley s Comet should be nearest the Sun again during the year (3) Which graph best represents the gravitational attraction between the Sun and Halley s Comet from 1910 to 1986? 61.The eccentricity of this orbit is approximately (2) Which description of change is most closely associated with ocean tides and moon phases? 1 cyclic and predictable 63.Which graph best represents the relationship between the gravitational attraction of two objects and their distance from each other? 64.To an observer on Earth, how many degrees does the Sun appear to move across the sky in 4 hours? (2) 60 65Which statement best explains why the angle of insolation received at any Earth location changes in a cyclic pattern throughout the year? 4 Earth rotates on a tilted axis while revolving around the Sun.

72 66.Which scale diagram best compares the size of Earth with the size of Venus? 67.Which of the following planets has the lowest average density? 4 Mars 68.The actual orbits of the planets are 2 elliptical, with the Sun at one of the foci 69.Mercury and Venus are the only planets that show phases when viewed from Earth because both Mercury and Venus 1 revolve around the Sun inside Earth s orbit 70.Which graph best represents the relationship between a planet s average distance from the Sun and the time the planet takes to revolve around the Sun? 71.Compared to Earth s solar system, the universe is inferred to be (3) older and larger 72.Terrestrial planets move more rapidly in their orbits than the Jovian planets because terrestrial planets are (4) closer to the Sun 73.Which event is a direct result of Earth s revolution? (3) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky 74.The cyclic rise and fall of ocean tides on Earth is primarily caused by Earth s rotation and the (4) gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun 75.The apparent change in direction of a swinging Foucault pendulum is the result of the (1) rotation of Earth 76.The diagram below shows the average distance between the Sun and Earth drawn to a scale of 1 centimeter = 100,000,000 kilometers. Using this same scale, place a small dot representing Jupiter along the line to indicate how far Jupiter would be from the Sun, and label the dot Jupiter. The center of the dot for Jupiter is 7.8 (±0.4) cm from the center of the Sun and the dot is labeled. An example student response is shown below:

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