Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun

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1 Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun

2 Rotation A body turning on its axis The Earth rotates once every 24 hours in a counterclockwise direction.

3 Revolution A body traveling around another The Earth revolves around the sun once every days in a counterclockwise direction.

4 Let s compare

5 Night and Day The sun appears to move across the sky but it is actually the EARTH that s turning. The Earth ROTATES on its axis once every 24 hours causing day/night. The Moon also rotates on its axis. Answer: Talia

6 Months The moon travels around the Earth and takes less than a month to complete it s orbit. The moon REVOLVES around the Earth in a counterclockwise direction.

7 Years The Earth travels around the Sun and takes days to complete it s orbit. The Earth REVOLVES around the Sun.

8 Leap Year Our calendar only has 365 days in a year. But, it actually takes the Earth days to complete it s orbit. So, every 4 years, an extra day is added to the calendar to make up the time. That is a Leap Year. The day that is added is February 29 (Leap Day).

9 THINK PAIR - SHARE What is the difference between rotation and revolution? Think to yourself and discuss your thoughts with a partner.

10 What Causes Seasons? The Earth's seasons are not caused by the differences in the distance from the Sun throughout the year (these differences are extremely small). The seasons are the result of the tilt of the Earth's axis. Since the axis is tilted, different parts of the globe are oriented (pointed) towards the Sun at different times of the year.

11 What causes seasons? Summer is warmer than winter (in each hemisphere) because the Sun's rays hit the Earth at a more direct angle and the days are much longer than the nights during the summer. During the winter, the Sun's rays hit the Earth at an extreme angle, and the days are very short.

12 Directness of the Sun s Rays

13 Seasons Label the Seasons diagram in your foldable with the correct seasons for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

14 Solstices Solstices occur when Earth's axis is pointed directly toward our Sun. This happens twice a year during Earth's orbit. Summer Solstice the first day of summer Occurs near June 21 in the Northern Hemisphere the north pole is tilted toward the Sun the longest day of the year Winter Solstice the first day of winter Occurs near December 21 in the Northern Hemisphere the north pole is tilted away from the Sun the shortest day of the year When are the winter and summer solstices in the Southern Hemisphere?

15 Equinoxes Equinoxes are days in which Earth s axis is not pointed toward our Sun. Every location on our Earth (except the extreme poles) experiences 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness. Vernal Equinox the first day of spring Occurs March 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere Autumnal Equinox the first day of fall Occurs on September 22 or 23 in the Northern Hemisphere When are the vernal and autumnal equinoxes in the Southern Hemisphere?

16 Moon Phases The revolution of the Moon around the Earth makes the Moon appear as if it is changing shape in the sky. From Earth, we see the Moon grow from a thin crescent to a full disk or full moon and then shrink back to a thin crescent again before vanishing for a few days. Moon phases are grouped by either: waning or waxing.

17 New Moon - is not visible from Earth. The moon is between the Sun and the Earth. The dark side is facing us. Waxing Crescent - waxing means that the bright side is increasing. The right side is the bright side. First Quarter - the entire right side of the moon is illuminated. The moon looks like a half circle. Waxing Gibbous - gibbous means that more than one half is visible, but it is not quite full

18 Full Moon - the moon is full and bright. It looks like a large circle. The illuminated side is facing us. Waning Gibbous - the moon appears more than half but not quite full. Waning means that the illuminated side is decreasing. The left side is the bright side. Last Quarter - left half of the moon is illuminated. The illuminated side is decreasing. Waning Crescent - less than one half of the moon is illuminated. The moon will continue to become smaller and smaller.

19 Tides Tides are a change in the ocean water level, typically reaching a high and low level twice a day. Tides result from the pull of gravity on Earth s waters by the moon, sun and Earth itself. The result of this tidal pull is a bulge in the ocean water almost inline with the position of the moon; one bulge toward the moon and one on the opposite side of the earth, away from the moon.

20 Spring Tide When the Earth, Moon and Sun are in line, the combined effect of the Moon's and Sun's pull on Earth's water is at its greatest, resulting in the greatest ranges between high and low tide. This called a "spring" tide (from the water springing or rising up).

21 Neap Tide When the earth, moon and sun are at right angles to each other, the pull of the moon and the pull of the sun partially cancel each other out. The resulting tide, called a "neap" tide, has the smallest range between high and low tide.

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