2 Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents who provide nationwide leadership in precollege atmospheric environment education. To support these agents in their teacher training, Project ATMOSPHERE develops and produces teacher s guides and other educational materials. For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact: American Meteorological Society Education Program 1200 New York Ave., NW, Ste. 500 Washington, DC This material is based upon work initially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. TPE Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation American Meteorological Society (Permission is hereby granted for the reproduction of materials contained in this publication for non-commercial use in schools on the condition their source is acknowledged.)
3 Foreword This guide has been prepared to introduce fundamental understandings about the guide topic. This guide is organized as follows: Introduction This is a narrative summary of background information to introduce the topic. Basic Understandings Basic understandings are statements of principles, concepts, and information. The basic understandings represent material to be mastered by the learner, and can be especially helpful in devising learning activities in writing learning objectives and test items. They are numbered so they can be keyed with activities, objectives and test items. Activities These are related investigations. Each activity typically provides learning objectives, directions useful for presenting and completing the activity and questions designed to reinforce the learning objectives. Information Sources A brief list of references related to the guide topic is given for further study.
4 Introduction Weather, the current state of the atmosphere, generally varies from day to day, and more so over the seasons. Climate, the long-term summary of weather conditions, follows patterns that remain nearly constant from year to year. Astronomical factors which govern the amount of sunlight received play a major role in predicting these weather and climate patterns. Our solar system consists of the Sun and a series of planets orbiting at varying distances from the Sun. We can see other stars and we are have detected other planets. However, Earth is the only world on which we are sure life exists and it is the Sun s energy that makes all life possible. The variations in the amounts of solar energy received at different locations on Earth are also fundamental to the seasonal changes of weather and climate. Essentially, all the energy received by Earth originates from thermonuclear reactions within the Sun. Energy from the Sun travels outward through the nearvacuum of space. The concentration of the Sun s emissions decreases rapidly as they spread in all directions. By the time they reach Earth, some 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) from the Sun, only about 1/2,000,000,000 of the Sun s electromagnetic and particle emissions are intercepted by Earth. This tiny fraction of solar energy is still a significant amount, with almost 2 calories falling each minute on each square centimeter (1370 Watts per square meter) of a surface oriented perpendicular to the Sun s rays above Earth s atmosphere. To the Earth system, this important life-giving amount of energy is called the solar constant, even though it does vary slightly with solar activity and the position of Earth in its elliptical orbit. For most purposes, the delivery of the Sun s energy can be considered essentially constant at the average distance of Earth from the Sun. Because of Earth s nearly spherical form, the incoming energy at any one instant strikes only one point on Earth s surface at a 90-degree angle (called the subsolar point). All other locations on the sunlit half of Earth receive the Sun s rays at lower angles, causing the same energy to be spread over larger areas of horizontal surface. The lower the Sun in the sky, the less intense the sunlight received. As shown in the accompanying Sunlight and Seasons diagram, Figure 1, Earth has two planetary motions that affect the receipt of solar energy at the surface, its once per day rotation and its once per year revolution about the Sun. These combined motions cause daily changes in the receipt of sunlight at individual locations. As Earth rotates and revolves about the Sun, its axis of rotation always remains in the same alignment with respect to the distant fixed stars. Because of this, the North Pole points toward Polaris (North Star) throughout the year. This axis orientation is a steady 23.5-degree inclination from the year.
5 SUNLIGHT AND SEASONS Figure 1. Earth s orbit relative to the Sun. Figure 2. Path of Sun through the sky at equatorial, mid-latitude, and polar locations.
6 This axis orientation is a steady 23.5-degree inclination from the perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. While the inclination remains the same relative to Earth s orbital plane, Earth s axis is continuously changing position relative to the Sun s rays. Figure 2, (a), (b), and (c), Sky Views of the Sun, shows the effects of rotation, revolution, and orientation of Earth s axis on the path of the Sun through the sky at equatorial, mid-latitude and polar locations at different time of the year. Twice each year as Earth makes its journey around the center of the solar system, Earth s axis is oriented perpendicular to the Sun s rays. This happens on the Spring (Vernal) Equinox on or about March 21, and the Fall (Autumnal) Equinox on or about September 23 (terminology being a Northern Hemisphere bias!). On these days, the sub-solar point is over the Equator. Exactly one half of both Northern and Southern Hemispheres are illuminated and everywhere (Except the pole itself) received 12 hours daylight in the absence of atmospheric effects. From the perspective of a surface observer located anywhere except at the poles, the Sun would rise in the due East position and set due West. At the Equator, the Sun would be directly overhead at local noon. There are two times when Earth s axis is inclined the most from the perpendicular to the Sun s rays. These are the solstices, approximately midway between the equinoxes. For the Summer Solstice, on or about June 21, the North Pole is inclined 23.5 degrees from the perpendicular and tipped toward the Sun. The sub-solar point is at 23.5 N. At this time, more than half of the Northern hemisphere is illuminated at any instant and thus, has daylight lengths greater than 12 hours. The day length increases with increasing latitude until above 66.5 N (Arctic circle) there is 24 hours of sunlight. Conversely, for the Winter Solstice, on or about December 21, Earth s axis is also inclined 23.5 degrees from the perpendicular to the Sun s rays. However, at this time of the year the sub-solar point is at 23.5 S. The North Pole tips away from the Sun and no sunlight reaches above the Arctic Circle (66.5 N). Less than half of the Northern Hemisphere is illuminated and experiences daylight periods shorter than 12 hours. Sunlight variability due to astronomical factors in the Southern Hemisphere is the reverse of the Northern Hemisphere patters. The seasons are also reversed. Together, the path of the Sun through the local sky and the length of daylight combine to produce varying amounts of solar energy reaching Earth s surface. The energy received is one of the major factors in determining the character of weather conditions and, in total, the climate of a location. Generally, the higher the latitude, the greater the range (difference between maximum and minimum) in solar radiation received over the year and the greater the difference from season to season.
7 Astronomical factors do not tell the whole story about sunlight and seasons. The daily changes of solar energy received at Earth s surface within each season come primarily from the interaction of the radiation with the atmosphere through which it is passing. Gases within the atmosphere scatter, reflect and absorb energy. Scattering of visible light produces the blue sky, while clouds and hazy gray days. Ozone formation and dissociation absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation while water vapor absorbs infrared. Clouds strongly reflect and scatter solar energy as well as absorbing light depending on their thickness. Haze, dust, smoke, and other atmospheric pollutants are also scatterers of solar radiation.
8 Basic Understandings: Sunlight and Seasons Solar Energy 1. Practically all the energy that makes Earth hospitable to life and determines weather and climate comes from the Sun. 2. The Sun, because of its high surface temperatures, emits radiant energy throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Most is in the form of visible light and infrared (heat) radiation. 3. Earth, on average some 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) away, intercepts a tiny fraction (1/2,000,000,000) of the Sun s radiation. 4. The rate at which solar energy is received outside Earth s atmosphere on a flat surface placed perpendicular to the Sun s rays, and at the average distance of Earth from the Sun, is called the solar constant. The value of the solar constant is about 2 calories per square centimeter per minute (1370 Watts per square meter). 5. Solar radiation is not received the same everywhere at Earth s surface, due primarily to astronomical and atmospheric factors. Astronomical Factors The Spherical Earth 6. At any instant of time, one-half of the nearly spherical Earth is in sunlight and one-half is in darkness. 7. The total amount of solar energy received by Earth is limited to the amount intercepted by a circular area with a radius equal to the radius of Earth. 8. In the absence of atmospheric effects, sunlight is most intense at the place on Earth where the Sun is directly overhead, that is, at the zenith for that location. As the Sun s position in the sky lowers, the sunlight received on horizontal surfaces decreases. 9. Due to our planet s rotation and revolution, the place on Earth where the Sun s position is directly overhead is constantly changing. Astronomical Factors The Inclination of Earth s Axis 10. Throughout Earth s annual journey around the Sun, the planet s rotational axis remains in the same position relative to the background stars. The North Pole points in the same direction toward Polaris (the North Star) throughout the year.
9 11. Earth s rotational axis is inclined 23.5 degrees from the perpendicular to the plane of Earth s orbit. The orientation of Earth s axis relative to the Sun and its rays changes continuously as our planet speeds along its orbital path. 12. Twice a year Earth s axis is positioned perpendicular to the Sun s rays. In the absence of atmospheric effects, all places on Earth except the poles experience equal period of daylight and darkness. These times are the equinoxes the first days of spring and fall, and they occur on or about March 21 and September 23, respectively. 13. Earth s rotational axis is positioned at the greatest angle from its perpendicular equinox orientation to the Sun s rays on the solstices. On or about June 21, our Northern Hemisphere is most tipped toward the Sun on its first day of summer. On or about December 21, the Northern Hemisphere is most tipped away from the Sun on its first day of winter. 14. As Earth orbits the Sun, the inclined axis causes the Northern Hemisphere to tilt toward the Sun for half of the year (our spring and summer seasons). During this time, more than half of the Northern Hemisphere is in sunlight at any instant of time. During the other half of the year (our fall and winter seasons), the axis tilts away and less than half of the Northern Hemisphere is in sunlight. 15. The tilting of the Southern Hemisphere relative to the Sun s rays progresses in opposite fashion, reversing its seasons relative to those in the Northern Hemisphere. 16. The changing orientation of Earth s axis to the Sun s rays determines the length of daylight and the path of the Sun as it passes through the sky at every location on Earth. 17. The continuous change in the angular relationship between Earth s axis and the Sun s rays causes the daily length of daylight to vary throughout the year everywhere on Earth except at the equator. 18. From day to day in a perpetually repeating annual cycle, the path of the Sun through the sunlit sky changes everywhere on Earth, including at the equator. 19. In the latitudes between 23.5 degrees North and 23.5 degrees South, the Sun passes directly overhead twice each year. 20. At latitudes greater than 23.5 degrees, the maximum altitude the Sun ever reaches in the local sky during the year decreases as the latitude increases. At either pole the maximum altitude is 23.5 degrees above the horizon, occurring on the first day of the hemisphere s summer.
10 Energy Received 21. In the absence of atmospheric effects, the length of the daylight period and the path of the Sun through the local sky determine the amount of solar radiation received at Earth s surface. 22. Ignoring atmospheric effects, the variation in the amount of sunlight received over the period of a year at the equator is determined by the path of the Sun. The Sun s path is highest in the sky on the equinoxes and lowest on the solstices. This results in two periods of maximum sunlight centering on the equinoxes and two period of minimum sunlight at solstice times each year. Seasons 23. At the equator the daily period of daylight is the same day after day. The changing path of the Sun through the sky produces over the year a cyclical variation in the amounts of solar radiation received that exhibit maxima near the equinoxes and minima near the solstices. The relatively little variation in the amounts of solar energy received over the year produces seasons quite different from those experienced at higher latitudes. 24. Away from the tropics, the variation in the amounts of solar radiation received over the year increase as latitude increases. The amounts of sunlight received exhibit one minimum and one maximum in their annual swings. The poles have the greatest range since the Sun is in their skies continuously for six months and then below the horizon for the other half year. 25. In general, the variations in solar radiation received at the surface over the year at higher latitudes create greater seasonal differences. 26. While the receipt of solar energy is the major cause of seasonal swings of weather and climate at middle and high latitudes, other factors such as nearness to bodies of water, topographical features, and migrations of weather systems play significant roles as well. Atmospheric Factors 27. The atmosphere reflects, scatters, and absorbs solar radiation, reducing the amount of sunlight that reaches Earth s surface. 28. Some atmospheric gases absorb specific wavelengths of solar radiation. Water vapor is a strong absorber of incoming infrared energy, causing a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground during humid conditions. Ozone, during its formation and dissociation, absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation that can lead to sunburn and skin cancer.
11 29. Haze, dust, smoke, and air pollutants in general block incoming solar energy to some extent wherever present. 30. Clouds strongly reflect, scatter, and absorb incoming sunlight. High, thin cirrus absorb some sunlight while dense clouds, if thick enough, can produce almost nighttime conditions.
12 Activity: Sunlight Throughout the Year Introduction All weather and climate begin with the Sun. Solar radiation is the only significant source of energy that determines conditions at and above Earth s surface. Earth receives about 1/2,000,000,000 of the Sun s radiant energy production. The average amount of solar radiation reaching Earth s orbit (top of the atmosphere) and falling on a flat surface perpendicular to the Sun s rays at that distance is about 2 calories per square centimeter per minute. This rate is called the solar constant. However, the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface can be quite different. The nearly-spherical Earth, rotating once a day on an axis inclined as it is to the plane of its orbit, presents a constantly changing face to the Sun. Everywhere on Earth the path of the Sun through the sky changes during the year. Everywhere on Earth, except at the Equator, the lengths of daily daylight periods change. In addition, the atmosphere acts to reflect, absorb, and scatter the solar radiation passing through it. Clouds, especially, can reflect and scatter much of the incoming radiation. The purpose of the activity is to investigate the variability of sunlight received at Earth s surface over the period of a year. Upon completing this activity, you should be able to: Investigate the receipt of solar energy over the period of a year at equatorial, mid-latitude, and polar regions. Describe annual solar radiation patterns at different locations and relate then to the astronomical factors that cause them. Estimate and compare average daily radiant energy totals received at a midlatitude location on the first days of the seasons. Procedure Examine the accompanying graph entitled Variation of Solar Radiation Received on Horizontal Surfaces at Different Latitudes. Data points plotted on the graph represent solar radiation received daily on horizontal surfaces averaged over each month for equatorial, mid-latitude, and polar locations. These values were determined from actual observations and include the effects of clouds. Time is
13 plotted along the horizontal axis while average daily incident radiant energy in calories per square centimeter per day is plotted vertically. Questions 1. Construct an annual solar radiation curve for each of the three locations. Do this by drawing a smooth curved line connecting adjacent months of average daily radiation values for the locations that have already been plotted. Note that at the South Pole (90 degrees South Latitude) the Sun rises on or about September 23 and sets on or about March 21. Draw each curve to the edges of the graph. December appears twice to more clearly display the annually repeating radiation cycles. 2. At which latitude shown does the rate at which solar energy is received vary the least throughout the year? 3. The annual radiation curve for Singapore shows two maxima and two minima even though the daily period of daylight remains nearly 12 hours throughout the year. Explain the astronomical cause of the two maxima and minima by referring to Fig. 2(a) in the Sunlight and Seasons diagram. 4. Refer to Fig. 2(b) in the Sunlight and Seasons diagram. At such a middle latitude location, both the path of the sun through the sky and the daily length of daylight change from day to day. Use these two factors to explain why during the May-August period the mid-latitude location receives more solar radiation on a daily than does the equatorial location. 5. Refer to your graph. At which latitude is there an extended period of darkness over the year? How long is it? 6. On your graph, the maximum daily solar radiation amount for Brockport occurred in late June. Why does it peak six months later at Antarctica? 7. Draw and label an estimated annual solar radiation curve for the North Pole. Assume North and South Pole radiation values to be the same, but reversed,
14 over the period of a year. Fill in the North Pole (NP) column of the radiation table and then draw the North Pole curve. 8. Imagine you are the observer in Fig. 2(c) of the Sunlight and Seasons diagram. Explain in terms of the path of the Sun and the daily period of daylight, the placement of your North Pole annual radiation curve. 9. Compare all the annual radiation curves. What is the relationship between latitude and the annual range of solar radiation received? 10. To mark the positions of the equinoxes and solstices, draw vertical lines on the graph at approximately March 21, June 21, September 23, and December 21. On the Equinoxes, the Sun is directly above the equator. while on the solstices the Sun is directly above 23.5 degrees North or South Latitude. Label the intervals between the lines as the Northern Hemisphere's Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall seasons. 11. The area enclosed under each curve between respective dates is directly proportional to the total energy received during that time period. At which location do all the seasons receive about the same total amount of solar radiation? 12. At the mid-latitude location, which season(s) receive the most solar energy? Which receive the least? 13. At the North Pole, which season(s) receive no solar radiation at all? 14. Calculate the annual amount of solar radiation received at the three locations. The equatorial and mid-latitude locations receive how many times more solar energy than either pole?
16 Real World Applications The following maps are based on data collected from in the National Solar Radiation Database. These are considered for the use of implementing flat plate solar collectors. The data can be listed or mapped as either the average, maximum or minimum monthly or annual values for a variety of solar collector geometries. The map choices came from: These data account for both the astronomical and atmospheric factors at the locations shown. Dots indicate the stations providing the data at these generally midlatitude locations. 1. In general, the maximum monthly average solar radiation values occur in. The minimum values are in. 2. The values for March [(are)(are not)] generally comparable to those of September at the same locations. 3. The solar radiation values across the country in December and in March [(do)(do not)] generally run parallel to the latitudes, and [(decrease) (remain the same)(increase)] as the latitude increases. 4. Average monthly solar radiation values in June show a pattern of locally highest values in the U.S. desert Southwest. These higher values [(would)(would not)] likely be the result of atmospheric factors. That variation would most probably be due to the relative minimum of atmospheric [(water vapor)(clouds)(both of these)].
18 Information Sources Books Moran, Joseph M. Weather Studies: Introduction to Atmospheric Science, 5 th Ed. Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society, Periodicals Weatherwise. Bimonthly magazine written in association with the American Meteorological Society for the layperson. Weatherwise, 1319 Eighteenth St., NW, Washington, DC USA Today. National newspaper with extensive weather page. Available at local newsstands and by subscription. Radio and Television NOAA Weather Radio. The voice of the National Weather Service and All Hazards Emergency Alert System. Local continuous broadcasts from over 1000 transmitting stations nationwide. The Weather Channel. A continuous cable television program devoted to reporting weather. Includes frequent broadcast of local official National Weather Service forecasts. Internet DataStreme Atmosphere (www.ametsoc.org/amsedu/dstreme/). Atmospheric education distance-learning website of the AMS Education Program. JetStream Online School for Weather (www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/). Background weather information site from the National Weather Service.
Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of
The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends
1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation
ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun
CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris
Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)
Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Name: Tilt of the Earth s axis and the seasons We now understand that the tilt of Earth s axis makes it possible for different parts of the Earth to experience different
Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...
ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept
ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING 5-1 Introduction Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time. The condition of the atmosphere
3.1 Introduction We saw in the last chapter that the short wave radiation from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth, which in turn radiates energy in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic
Noon Sun Angle Worksheet Name Name Date Subsolar Point (Latitude where the sun is overhead at noon) Equinox March 22 nd 0 o Equinox September 22 nd 0 o Solstice June 22 nd 23.5 N Solstice December 22 nd
Introduction The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, but its exact path changes over the course of the year, which causes the seasons. In order to use the sun s energy in a building, we need to
Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the
Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to
PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons Changing Aspect Angle Direct Sunlight is more intense and concentrated. Solar Incidence Angle is Latitude and Time/Date Dependent Daily and Seasonal Variation Zenith There
Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun Rotation A body turning on its axis The Earth rotates once every 24 hours in a counterclockwise direction. Revolution A body traveling around another The Earth
1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 5. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead
Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered
FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Describing the Universe. LAB: Comparing and contrasting bodies that reflect light. POST: Exploring
Celestial Observations Earth experiences two basic motions: Rotation West-to-East spinning of Earth on its axis (v rot = 1770 km/hr) (v rot Revolution orbit of Earth around the Sun (v orb = 108,000 km/hr)
Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum
APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION The sun is the source of most energy on the earth and is a primary factor in determining the thermal environment of a locality. It is important for engineers to have a working
Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.
Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents
Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer
Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern
The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close to that
BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet
EARTH'S MOTIONS 1. Which hot spot location on Earth's surface usually receives the greatest intensity of insolation on June 21? A Iceland B Hawaii C Easter Island D Yellowstone 2. The Coriolis effect is
Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Purpose To help students understand how solar radiation varies (duration and intensity) during
Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning
Sunlight and its Properties EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz The sun is a hot sphere of gas whose internal temperatures reach over 20 million deg. K. Nuclear fusion reaction at the sun's core converts hydrogen to
August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and
Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? In your notebooks, write RELATIONSHIPS between variables we tested CAUSE FIRST EFFECT SECOND EVIDENCE As you increase the time
Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental
SKYTRACK Glossary of Terms Angular distance The angular separation between two objects in the sky as perceived by an observer, measured in angles. The angular separation between two celestial objects in
Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate
ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Seasons & Calendars Monday, January 8 Season & Calendars: Key Concepts (1) The cause of the seasons is the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis relative
Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)
The Reasons for the Seasons (The Active Learning Approach) Materials: 4 Globes, One light on stand with soft white bulb, 4 flashlights, Four sets of "Seasons" Cards, Four laminated black cards with 1 inch
2007 Page 1 Solar Heating Basics Reflected radiation is solar energy received by collectorsfrom adjacent surfaces of the building or ground. It depends a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding
Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors
Solar Energy Solar Energy Systems Matt Aldeman Senior Energy Analyst Center for Renewable Energy Illinois State University 1 SOLAR ENERGY OVERVIEW 1) Types of Solar Power Plants 2) Describing the Solar
Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents
Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with
SOLAR CENTER INFORMATION NCSU Box 7401 Raleigh, NC 27695 (919) 515-3480 Toll Free 1-800-33-NC SUN Siting of Active Solar Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules To install a solar energy system properly, it
Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide Name: (Test Date: ) Essential Question #1: How are the Earth, Moon, and Sun alike and how are they different? 1. List the Earth, Moon, and Sun, in order from LARGEST to
ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format
2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth The stars first found a special place in legend and mythology as the realm of gods and goddesses, holding sway over the lives of humankind. From these legends and
NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.
Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather
KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you
One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved
Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million
INSIDE LAB 2: Celestial Motions OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. DISCUSSION: As seen from a point of view centered
Earth In Space Unit Diagnostic Assessment: Students complete a questionnaire answering questions about their ideas concerning a day, year, the seasons and moon phases: My Ideas About A Day, Year, Seasons
1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Solar Radiation Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 2 The Sun The Sun is a perpetual source of energy It has produced energy for about 4.6 billions of years, and it is
There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.
Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Summer REU Program Professor Tom Witten By Abstract There is a seasonal phase lag between solar heating from the sun and the surface
Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Announcements o First Homework will start on Tue Sept 20st; due on Thu, Sept 29th. o Accessible through SPARK Assigned Reading n Units 7 and 8 Goals for Today n To discuss
1 Basics of Climate The climate s delicate, the air most sweet. William Shakespeare, A Winter s Tale To appreciate the role of the ocean in climate, we need to have a basic understanding of how the climate
is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - ''. Learning Connections Primary Science Interactives are teaching tools which have been created
Geometry and Geography Tom Davis firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles March 12, 2011 1 Pedagogical Advice I have been leading mathematical circles using this topic for many years,
Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius
ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars in the Boulder sky. EQUIPMENT:
Chapter 2 Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions 2.1 Purpose The main goal of this lab is for you to gain an understanding of how the sky changes during the night and over the course of a year. We will
Optimum Orientation of Solar Panels To get the most from solar panels, point them in the direction that captures the most sun. But there are a number of variables in figuring out the best direction. This
The Moon's Orbit The first part of this note gives reference information and definitions about eclipses , much of which would have been familiar to ancient Greek astronomers, though not necessarily
Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits MOTION IN SPACE VS. MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The motion of objects in the atmosphere differs in three important ways from the motion of objects in space. First,
Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal
Unit 5 The Sun-Earth-Moon System Chapter 10 ~ The Significance of Earth s Position o Section 1 ~ Earth in Space o Section 2 ~ Phases, Eclipses, and Tides o Section 3 ~ Earth s Moon Unit 5 covers the following
DEPLOSUN REFLECTORS DEPLOSUN REFLECTORS DEPLOSUN REFLECTORS is an innovative reflector system which captures the sun rays in the upper part of the atria and redirects them downwards, increasing daylight
CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect
Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking
LESSON 4 Seasons on Earth On Earth, orange and red autumn leaves stand out against the blue sky. NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) PHOTO LIBRARY/NOAA CENTRAL LIBRARY INTRODUCTION Nearly
Solar Power at Vernier Software & Technology Having an eco-friendly business is important to Vernier. Towards that end, we have recently completed a two-phase project to add solar panels to our building
Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions
2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could
Final exam summary sheet Topic 5, lesson 2 How leaf is adapted to carry on photosynthesis? 1- Waxy layer called the cuticle cover the leaf slow the water loss. 2- The Top and bottom of the leaf is covered
Ok, so if the Earth weren't tilted, we'd have a picture like the one shown below: 12 hours of daylight at all latitudes more insolation in the tropics, less at higher latitudes Ok, so if the Earth weren't
8.5 Motions of, the, and Planets axis axis North Pole South Pole rotation Figure 1 s axis is an imaginary line that goes through the planet from pole-to-pole. orbital radius the average distance between
Ionosphere Properties and Behaviors - Part 2 By Marcel H. De Canck, ON5AU I n the previous issue I explained that gyrofrequency depends on the earth s magnetic field and mentioned that this magnetic field
CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015 *** Must See Event 2014 ***April 8 - Mars at Opposition. The red planet will be at its closest approach to Earth and its face will be fully illuminated