The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases"

Transcription

1 The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends on the lunar phase e) Depends on the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun. A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends on the lunar phase e) Depends on the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun. The Moon s Phases A Warm Up Exercise Earth This Way If the Earth did not rotate a) The Sun would rise once a year b) Stars would rise in the West c) Stars would rise in the East d) We could see all parts of the Moon from the Earth 1

2 A Warm Up Exercise If the Earth did not rotate a) The Sun would rise once a year b) Stars would rise in the West c) Stars would rise in the East d) We could see all parts of the Moon from the Earth A Warm Up Exercise The synodic month is longer than the sidereal month because a) Tides slow the Earth Down b) The Moon moves around the Earth c) The Earth moves around the Sun d) All of the above A Warm Up Exercise The synodic month is longer than the sidereal month because a) Tides slow the Earth Down b) The Moon moves around the Earth c) The Earth moves around the Sun d) All of the above Key Ideas From Last Time: The Moon always keeps the same face towards the Earth. Rotation and Revolution are synchronous. Phases of the Moon: Fraction of the sunlit side visible to us. Sidereal & Synodic Periods: Sidereal Period: 27.3 days Synodic Period: 29.5 days The Four Seasons Key Ideas: Due to the tilt of the Earth s axis relative to the plane of its orbit. NOT due to changes in the distance of the Earth from the Sun! The tilt of the Earth s axis affects The amount of direct sunlight (Insolation) The length of the day Recall the Obliquity of the Ecliptic The Earth s rotation axis is tilted relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun: Tilted about 23.5º from perpendicular relative to the Ecliptic. The Earth s axis points towards the same general direction in space as we orbit around the Sun: Currently points near Polaris. Changes slowly with time... 2

3 September The Seasons Are Due to the Tilt of the Earth June There are two (major) physical effects: It makes the length of the day vary how long the Sun is up to warm the surface, It changes the angle between the ground and the sun, which changes the amount of sunlight per unit area December March Length of the Day Vernal & Autumnal Equinoxes: Sun rises due East and sets due West. Day and Night are equal length (12 hours) Summer Solstice: Sun rises in the Northeast, sets in the Northwest Day is longer than Night Winter Solstice: Sun rises in the Southeast, sets in the Southwest Day is shorter than Night Equinoxes In March & September: Axis is at right angles to the Earth-Sun line. The Sun is seen on the Celestial Equator. Day and Night are equal length (12 hours). March: Vernal Equinox Northern Spring & Southern Autumn. September: Autumnal Equinox Northern Autumn & Southern Spring. Equinoxes: March 20 & Sept. 22 Northern Spring/Fall Southern Fall/Spring Winter Solstice In December: The North pole tilts away from the Sun. The Sun is at its maximum southern declination Northern Winter: The Sun is low in the sky. The day is shorter than the night Southern Summer: The Sun is high in the sky. The day is longer than the night 3

4 December 21: Winter Solstice Northern Winter Southern Summer Summer Solstice In June: The North pole tilts towards from the Sun. The Sun is at its maximum northern declination Northern Summer: The Sun is high in the sky. The day is longer than the night Southern Winter: The Sun is low in the sky. The day is shorter than the night June 21: Summer Solstice Northern Summer Southern Winter Just for fun. An exciting math slide This is the actual expression for the length of the day daylight cos tan 24hours solar declination tan(your latitude) YOU DO NOT NEED TO KNOW THIS FOR ANY TEST!!! It depends only on your latitude and the Sun s declination At an equinox the solar declination is zero and at the equator your latitude is zero, so daylight 12 hours daylight 12 hours At the summer solstice the solar declination is o daylight in Columbus (latitude=+40 o ) is 14.9 hours At the winter solstice the solar declination is 23.5 o daylight in Columbus (latitude=+40 o ) is 9.1 hours The length of the day Columbus at latitude +40 o Autumnul equinox Summer solstice Vernal equinox Winter Solstice Insolation If the Sun is up, what matters for solar heating is how directly the rays of the sun hit the ground: Sun directly overhead (at Zenith): Maximum concentration of sunlight. Get ~1000 Watts/meter 2 of heating. Sun 30º above the Horizon: Sunlight spreads out over 2 meter 2 Get only 500 Watts/meter 2 of heating. 4

5 The Angle of the Sun At Noon At noon, the angle between the Zenith and the Sun is (your latitude) (declination of the Sun) = l For Columbus (latitude l=40 o ) this angle is: Either equinox (Sun at declination = 0 o ) it is at l =40 o Summer solstice (Sun at declination = o ) it is at l =16.5 o Winter solstice (Sun at declination = 23.5 o ) it is at l =63.5 o N Pole Zenith l l=latitude To the Sun =Declination of Sun Parallel to equator Equator and Celestial Equator The angle alters the amount of solar radation we get per unit area S If we send a fixed amount of stuff S between the two purple lines, then the amount hitting line L per unit length is (amount of stuff)/(length of L )=S/L The most you can get per unit length is S/L when the line is perpendicular to the direction the stuff is coming from this corresponds to having the Sun at your zenith away from zenith the same amount of Sunlight is spread over more area (larger L ) L L With Perspective For Columbus at Noon Either equinox (sun at declination =0 o ) it is l = =40 o (flux/flux if sun at zenith)=0.77 zenith l =60 o sun Summer solstice (sun at declination =23.5 o ) it is l =16.5 o (flux/flux if sun at zenith)=0.96 Winter solstice (sun at declination = 23.5 o ) it is l =63.5 o (flux/flux if sun at zenith)=0.45 Crudely, the solar flux (light per unit area) is about twice as high in summer compared to winter solar heating in winter flux in winter ~ solar heating in summer flux in summer daylight in winter daylight in summer 0.45 ~ ~ 0.29 L L >L This is all due to the 23.5 o tilt between the equator and the ecliptic Dec 21: Winter Solstice 2001 Mar 20: Vernal Equinox Winter Spring Summer Autumn sun 2001 June 21: Summer Solstice 2001 Sept 22: Autumnal Equinox Summer Autumn Winter Spring Rick Pogge L 5

6 The Earth-Sun Distance Seasons are not due to the shape of the Earth s orbit! The Earth s orbit is slightly elliptical: Aphelion (greatest distance): Million kilometers Occurs in July (in 2004: on July 5) Perihelion (closest approach): Million kilometers Occurs in January (in 2004: on January 4) 5 Million km difference makes only ~7% difference in the amount of solar radiation. Summer vs. Winter in Columbus June 21 Sun s altitude at noon: 73.5º Insolation: 960 W/m 2 Average temperature ( ): 70º F Length of the Day: 15 h Distance from the Sun: 152 Million km Hottest Month: July (74º F average) December 21 Sun s altitude at noon: 26.5º Insolation: 450 W/m 2 Average temperature ( ): 32º F Length of the Day: 9 h Distance from the Sun: 147 Million km Coldest Month: Jan (28º F average) Distance Doesn t Matter The Earth is 5 Million kilometers closer to the Sun in January than in July, yet January is the coldest month in the North! 7% more solar radiation in January than July Factor of 2 less insolation in the North in January than in July. Seasonal temperature variations have nothing to do with changes in the distance of the Earth from the Sun. Seasons Cannot Be Due to Distance Eclipses One simple way to remember is that it is Summer in the Southern hemisphere when it is Winter in the Northern hemisphere Naturally explained by the tilt of the Earth relative to its orbit If it was due to the variation in the distance from the Sun, then it should be the same season in both hemispheres if it is Winter in the Northern hemisphere it has to be winter in the Southern hemisphere 6

7 The Moon s orbit is tilted out of the ecliptic by 5 o Possibilities at a new Moon So you also need to have the line of nodes pointing at the Sun 5 degrees at radius of Moon is about km Radius of Moon 1700 km Radius of Earth 6300 km Line of nodes aligned with Earth-Sun line solar eclipse occurs Angle of up to 5 degrees Line of nodes not aligned with Earth-Sun line no eclipse occurs Line of nodes not aligned with Earth-Sun line no eclipse occurs Sun Moon Earth NOT TO SCALE WOULD NOT FIT ON PAGE! So you need a double coincidence For a solar (lunar) eclipse you need a new (full) moon and the line of nodes pointing at the sun You have a chance of an eclipse twice per eclipse year What s an eclipse year? It s the time between intervals when the line of nodes points at the Sun. If the line of nodes were fixed, it would be the same as the normal year. However, the line of nodes precesses westward with a period of 18.6 years (19 o /year), so you get an eclipse year of days Wait a minute! Why is the eclipse year shorter than the sidereal year? The Earth rotates on its axis and the Moon orbits the Earth in the same sense that the Earth goes around the Sun but faster This makes the solar day longer than the sidereal day and the synodic month longer than the sidereal month (the next few slides are only of interest if you want to dig a bit deeper ) Noon Not to Scale 7

8 The line of nodes and the Earth s axis both precess Westward, which is the reverse direction, but slowly compared to the year This makes the solar year and the eclipse year shorter than the sidereal year Line of nodes at start So for Westward precession Line of nodes precesses in 18.6 years (19 o /year), so you get an eclipse year of days 19 degrees about 19 days so the eclipse year is =346 days Precession of Equinoxes precesses in years (0.01 o /year) Which corresponds to 20 minutes of time the sidereal year is 20 minutes longer than the solar year (equinox to equinox) Not to Scale no precession Eclipse Seasons You get two chances of an eclipse each eclipse year, so there is an eclipse season every days (half an eclipse year) because it doesn t matter which side of the line of nodes you use It lasts about 37 days because of the relative sizes of the Sun, Earth and Moon start One eclipse year later Predicting Eclipses Is Hard, But. An eclipse can occur when you have a new or full moon Once every synodic month=29.53 days the line of nodes points towards the sun Twice every eclipse year= days Once you have had one, you will have almost the same geometry after: 223(synodic months) = days 19(eclipse years) = days Line of nodes Half an eclipse year later So every 18 years, 11 days and 8 hours, the Sun, Moon and Earth return to an almost (but not quite) identical configuration there is a good chance of another eclipse on the Earth, but at a DIFFERENT location The Geometry of Eclipses The finite size of the sun leads to a shadow composed of two parts The umbra where the shadowing is complete, and The penumbra where parts of the sun are still visible Lunar Eclipses The umbra and penumbra created by the Earth are larger than the moon Angular diameter of the Earth as seen from the Moon= 2R /D M =1.90 o Angular diameter of the Sun as seen from the Moon = 2R /D =0.53 o Diameter of Earth s umbra at the moon D M (angular diameter of earth angular diameter of sun) 9200 km Diameter of Earth s penumbra at the moon D M (angular diameter of +angular diameter of sun) km Compared to the 3500km diameter of the moon umbra penumbra moon total partial penumbral 8

9 Lunar Eclipses pictures 1 Lunar eclipses are more common than solar eclipses because the Earth casts a bigger shadow than the Moon penumbral lunar eclipses are easy to miss since all you see is a dimming of an otherwise full moon. Lunar Eclipses pictures 2 Full eclipse (Freedman & Kaufmann) The red color at full eclipse is due to the refraction of sunlight by the Earth s atmosphere Lunar Eclipses pictures 3 Lunar Eclipses last In real life, it takes the moon 2.5 hours to cross the full width of the umbra Solar Eclipses The umbra and penumbra created by the Moon are much smaller than the Earth Angular diameter of the Moon = 2R M / D M =0.52 o ranges from 0.49 o to 0.55 o because of the ellipticity of the Moon s orbit Angular diameter of the sun = 2R /D =0.53 o Diameter of Moon s umbra at the Earth D M (angular diameter of moon angular diameter of sun) 0 to 150 km Diameter of Moon s penumbra at the Earth D M (angular diameter of moon+angular diameter of sun) 7100 km Compared to the 13000km diameter of the earth penumbra umbra Earth 9

10 Solar Eclipse From Space Animation of April Eclipse (Rick Pogge) Total Solar Eclipse Moon Near Pericenter (umbra exists) 1999 from the Russian space station Mir The Umbra Totality never lasts more than 7 ½ minutes. Annular Solar Eclipse Moon Near Apocenter (no umbra) Partial Eclipse in the penumbra O. Staiger Solar Corona Total Solar Eclipse Paths 10

11 Annular Solar Eclipse Paths 11

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun)

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun) Lecture 3: Motions of the and Moon ecliptic (path of ) ecliptic (path of ) The 23.5 degree tilt of Earth s spin axis relative to its orbital axis around the causes the seasons Celestial Sphere Celestial

More information

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons?

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons? Reasons for Seasons Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the Sun in winter. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the

More information

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

More information

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer

More information

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

More information

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

More information

Aphelion The point in the orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is furthest from the Sun.

Aphelion The point in the orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is furthest from the Sun. SKYTRACK Glossary of Terms Angular distance The angular separation between two objects in the sky as perceived by an observer, measured in angles. The angular separation between two celestial objects in

More information

Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test

Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test 1) It takes one day for the Earth to make one complete on its axis. a. Rotation 2) It takes one year for the Earth to make one around

More information

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

More information

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern

More information

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d. Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

More information

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram?

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 5. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead

More information

PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons

PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons Changing Aspect Angle Direct Sunlight is more intense and concentrated. Solar Incidence Angle is Latitude and Time/Date Dependent Daily and Seasonal Variation Zenith There

More information

Earth In Space Chapter 3

Earth In Space Chapter 3 Earth In Space Chapter 3 Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Earth casts a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Ships were observed to disappear below the

More information

Motions of the Moon and Eclipses

Motions of the Moon and Eclipses Motions of the Moon and Eclipses The Moon revolves around the Earth and rotates on its axis with the same period. The combined effect of these two motions means that one side of the Moon always faces the

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Seasons & Calendars Monday, January 8 Season & Calendars: Key Concepts (1) The cause of the seasons is the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis relative

More information

Sun Earth Relationships

Sun Earth Relationships 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

More information

Solar energy and the Earth s seasons

Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Name: Tilt of the Earth s axis and the seasons We now understand that the tilt of Earth s axis makes it possible for different parts of the Earth to experience different

More information

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0 Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

More information

Celestial Observations

Celestial Observations Celestial Observations Earth experiences two basic motions: Rotation West-to-East spinning of Earth on its axis (v rot = 1770 km/hr) (v rot Revolution orbit of Earth around the Sun (v orb = 108,000 km/hr)

More information

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions The Moon's Orbit The first part of this note gives reference information and definitions about eclipses [14], much of which would have been familiar to ancient Greek astronomers, though not necessarily

More information

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Spectrum of Radiation Intensity and Peak Wavelength of Radiation Solar (shortwave) Radiation Terrestrial (longwave) Radiations How to Change Air Temperature? Add

More information

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

More information

The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month

The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month The changing phases of the Moon originally inspired the concept of the month Motions of the Moon The Moon is in orbit around the Earth, outside the atmosphere. The Moon `shines via reflected light (12%)

More information

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

More information

Time, Day, Month, and the Moon

Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Announcements o First Homework will start on Tue Sept 20st; due on Thu, Sept 29th. o Accessible through SPARK Assigned Reading n Units 7 and 8 Goals for Today n To discuss

More information

Chapter 3 Earth - Sun Relations

Chapter 3 Earth - Sun Relations 3.1 Introduction We saw in the last chapter that the short wave radiation from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth, which in turn radiates energy in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic

More information

Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun

Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun Rotation A body turning on its axis The Earth rotates once every 24 hours in a counterclockwise direction. Revolution A body traveling around another The Earth

More information

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to

More information

Earth in the Solar System

Earth in the Solar System Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with

More information

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

More information

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact:

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact: Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

More information

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning

More information

Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Assessment

Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Assessment I can 1. Define rotation, revolution, solstice and equinox. *Rotation and Revolution Review Worksheet 2. Describe why we experience days and years due to the rotation and r evolution of the Earth around

More information

Noon Sun Angle = 90 Zenith Angle

Noon Sun Angle = 90 Zenith Angle Noon Sun Angle Worksheet Name Name Date Subsolar Point (Latitude where the sun is overhead at noon) Equinox March 22 nd 0 o Equinox September 22 nd 0 o Solstice June 22 nd 23.5 N Solstice December 22 nd

More information

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Objectives When you have completed this lab you

More information

Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott?

Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? In your notebooks, write RELATIONSHIPS between variables we tested CAUSE FIRST EFFECT SECOND EVIDENCE As you increase the time

More information

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Purpose To help students understand how solar radiation varies (duration and intensity) during

More information

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics SOAR: The Sky in Motion y Life on the Tilted Teacup Ride Phases of the Moon Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics Kiva December 1997 October 27, 2009 Celestial Coordinates Right Ascension

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10 Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

Physical; Ch. 12 Test; Earth, Moon, & Sun

Physical; Ch. 12 Test; Earth, Moon, & Sun Physical; Ch. 12 Test; Earth, Moon, & Sun Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When are tides highest? a. during the moon s first quarter phase

More information

The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane

The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The line of nodes descending node The Moon s orbital plane Moon s orbit inclination 5.45º ascending node celestial declination Zero longitude in the ecliptic The orbit

More information

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Unit 5 covers the following framework standards: ES 9, 11 and PS 1. Content was adapted the following:

The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Unit 5 covers the following framework standards: ES 9, 11 and PS 1. Content was adapted the following: Unit 5 The Sun-Earth-Moon System Chapter 10 ~ The Significance of Earth s Position o Section 1 ~ Earth in Space o Section 2 ~ Phases, Eclipses, and Tides o Section 3 ~ Earth s Moon Unit 5 covers the following

More information

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons If it's cold in winter, why is Earth closer to the Sun? This activity shows the relationship between Earth-Sun positions and the seasons. From The WSU Fairmount Center

More information

Answers. Sun, Earth, Moon. Year 7 Science Chapter 10

Answers. Sun, Earth, Moon. Year 7 Science Chapter 10 Answers Sun, Earth, Moon Year 7 Science Chapter 10 p216 1 Geocentric indicates a model in which Earth is the centre of the universe. 2 Pythagoras reasoning was that the sphere is the perfect shape and

More information

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

More information

Ok, so if the Earth weren't tilted, we'd have a picture like the one shown below: 12 hours of daylight at all latitudes more insolation in the

Ok, so if the Earth weren't tilted, we'd have a picture like the one shown below: 12 hours of daylight at all latitudes more insolation in the Ok, so if the Earth weren't tilted, we'd have a picture like the one shown below: 12 hours of daylight at all latitudes more insolation in the tropics, less at higher latitudes Ok, so if the Earth weren't

More information

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close to that

More information

Solar Angles and Latitude

Solar Angles and Latitude Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate

More information

Chapter 2 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc. Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Discovering the Universe for Yourself The sky is divided into 88 zones called a) degrees. b) tropics. c) constellations. d) signs. The sky is divided

More information

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'.

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'. is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - ''. Learning Connections Primary Science Interactives are teaching tools which have been created

More information

Moon Phases and Eclipses

Moon Phases and Eclipses Lecture 11 Moon Phases and Eclipses Full Moon near Saturn The Moon will be full on Sunday, 4/17/11 so on Saturday and Sunday night it will be near Saturn, which reached opposition last week and, like the

More information

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4).

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4). Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius

More information

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know Motions of the Earth Stuff everyone should know Earth Motions E W N W Noon E Why is there day and night? OR Why do the Sun and stars appear to move through the sky? Because the Earth rotates around its

More information

OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth.

OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. INSIDE LAB 2: Celestial Motions OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. DISCUSSION: As seen from a point of view centered

More information

Moon Phases & Eclipses Notes

Moon Phases & Eclipses Notes Moon Phases & Eclipses Notes Melka 2014-2015 The Moon The Moon is Earth s one natural satellite. Due to its smaller size and slower speed of rotation, the Moon s gravity is 1/6 of the Earth s gravitational

More information

Geometry and Geography

Geometry and Geography Geometry and Geography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles March 12, 2011 1 Pedagogical Advice I have been leading mathematical circles using this topic for many years,

More information

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding Earth In Space Unit Diagnostic Assessment: Students complete a questionnaire answering questions about their ideas concerning a day, year, the seasons and moon phases: My Ideas About A Day, Year, Seasons

More information

The Reasons for the Seasons

The Reasons for the Seasons The Reasons for the Seasons (The Active Learning Approach) Materials: 4 Globes, One light on stand with soft white bulb, 4 flashlights, Four sets of "Seasons" Cards, Four laminated black cards with 1 inch

More information

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation EARTH'S MOTIONS 1. Which hot spot location on Earth's surface usually receives the greatest intensity of insolation on June 21? A Iceland B Hawaii C Easter Island D Yellowstone 2. The Coriolis effect is

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION The sun is the source of most energy on the earth and is a primary factor in determining the thermal environment of a locality. It is important for engineers to have a working

More information

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Describing the Universe. LAB: Comparing and contrasting bodies that reflect light. POST: Exploring

More information

The Motion of the Moon: Phases & Eclipses

The Motion of the Moon: Phases & Eclipses The Motion of the Moon: Phases & Eclipses Last class, we talked about the motion of the stars and the Sun as seen from the Earth. We ll talk about the motion the planets in the next class. Today, we ll

More information

Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases

Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases Night Sky III Planetary Motion Lunar Phases Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Everything has a natural explanation. The moon is not a god, but

More information

AST101: Our Corner of the Universe Lab 2: The Sun and Phases of The Moon

AST101: Our Corner of the Universe Lab 2: The Sun and Phases of The Moon AST101: Our Corner of the Universe Lab 2: The Sun and Phases of The Moon Name: NetID (your SU email address, without the @syr.edu): Lab section number: 1 Introduction Objectives The first part of this

More information

Heat Transfer. Energy from the Sun. Introduction

Heat Transfer. Energy from the Sun. Introduction Introduction The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, but its exact path changes over the course of the year, which causes the seasons. In order to use the sun s energy in a building, we need to

More information

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets 8.5 Motions of, the, and Planets axis axis North Pole South Pole rotation Figure 1 s axis is an imaginary line that goes through the planet from pole-to-pole. orbital radius the average distance between

More information

Ch. 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. Moon Phases & Eclipse

Ch. 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. Moon Phases & Eclipse Test 1 is coming up. Wed Feb 22 (no classes on Feb 13, 15, 20) Start preparing! Go over the slides, LTs, and the multiple choice questions at the end of relevant chapters. 50 questions, multiple choice,

More information

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars in the Boulder sky. EQUIPMENT:

More information

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS 2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth The stars first found a special place in legend and mythology as the realm of gods and goddesses, holding sway over the lives of humankind. From these legends and

More information

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: )

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: ) Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide Name: (Test Date: ) Essential Question #1: How are the Earth, Moon, and Sun alike and how are they different? 1. List the Earth, Moon, and Sun, in order from LARGEST to

More information

Proffessor: J. C. Cersosimo

Proffessor: J. C. Cersosimo Proffessor: J. C. Cersosimo Objectives Student will: Recognize the Solar and Lunar calendar Demonstrate the how the Moon phases form Explain the main elements of an orbits Describe the orbit of the Earth

More information

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

More information

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun zenith 90 summer solstice 75 equinox 52 winter solstice 29 altitude angles observer Figure 3.1: Solar noon altitude angles for Melbourne SOUTH winter midday shadow WEST summer midday shadow summer EAST

More information

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental

More information

Chapter 5 Astronomy 110 Motions of the Sun and the Moon 1

Chapter 5 Astronomy 110 Motions of the Sun and the Moon 1 Chapter 5 Positions of the Sun and Moon Objects in our Solar System appear to move over the course of weeks to months because they are so close. This motion caused ancient astronomers to use the name planets,

More information

Which month has larger and smaller day time?

Which month has larger and smaller day time? ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators

Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators Stellar, solar, and lunar demonstrators Rosa M. Ros, Francis Berthomieu International Astronomical Union, Technical University of Catalonia (Barcelona, España), CLEA (Nice, France) Summary This worksheet

More information

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

2- The Top and bottom of the leaf is covered by thin layer of cells called epidermis that allow sunlight to easily pass into the middle of the leaf.

2- The Top and bottom of the leaf is covered by thin layer of cells called epidermis that allow sunlight to easily pass into the middle of the leaf. Final exam summary sheet Topic 5, lesson 2 How leaf is adapted to carry on photosynthesis? 1- Waxy layer called the cuticle cover the leaf slow the water loss. 2- The Top and bottom of the leaf is covered

More information

Earth, Moon, and Sun Inquiry Template Eclipses

Earth, Moon, and Sun Inquiry Template Eclipses One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved

More information

Seasons on Earth LESSON

Seasons on Earth LESSON LESSON 4 Seasons on Earth On Earth, orange and red autumn leaves stand out against the blue sky. NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) PHOTO LIBRARY/NOAA CENTRAL LIBRARY INTRODUCTION Nearly

More information

CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015

CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015 CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015 *** Must See Event 2014 ***April 8 - Mars at Opposition. The red planet will be at its closest approach to Earth and its face will be fully illuminated

More information

Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond

Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond Stellarium 1 Stellarium a valuable resource for teaching astronomy in the classroom and beyond Stephen Hughes Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens

More information

The Sun, Earth, and Moon

The Sun, Earth, and Moon The un, Earth, and Moon A Reading A Z Level W Benchmark Book Word Count: 1,211 BENCHMARK W The un, Earth, and Moon Written by David L. Dreier Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz Sunlight and its Properties EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz The sun is a hot sphere of gas whose internal temperatures reach over 20 million deg. K. Nuclear fusion reaction at the sun's core converts hydrogen to

More information

Homework Assignment #7: The Moon

Homework Assignment #7: The Moon Name Homework Assignment #7: The Moon 2008 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Chapter 21 Origins of Modern Astronomy Motions of the

More information

The Sun, Earth, and Moon

The Sun, Earth, and Moon The Sun, Earth, and Moon A Reading A Z Level W Benchmark Book Word Count: 1,211 BENCHMARK W The Sun, Earth, and Moon Written by David L. Dreier Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.

More information

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun The Sun Solar Factoids (I) The sun, a medium-size star in the milky way galaxy, consisting of about 300 billion stars. (Sun Earth-Relationships) A gaseous sphere of radius about 695 500 km (about 109 times

More information

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere 1. The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through telescopic observations of other planets photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite observations of the Sun's altitude

More information